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Jfyccial Jejsttoate, and the (fommemwatitftt* of goly gerrttf, 


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Vol. VII. <- K ' 


Dublin: James Duffy and Sons, 15 Wellington-quay, and 
la Paternoster-row, London. 

London: Burns, Oates, and Co., 17 & 18 Portman-street, and 

63 Paternoster-row, E.C. 

New York: The Catholic Publishing Society, 

9 Warren-street. 





C O N T E'N T S 

JFtrst ©atj of 3ulg. 


Article T.— St. Rumold, Apostle and Bishop of Mechlin, Belgium. [Eighth 

Chap. I. — Introduction — Ancient and Modern Writers of St. 
Rumold's Acts — Nativity and Parentage of St. 
Rumold— His Birth the Fruit of Prayer — His early 
Piety — Angelic Communications — St. Rumold de- 
votes himself to a Life of Celibacy — On the Death of 
Gualafer, he is nominated and elected Archbishop 
of Dublin — Remarks on the dubious Character of 
these Statements ... ... ... 1 

Chap. II. — Rumold consents to accept the Episcopal Charge 
and he is duly consecrated— His Labours as a Bishop 
— Establishment of the Christian Faith in Dublin — 
An Angel admonishes St. Rumold to seek a more 
distant Field for his Administrations — He leaves Ire- 
land for England, and then visits France — He 
travels to Rome — His Interview with the Pope — 
Recommended to visit Belgium as the future Scene 
for his Career — Miracles — Favourably received at 
Mechlin by Count Ado — Birth of his Son Libertus — 
The latter miraculously restored to Life — Rumold 
commences the Erection of a Cell at Mechlin, and 
there builds a Church in Honour of the Protomartyr 
St. Stephen ... .. ... 9 

CHAP. III. — His Disciple Libertas obtains the Crown of Martyr- 
dom — Labours of St. Rumold — His Martyrdom — 
Miracles after his Death — Cathedral of Mechlin — 
Veneration in this City — Honours paid to St. 
Rumold — Commemorations of his Festivals — Con- 
clusion ... ••• ... iS 
Article II. — St. Servan, Serb, Serf, or Scran, Apostolic Missionary in Scotland. 

[Fifth or Sixth Centu/y.] ... ... ... 26 

Article III. — St. Ailill of Cloonown, County of Roscommon, thought to have been 

Second Archbishop of Armagh, County of Armagh ... 31 

Article IV. — St. Cuimmein, Bishop of Nendrum, or Mahee Island, County of 

Down. [Seventh Century. ~\ ... ... ... 31 

Article V.— St. Cathbadhor Cathfadh ... , ... ... 32 

Article VI.— St. Lugid or Lughaidh, Son of Lugeus or Lughaidh ... 32 

Article VII.— St. Ultan ... ... ... .. 33 

Article VIII.— St. Sineall, or Sillin ... ... ••• 33 

Article IX.— St. Barrinu or Bairrfhinn ... ... ••• 33 

Article X.— St. Connan ... ... ... . ••• 34 

Article XL— St. Ernin ... ... ... •• 34 

Article XII. — Reputed Feast of St. Tarnanus, Bishop of Li-more, Scotland ... 34 
Article XIIL— St. Emant, of Cluain ... ' ... ••• 34 

Article XIV.— Festival of Aaron, First Priest of the Mosaic Law ... 34 

Article XV.— Feast of Mary ... ... ... ••• 35 

Article XVI.— Festival of Saints Simon and Thaddaeus ... ... 35 


Srconti Sag of 3ulg. 


Artici woo, or Ternoc. of Cluain-mor ... ... 35 

ARTICLE II.— The Daughter or Daughters of Cathbath, or Cathbadh, of Airedh 

F tha .. ... ... ... 3 6 

i. Reputed Festival of St. Caucus, among the Ilebrideans, Scotland. 

[Sixth Century] ... ... ... 37 

Article IV.— Festival of St. Euticus, Martyr, at Rome ... ... 37 

ARTICLE V. — Feast of Saints Processus and Martinianus, Martyrs at Rome ... 37 

JCijtrtf Dag of 3ulg* 

Article I. — St. German, First Bishop of the Isle of Man. Fifth 

Century, .] ... ... ... • ••37 

Article II.— St. Guha^on, Confessor, in Belgium. [Probably in the Eighth 

Century.] ... ... ... ... 41 

Article III.— St. Cilline, orCillen, Droicteach, Abbot of Iona, Scotland. [Eighth 

Century.] ... ... ... ... 43 

ARTICLE IV. — St. Tirechan, Bishop. [Seventh Century.] ... ... 44 

. —St. Dartinne or Tartinna, of Druimard, or ofCill-aird, in Ui-Garrchon, 

County of Wieklow ... ... ... 46 

ARTICLE VI.— St Mielmuire or Marianus Ua Gormain, better known as 
M nanus O'Gorman, the Irish Martyrologist, Abbot of 
Knock, near Lughmhagh, now Louth, County of Louth. [Twelfth 

fury.] ... ... ... ... 47 

Article VII. — St Ultan ... ... ... ... 49 

: 1. Y 1 1 1. —Reputed Feast of St. Kenuinus, Abbot in Ireland... ... 49 

St Colmari ... ... ... ... 49 

Article X. — Reputed Festival of St. RuaiOld, Martyr, and Patron of Mechlin, 

ium ... ... ... ... 49 

Article XL— St. Breacnat, Virgin ... ... 49 

LIL— Feast of St Thomas' Translation ... ... 50 

Article XIII; — Festival of St Cyrion, Martyr at Alexandria ... ... so 

JFourtI) ©ag of 3ulg« 

Article I.— St. Bolcan of Kilcoolev, County of Roscommon. [Probably in 

the Fifth Century.] ... ... ... 50 

[I.— St Finbarr or Fionubharr, Abbot of Into Doimhle, County of Wex- 
ford. [Sixth Century.] ... ... ... 52 

tst of St. Martin's Ordination ... ... ... 53 

ARTICLE IV.— Reputed Feast of St. Siluenieus at Kilreule, in Scotland ... 54 

Article V.— Reputed Feast of St Modwenn^ ... ... 54 

Article YI. — Translation of the Relics of St. I" ... ... 54 

ARTICLE VII.— Reputed Feast of St. Marianus, Confessor and Abbot, at Rati-' 

[Eleventh Century.] ... ... 55 

ARTICLE YII I. —Reputed Translation of St. Rumold's Relics ... ... 55 

JWtij Bag of 3uht. 

A»ti< ' rNAj mod- 

vybnna, Virgin. [Probably in the Ninth Century.] ... 55 

lania orEtavin, Virgin, ofTuaim " i'mima, in 

Moylurg, County of Roscommon ... 63 



Article III. — St. Fergus Q'Huamalgh ... ... ... 65 

Article IV.— St. Ultan ... ... ... ... 65 

Article V.— St. Cillicn 

Article VI.— St. Ruraoldus ... ... ... 66 

Article VII. — Feast of St. Agatha and of her Companions, Martyr, ... 66 

Article VIII- Reputed Feast of St. Alea, or Athca ... ... 66 

Article IX. — Reputed Feast of St. Boniface, Bishop and Martyr .. ..66 

Sixty ©atJ of 3ulu. 

Article I.— St. Palladius, Apostle of the Scot.^ and Picts. \Ftflh 
( 'cutury.] 
Chap. I. — Introduction— Authorities for the Life of St. Palladius 
— His disputed Origin — His earliest Mission to Britain 
and his Success in stemming the Pelagian Heresy — 
Created Archdeacon, and afterwards selected and 
consecrated by Pope Celestine I. to preach the 
Gospel among the Scots— He arrives in Ireland, 
where he builds some Churches ... ... 67 

Chap. II.— Opposition experienced by St. Palladius in Ireland 
—He is driven away by Nathi— Other Statements — 
His reputed Mission in North Britain — His 
Death — His Festivals and Commemorations — Con- 
clusion ... ... 73 

Article II. — St. Darerca, or St. Moninne, Virgin, of Cill Isleibhe, now Kil- 
leavy, or Slhbh Cuillin, County "of Armagh. [Fifth or Sixth 
Century] ... ... ... ... ■ 79 

Chap. I. — Introduction— Writers of the Acts of St. Darerca 
or Moninne — Her Family and Birth — Baptized, con- 
firmed and veiled by St. Patrick— She is called upon 
to form an Association of pious Females — Under the 
Direction of St, Ibar— She visits St. Brigid— - Her Con- 
gregration at Ardconais — This Place she leaves, and 
visits St. Brigid a second Time ... ... 79 

Chapter II. — St. Darerca goes to the Northern Parts of Ireland, and 
founds a House at Fochard — This Place she leaves to 
seek a new Settlement at Slieve Gullion— Her Estab- 
lishment at Killevy— Her- personal Virtues and 
Miracles — She is to be distinguished from another 
St. Modwenna, venerated chiefly in England and 
Scotland — Moninia assists at the Synod of Easdra — 
Account of her Death — Her Commemorations— Con- 
clusion ... ... ••• 85 

Article III.— St. Mac Earc, Bishop of Donoghmore. [Fifth Century] ... 93 

Article IV.— The Three Daughters of Maine. St. Dermor or Dermoria, St. Etne 

or Ethnea, and St. Cumana, of Airiudh Bainne ... ••• 95 

Article V.— Reputed Feast of St. Dermor, Daughter of Maine ... ... 96 

Article VI. — Three Daughters of Erni or Enuch Dirmaigh ... ... 96 

Article VII.— St. Fedchonniad, or Fedhchu, or Uamadh Fubi ... ... 96 

Article VIII.— Reputed Festival of a St. Fuidbech ... ••• 97 

Article IX.— St. Flann Mac Cellach, Bishop of Rechrann. [Eighth Century.] ... 97 
Article X. — Reputed Feast of a St. Golinia, or Golina, Virgin ... ... 97 

Article XL— Reputed Festival of St. Silvester, Companion of St. Palladius, in 

Marr, Scotland ... ... ... ••• 97 

Sebentlj Bag of Sulg- 

Article I.— St. Maolruain or Maelruain, Abbot op Tallaqh, County of 
Dublin. [Eighth Century.} 
Chap. I.— Introduction— Parentage and Birth of St. Madman— 
He founds a Religious Institute at Tallagh— Pescrip- 


lion of the Place — He forms a Society of Culdees 
there— Anecdotes — Period of Foundation ... 98 

Chap. II— The Literary Compositions of St. Maelruain — Death 
of Ccallach, and his Burial at Tamlacht — St. /Engus 
the Culdce joins his Community — The Culdees — The 
Rule of St. Maelruain. ... ... 102 

CHAP, III. — Eulogies and Sayings. of St. Maelruain — Only Abbot 
at Tallagh — Historic Notices of the Place — Death 
and Burial of the holy Abbot there — Local Associa- 
tions—Conclusion... ... ... 106 

Article II. -St. Willibald, First Bishop and Patron of Aichstadt, Germany. {Eighth 

Century.] ... ... ... ... 110 

Article III. — St. Cronia, Cronae or Croine Beg, Virgin, of Tempull-Crone, 

County of Donegal ... ... ... 118 

Article IV.— St. Comgell or Coimgell, Virgin, and Daughter to Diarmaid ... 118 

Article V. — St. Fiadabair, or Fiadhabhair, of Uachtar-achadh, now Ballinamore, 

County Leitiim ... ... ... 119 

Article VI. — St. Tingmaich or Trighmeach, Bishop ... ... 119 

Article VII.— Reputed Festival for St. Median and St. Odhrain .. ... 119 

Article VIII.— Reputed Festival of St. Boisilus ... ... ... 121 

Article IX. — Reputed Festival of a Translation of St. Kentigern, Bishop, Scotlan 1 121 
Article X.— Reputed Feast of St. Colman ... .. ... 121 

Article XI. — Reputed Festival for a Translation of the Eleven Thousand Virgins 

and Martyrs ... ... ... ... 121 

Article XII.— Reputed Festival for Saints Wilchibaldns, Disibodus, Kalian, 

Bibianus, Totnanus ... ... ... 121 

Article XIII.— Reputed Festival of a St. Bice ... ... ... 122 

1£u$!)uj Bajj of 3ulg. 

Article I.— The Acts of St. Kii.ian, Apostle of Franconia, Martyr and 
Bishop, as also of his Companions, St. Colman, Priest, and St. 
Totnan, Deacon, Martyrs. [Seventh Century.} 

Chap. I. — Introduction — Manuscript and published Acts of those 
Holy Martyrs— The Country of their Birth— St. 
Kilian's Family and his early Education — He em- 
braces the Ecclesiastical State — His Preaching and 
Labours in Ireland— With eleven other Companions 
he leaves for France and Germany — He travels to 
Wurtzbnrg — Paganism there prevailing ... 122 

I hap. II. — The Holy Missionaries preach with great Effect at 
YYuitzUirgh — Duke (iosbert's Conversion — Saints 
Kilian, Colman and Totnan journey to Rome — 
Favourably received by Pope Conan — Commissioned 
to preach the Gospel in Franconia — Geilane, the 
■f Gosbert, plans their Death — Martyrdom of 
the Saints— Remarkable Visitations of God on all 
those who were instrumental in it — Honours after* 
wards paid to their Memory— Their Relics— Memo- 
rials of the Martyrs in Germany and in Ireland, and 
in other Countries — Their Festivals — Conclusion ... 128 
[J — St. Disibod, Bishop and Confessor. [Seventh and Eighth Cm- 
lit lies.] 

Chap. I. — Introduction— State of Gcimany in pagan and early 
( hristian Times— Biographies of St. Disen or St. 
Dysibod — His Irish Birth—His youthful Dispi 
UoBI and Education — Advanced to the Priesthood — 
Elected as Bishop — Trials and Difficulties in his new 
Position — He resolves to leave Ireland for a distant 
Country ... ... 143 

Chat. II.— Travels of St. Dysibod, with his Companions 
Giswald, Salust and Clement— A Divine Revels! 



by which he is brought to select a Site for his future 
Residence — His monastic and missionary Life at 
. Disenberg — lie becomes popular among the Chiefs 
and People of the District surrounding it ... 150 

Chap. III. — Prophecies of St. Disibod — His declining Years and 
Approach of Dea,th — Dates aligned for it — .Miracles 
which afterwards took Place Festivals and Memo- 
rials — Subsequent History of Dissenbodenburg — Con- 
clusion ... ... ..154 

Article III. — St. Diarmaid, Bishop of Gleann-Uissean, now Killeshin, Queen's 

County ... ... ... ... 163 

Article IV. — St. Summiva, Sunnifa, Sumniva, or Sunneva. an Irish Virgin, 

Patroness of Bergen, in Norway, and her Companions. Martyrs ... 166 
Article V. — St. Trega, Virgin and Patroness of Ardtrea Parish, County of London- 
derry. [Fifth Century. .] ... ... ... 168 

Article VI.— St. Brogan, of Maethail-Bhrogain, now Mothil, County of Waterford, 

or Secretary to St. Patrick ... ... ... 170 

Article VII. — St. Condmacor Connmach, of Ath-Blair, or Atha Silairj ... 171 

Article VIII. — Festival of Saints Totnanns and Colmanus, Martyrs ... 171 

Article IX. — Reputed Feast of St. Adelinus, Martyr ... ... 171 

Article X. — Reputed Festival of St. Erwaldus, Arnwal, or Arnualis, Disciple of 

St. Kilian ... ... ... ... 171 

Article XL— Reputed Feast of St. Giswald ... ... ... 172 

Article XII. — Reputed Feast of St. Alganus, Archbishop and Martyr ... 172 

Article XIII.— Reputed Feast of St. Kilian, Dux, and Uncle to St. Ursula ... 172 

Article XIV.— St. Ribianus, Bishop ... ... ... 172 

Article XV.— St. Burchardus, First Bishop of Wurtzburg ... ... 173 

Article XVI.— Reputed Festival of St. Aidus, Abbot and Martyr. [Ninth 

Century. 1 ... ... ... ... 173 

Article XVII. — St. Colman Imramha or Iomhramha, of Fahan Beg, County of 

Donegal ... ... ... ... 174 

Article XVIII. — Reputed Festival of St. Boisil, Prior of Melrose, Scotland ... 174 

llitttfj Stag of 3ulg, 

Article I.— St. Broccaidh, of Imleach-Broccadha, now Emlagh, County 

of Roscommon. [Fifth Century.] ... ... 175 

Article II. — St. Onchon or Onchu, of Clonmore, County of Carlow, or of Rath- 

Blathmac, now Rath, County of Clare ... ... 177 

Article III.— St. Garbhan, of Kinsealy, County of Dublin, or of Kinsale, County 

ofCork ... ... ... ... 178 

Article IV.— Reputed Feast of a St. Molruan ... ... ... 180 

Article V.— St. Condmac or Connmach, of Ath-Blair, or Atha-Silain ... 180 

Article VI.— Reputed Feast of St. Germanus, Bishop, and of others ... 181 

tCentlj ©ag of 3ulg* 

Article I— St. Etto, Hetto, or Etiion, Bishop and Confessor. [Seventh 

Century.] ... ... ... ... 181 

Article II— St. Cuain or Cuan, of Airbhre, in Hy-Kinsellagh ... ... 187 

Article III. — Deacon Aedh, of Cuil-Maine, now Clonmanv, County of 

Donegal ... ... — ... 187 

Article IV.— St. Senan ... .. ... ... 188 

Article V.— St. Ultan ... ... ... ... 189 

Article VI.— Festival of St. Felicitas and of her Seven Sons, Martyr?, in 

Rome ... ... ... ... 189 

Article VII.— Reputed Feast of Twelve Thousand Martyrs ... ... 189 

Article VIII.— Reputed Feast of St. Mark ... ... ••• 190 

Article IX.— Reputed Feast of St. Rumold .. ... 190 



Article X. — Reputed Feast of St. Kunegunde, Virgin ... ... 190 

Article XL— Reputed Feast of St. Gildas, Confe?sor ... ... 190 

Article XII.— Reputed Feast of Donatus, Martyr and Patron of Franconia ... 190 

(fHlebenti) ©ay of 3uly, 

Article I.— St. Hidulph, IIidltlfor Hildulph, Archbishop oe Treves, and 
Abbot of Moyenmoutier, Diocese of Saint-Die, Lower 
Germany. {Seventh Century.] 
Chap. I.— Introduction— Authorities for the Life of St. Hil- 
dulph — Country of his Birth contested — Said to have 
been Irish — His early Dispositions — Ordination- - 
Divinely inspired to leave his native Country — He 
seeks the City of Treves and becomes a Monk in its 
Monastery ... ... ... 1.91 

CHAP. II— St. Hildulph is withdrawn from the Monastery by 
St. Numerian — He is elected Bishop of Treves on 
Decease of the latter— His Acts while Bishop— He 
resigns the See and retires to the Vosges Mountains — 
He founds the Monastery of Moyenmoutier — His 
Sanctity and Miracles— Friendly Intimacy with St. 
Deodatus — On his Death Hildulph rules over the 
Abbey of Jointures with his own — His happy Death 
— Respect manifested towards his Relics— Com- 
memoration of his Festivals — Conclusion ... 195 
ARTICLE II.— St. Drostan, Confessor, in Scotland. [Sixth and Seventh Centuries.] 201 
Article HI.— St. Sigisbert, Confessor, and St. Placidus, Martyr, Dissentis, Switzer- 
land. [Sixth and Seventh Centuries.] ... ... 204 

AfcTICLK IV. St. Lonan, of Ard-Cruinn ... ... ... 207 

Article V.— St. Falbi, or Failbhe, Son of Culocha, of Disert Mic-Conlocha, in 

Cuircne, County of Westnieath ... .. ... 207 

Article \ I. — St. Colman, Son of Cron or Cronan ... ... 208 

Article VIL— St. Berran ... ... ... ... 209 

Article VIII. — St. Gabtina or Gaibhthene, Virgin ... ... 209 

Article IX.— Reputed Feast of St. Etiamis, or Etlo, Disciple of St. Fursey ... 209 

Article X. — Translation of St. Benedict's Relics ... ... ... 209 

ARTICLE XL— Festival of St. Fuphemia, Virgin and Martyr, with her Com- 
panions ... ... ... ... 210 

Ar 1 RLE XII.— Festival of St. Maclovius ... ... ... 210 

©foriftfj ©ay of Sub- 

Article L— St. Mf.nulphus or St. Mknou, Bishop of Qcjimper-Corentin, 

France. [Probably in the Seventh Century. \ ... ..! 210 

Article IT.— St. Nazarus, Nazair, or Nasan, Bishop of Liethmore, County of 

Tippcrary ... ... ... 2I - 

Articli ill. St.Colman,] Cruain Bruchaia 216 

. — St. Ultan, of Cork, County of Cork ... .'.'.' 217 

-Reputed Festival of St. Luanus, Monk "17 

: B VI.— Reputed Feast of St Levanus n 17 

II.— Reputed Festival of Divus or Dius 2 I7 

Article VIII.— St. Mochull.neus ... ... ... \\\ 218 

Article IX.— Reputed Feast of St. Mono, Martyr .. 218 

Article X.— St. Felix and his Companions, Martyrs ,.] ,.] 218 

®f)irtffntij ©ay of Julg. 

Articli i ru and Maura, Sisters, Virgins and Mart, 

[Fifth or Sixth Century.} 



Article II. — St. Cairill or Carell, of'l'amnach, County of Sligo ... ... 222 

Article III. — St. Ernin, or Arney, of Inis-caoin, now Inniskeen, Counties of Meath 

and Cavan ... ... ... ... 222 

Article IV. — St. Greallog Obelech, of Tamlacht Charna, in Vi Breasail-airthit "... 223 
Article V. — St. Mosiloc or Mothiolog, of Cloonatten, Parish Hi KilmichaeH >ge, 

County of Wexford ... ... ... 224 

ARTICLE VI, — Cruimther Fionntain, of Cill-aithir ... ... 225 

Article VII.— St. Finnu, Finnus, or Finnius, Son of Arath, or A radius ... 225 

Article VIII. — St. Ultan, Son of Araidi ... ... ... 225 

Article IX.— St. Taodhog, of Tigh Taedhog ... ... ... 225 

Article X.— St. Ere, Priest ... ... ... ... 226 

Article XI. — Feast for the Translation of the Relics of St. Maguil or Madel- 

gisilus ... ... ... ... 226 

Article XII. — Reputed Feast of St. Turian, or Turiav, Bishop of Dol, and Con- 
fessor, Lesser Britain, France ... ... ... 226 

Article XIII. — Reputed Feast of St. Winnianus, a Scottish Bishop ••• 226 

Article XIV.— Reputed Festival of St. Menulf or Menu ... ... 227 

Article XV.— Festival of St. Evangelus ... ,.. ... 227 

jrourtenttf) Sag of 3ulg. 

Article I.— St. Maelceadar, the Victorious, or Maldegarius, surnamed 

Vincent, First Earl of the Hannoina, or Hainault. 

[Seventh Century.'] ... ... ... 227 

Article II. — St. Id, Bishop of Ath-Fhadbat, now Ahade or Aghade, County of 

Carlow. [Said to have lived in the Fifth Century.'] ... 234 

Article III. — St. Onchu, or Onchuo, Priest, of Kildare, County of Kildare ... 236 

Article IV. — St. Colman, Son of Aingen ... ... ... 237 

Article V. — Feast of the Dominion or Rest of St. Cormac, of Ath-Truim, or Trim, 

County ot Meath ... ... ... 237 

Article VI.— Translation of two Heads of the Ursuline Virgins and Martyrs ... 237 

Article VII. — St. Faghna ... ... ... . 237 

Article VIII.— Feast of the Bishop Jacob ... * ... ... 237 

Article IX. — Reputed Feast of St. Dentelinus, Patron of Rees, Duchy of Clevcs. 

[Seventh Century.] ... ... ... 238 

Article X.— Reputed Festival of St. Turrinus, Bishop and Confessor, in Lesser 

Britain ... ... ... ... 239 

Article XL — Feast of St. Fursey, Abbot of Lagny, France ... ... 239 

Article XII.— Reputed Feast of Harruch, Bishop" of Veiden, Saxony ... 239 

JFtftcmtfj Dag of 3ulg. 

Article L— St. Plechelmus, Bishop of Oldensal and Rurimond, Belgium, 

and Apostolic Missionary. [Seventh and Eighth Centuries.] 239 

Article II. — St. Comman, Son of Dromma, or Dinunai ... ... 244 

Article III.— The Sons of Earcan, o<" Brugh-laogh ... .. 245 

Article IV. — St. Ronan, Son of Magh ... ... ... 245 

Article V.— Festival of the Twelve Apostles ... ... ... 245 

Article VI. — St. Harruch, Bishop of Verden, in *-axony ... ... 245 

Article VIL— Reputed Feast of St. Vincentius Madelgarius ... ... 246 

Sixteenth ©ag of Snip* 

Article L— St. Breccan or Brecan, of Cluain-Catha, Abbot of Moville, 
County ofDonkgal, and Bishop of, County 
of Meath. [Sixth and Seventh Centuries.] ... 246 

Article IL— St. Scoth, Virgin, of Cluain-mor-Moescna, probably Clonmaskill, 

County of Westmeath .,. »,• ... 251 



Article III.— St. Torpiba, or forbach Mac Gorman, Archbishop of Armagh. 

\Eigh hand Ninth Centuries.] ... ... ... 251 

A&TICLB IV.— St. Mael tdhar, of Bri-molt, now Primult, King's County ... 252 

ARTICLE V. — Transla ion of the Body of St. Benin, Abbot ... ... 252 

Article VI.- St. Cobban, Beg ... ... ... ... 252 

ARTICLE VII.— St Tenenan, or Tenan, Bishop of Leon, Britany ... ... 252 

Article VIII. — Visit of St. Livinus to the Monastery of Chent, Belgium ... 253 
ARTICLE IX.— Feast of St Sinach Mac Dara, Patron of Moyras Parish, County of 

Galway ... ... ... ... 253 

Article X.— Festival of the Child-Martyr Matnmes ... ... 253 

Article XI. — Reputed Feast of St. Hulannus ... ... ••• 254 

Scbcntcentij ©ag of July, 

Article I.— St. FrEdigand or Fridegandus, Abbot at Deuren, near 

Antwerp, Belgium. [About the Seventh Century.] ... 254 

Article II— St. Flann, Bishop of Recrann ... ... ... 259 

Article III. — St. Sistan or Siostan, Priest, of Loch Melge, now Lough Melvin, 

Counties of Fermanagh and Leitrim ... ••• 259 

Article IV.— St. Craebhnat, Virgin ... ... ... 260 

Article V.- Reputed Feast of a St. Plechmus ... ... ... 260 

Article VI.— Festival of the Scillitani Martyrs, at Carthage, Africa ... 260 

Article VII.— Reputed Festival of the Translation of St. Odilia Virgin ... 261 

Article VIII.— Reputed Feast of St. Golgus, Abbot .. ... 261 

3£ijjfjtcentij Dag of 3ulg. 

Article L— St. Tiienna, Theno-g, Thenew, or Tiianayv, at Glasgow, Scot- 
land, [/'i ft A and Sixth Centuries.] 

Article II. — Minnborinus, Abbot of St. Martin's Monastery, Cologne. [Tenth 

Article III. — St. Cronan Mac Ualach, or mac h. Lugada, Abbot of Clonmacnoise, 
King's County ... 

Article IV. — St. Cellach, or Ceallach, Son ofDuncliad or Dunchada 

Article V. — St. Dubh or Dobogan, Son of Comarde, or Comairda 

Article VI.— St. Failbe or Faifbhe Maccraic Dibhigh 

Article VII.— Reputed Feast of a St. Henair 

Article VIII.— St. Fionntainn, Priest of Fochuiliich 

ARTICLE IX.— St. Cobhthach, Abbot of Kildare. Ninth Century.] 

Artk 1.1: X.— Reputed Feast of St. Bertin 

Article XL— St. Mianach, Son of Failbhe 

LE XI I.— Feast of St. Christina and her Seven Brothers, Martyrs 

ARTICLE XIII.— Reputed Feast for the Translation of the Relics of St. Othilia, or 
Odilia, Virgin and Martyr, at Hoye in Belgium ... 





flmctecntl) ©au of 3ulg. 

Article I.— Si. Ossin or OlSSBINE, and I'm tv Monks, of TENGAIDH 
Article II.— St. Aedhan. Abbot ofl&more, County of Waterford 
Article III.— St. Ciaran, of.Tighna-Gortgh ... 
Article IV. Si. Cobnm, ofCluain 

Aim leu V.— St. -Mocolmoc or Colman Mac h. Amla 

: 1. VI.— St. Ferghus 
Article VII. — St. Dimanus or Dimaus 

Article VIII.— Reputed Feast of St. Blaan or Blanus, Bishop of Dunblane, Scot- 





Article IX. — Reputed Feast of St. Cathan, Bishop in the Island of Bute, Scot- 
land ... ... ... ... 275 

Article X. — Festival of St. SisioUius, Martyr 

fttoentictij IDag of 3ulu. 

Article I.— St. Moloca of Slieve Bloom ... ... ... 276 

Article II. — St. Curifin or Cuirbin, the Pious, in Hy-Fidhgeinte, County of 

Limerick .. ... ... ... 278 

Article III.— St. Caramnan or Carmnan ... ... ... 279 

Article IV. — St. Faelchon or Faelchu ... ... ... 279 

Article V.— St. Failbe or Failbhe ... ... ••• 279 

Article VI. — Festival of Sabina and Romula ... ... ... 279 

Article VII. — Festival of St. Gerebern, Martyr ... ... .. 279 

Article VIII. — Reputed Feast of St. Onan, Deacon of Ro.-s ... ... 280 

Article IX.— Reputed Feast for the Translation of St. Rupert's Relics at Saltz- 

burgh ... ... ... ... 280 

&tocntj)=fir8t ©ag of 3ulg. 

Article I.— St. Argobastus or Arbogastus, Bishop of Strasbourg, Ger- 
many. [Seventh Century}. 

Chap. I. — Introduction — Biographies of St. Arbogast — Country 
of his Nativity — He leads a solitary Life there — He 
becomes a Hermit in the Vosges Mountains — His 
Elevation to be Bishop of Strasburg — Favours con- 
ferred by King Dagobert II. ... ... 280 

Chap. II. — The holy Life of St. Arbogast — He restores Prince 
Sigebert to his Parents — Gratitude manifested by 
King Dagobert II. — Miracle at the River 111 — 
Works attributed to St. Arbogast — His pastoral 
Labours — His Departure from this Life — Honours 
paid to his Memory — Festivals and Commemorations 
— Conclusion ... ... ... 284 

Article II. — The Seven Bishops of Tamhnach Buadha ... ... 289 

Article III. — Reputed Feast of St. Tenna, of Tamhnach Buadha ... ... 290 

Article IV. — St. Sillan or Siollan, of Glinn muniie, or of Dunmore, in Ui Briuin- 

Cualann ... ... ... ... 290 

Article V. — St. Curcach, Virgin of Kilcorker, County of Roscommon ... 291 

Article VI. — St. Lughan, Priest ... ... ... 291 

Article VII. — St. Tondach, Bishop ... ... ... 292 

Article VIII. — St. Bradge ... ... ... ... 292 

Article IX. — Feast of the Martyr Helius ... ... ... 292 

Article X. — Feast of St. Praxedes ... ... ... 292 

Article XL— Reputed Feast of St. Claudia ... ... ... 292 

&tottt2=seconti litf|j of 3ulg. 

Article I.— St. Biteus or Mobiu, called also Dobi, or David, Abbot of 

Injs-Cooscry, County of Down ... ... 293 

Article II.— St. Caemhog, or Caemoca ... ... ... 297 

Article III. — St. Moroeclia Mac Naeb, or Morecha, a Boy-Saint... ... 298 

Article IV. — St. Dobeodoc or Dabhaetog, of Cluain-da-Bhaetog, or Clor.dawad- 

doge, in Fanid, County of Donegal ... ... 299 

Article V.— St. Moronoc or Moronog, of Druim Samhraidh ... ... 299 

Article VI.— St. Lugid or Luighbe ... ... ... 299 

Article VII.— St. Oisen or Ossen, Bishop ... ... •• 3°° 


Article VIII.— St. Colman ... ... ... ... 300 

Article IX.— St. Colum .. ... ... ... 300 

Article X. — St. Erentrudis ... ... ... ... 300 

Article XI. — Festival of St. Mary Magdalen ... ... ... 300 

Article XII.— Festival of St. Appollonius . ... ... 301 

Article XIII. — Reputed Feast of St. Rapertus, Monk of St. Gall, Switzerland ... 301 

Article XIV.— Reputed Feast of St. Verena, Virgin and Martyr ... ... 301 

«uKntu4ijtrti Dau of 3ulg, 

Article I.— St. Cain ComrAC OR Caencomhrac, Bishop and Abbot of 
Louth, and Solitary on Inis Endaimh, now Inchenagh or 

Inishenagh, Lough Ree. [Ninth Century.] ... ... 302 

Article II. — St. Runach, of Inis-mor ... ... ... 303 

Article III. — St. Fullenn, Foilan, or Fuillen, of Atha Innich, or Ath-an-eich ... 304 

Article IV. — St. Fethconor Fetlichu, Bishop. [Probably in the Sixth Century.] ... 304 
Article V. — St. Lassar, or Lasre, of Killasseragh, Parish of Kilmeen, County of 

Cork ... ... ... ... 304 

Article VI. — Reputed Feast of St. Alfred, King of Northumbria .. ... 305 

Article VII. — St. Banbhnat, or Banbnatan ... ... 306 

Article VIII. — St. Cronseg, or Croinseach ... ... ... 306 

Article IX.— St. Vincentius, Martyr ... ... ... 306 

Srfocntijsfotutj) ©as of 3ulu. 

County of Waterford. [Fifth and Sixth Centuries.] 

Chap. I — Introduction — Materials for the Acts of St. Declan — 
His Period — His Family and Descent — His Birth— - 
Miraculous Manifestations — His Fosterage and early 
Education— His Reputation for Sanctity at an early 
Age ... ... .. 307 

Chat. II. — Early Christianity in Ireland — St. Declan, with some 
of his Disciples, proceeds to Rome — Consecrated 
Bishop there by the Pope— He receives a Commission 
to preach the Gospel in Ireland — His first Meeting 
with St. Patrick— St. Declan arrives in Ireland and 
commences his Mission in the South — His Zeal and 
Labours — He visits Cashel, to preach the Gospel to 
\-us, Son of Naofraoich, King of Minister— Friend- 
ship of St. Patrick for St. Declan— The latter fails to 
convert Lebanus, Chief of the Desii— He is deposed, 
and Fearghal is inaugurated as their Chief— Ecclesi- 
astical Arrangements regarding Jurisdiction ... 320 
CliAr. III.— A Pestilence breaks out in Munster— St. Declan's 
Miracle at Cashel— He founds monastic Establish- 
ments at Dcrcan and at Tara — He returns through 
ory to the Southern Decies— His miraculous 
Powers— Foundations at and subsequent Condition of 
Aidmorc— St. Declan is visited by St. Ailbhe — St. 
Declan miraculously extinguishes a Fire — A Fleet 
of pagan Pirates destroyed .. ... 334 

CHAP. IV.— Bishop Declan's Relations with St. Patrick — The 
building and Consecration of a Levitiana or an 
Oratory by St. Declan— His numerous Miracles— He 
builds a Hermitage near the Sea-shore, and he 
retires to it— His Preparation for Death— His holy 
Departure— Festivals and Commemorations— Anti- 
quities at Ardmore— Memorials of St. Declan— Con- 
clusion ... ... .,, $44 



ARTICLE II.— St. Beoc, Mobheoc, Mobheog, Beog, Beanos, Dabeoc, Dabheoc, or 
Dabheog, Abbot of Termonn, Lough Derg, County of Donegal. 

[Fifth or Sixth Century.] ... ... ... 354 

Article III. — St. Luighbe, of Drumbo, County of Down ... ... 360 

Article IV. — St. Comghall, ofCluain Diamhair ... ... ... 360 

Article V. — St. Oilleoc, of Cluana Etchen ... ... ... 361 

Article VI. — St. Cronan ... ... ... ... 361 

Article VII. — St. Blathmac, Son of Flann ... ... 362 

Article VIII. — St. Corodnus or Crodhne ... ... ... 363 

Article IX. — St. Lateeran of Cullin, County of Cork ... ... 363 

Article X. — St. Fergusa ... ... ... ... 363 

Article XI.— St. Fagna, Bishop... ... ... ... 363 

Article XII. — St. Satanal, Martyr ... ... ... 363 

Article XIII.— Reputed Feast for St. Erthad, Bishop ... ... 363 

Article XIV.— Reputed Feast of St. Rumold, Archbishop of Mechlin ... 364 

ffifoent^fiftfj ©ag of 3ulg; 

Article I.— St. Ninnio, or Ninian, the Senior, or the Old, Apostle of 
the Southern Picts. [Fourth and Fifth Centuries.] 
Chap. I. —Introduction — Different Forms of St. Ninian 's Name 
— Lives of St. Ninian — Christians among the 
Southern Picts — Family and Birth of St. Ninian — 
His early Years and Education — He visits Rome — 
His Consecration as Bishop ... ... 364 

Chap. II. — On his Return from Rome, St. Ninian visits St. Martin 
of Tours— Taking Leave of him, St. Ninian returns to 
Britain — Disturbed State of Scotland at that Period 
— St. Ninian's Reception there on his Return — His 
missionary Zeal and Labours — He founds Candia 
Case or Whithorn — Miracles ... ... 369 

CHAP. III. — Conversion of the Southern Picts by St. Ninian— His 
School established at Candida Casa — His Mission 
beyond the Grampian Hills — Disturbed State of 
Britain when the Romans withdrew — Closing Years 
of St. Ninian — His Death — Festivals and Commemo- 
rations — Conclusion ... ... 375 

Article II.— St. Nessan, of Mungret, County of Limerick. [Fifth and Sixth 

Centuries.] ... ... ... ... 382 

ARTICLE III. — St. Moshiloc or Moshiolog, Pupil of Moling Luachra. [Probably in 

the Seventh Century.] ... ... ... 386 

Article IV. — Feast of St. Colman O'Liathain, Bishop or Abbot of Lismore. 

Seventh and Eighth Centuries.] ... ... ... 380 

Article V. — Festival of St. James the Greater, Apostle ... ... 350 

Article VI.— Reputed Feast of St. Donard, Patron of Slieve Donard, County of 

Down. [Fifth and Sixth Centuries.] ... ... 391 

Article VII.— St. Colman, or Caolan ... ... ... 391 

Article VIII. — St. Fiachra Cael, ofCluain Caichtne, or Cluana Cain ... 392 

Article IX. — St. Fiachra, or Fiahrach ... ... ... 392 

Article X. — St. Findbairr, or Foinnbharr, Priest ... ... 393 

Article XL — St. Criotan or Crestain Oteni ... ... ... 393 

Article X1L— Reputed Feast of St. Declan, Bishop and Patron of the Decies," 

County of Waterford ... ... ... 394 

Article XIII.— St. Cadten ... ... ... ... 394 

Article XIV. — Reputed Feast of St. Abranus or Abramus ... ... 394 

Article XV. — Reputed Feast of the Translation of St. Livinus' Relics . . . 394 

ftfoentgsStxtij ©ag of 3ulg. 

Article L— St. Furadhran, Bishop. ... ... 395 

Article II.— St. Thoman, or Toman, of Mungret, County of Limerick ... 395 



Article III. — St. Nessan of Mungret, County of Limerick ... ... 395 

Article IV. — Festival of Christ's Transfiguration on Mount Tabor ... 395 

Article V. — Festival of St. Jovian, and of his Companions, Martyrs ... 396 
Article VI.— Festival of St. Eoban. Bishop and Martyr, Assistant Bishop of 

Utrecht, Holland. {Eighth Century], ... .-396 

Article VII.— Festival of St. riechelmus, at Rurimonde, Belgium ... 396 

Article VIII. — Reputed Feast of St. Colmoicus, or Colmocus, Confessor and 

Bishop, in Scotland ... ... ... 396 

Article IX.— Reputed Feast of St. Malimbeus, Hermit and Martyr, Scotland ... 397 

ARTICLE X. — Reputed Feast of St. Chamnecus ... ... ... 397 

5Dtoentg--scbnttij Sag of 3ulg* 

Article I. — St. Beoghain, Abbot of Moville, County of Down ... 397 

Article II. — St. Lutt, Virgin, of Tigh Luta, in Fothartha Mora ... ... 399 

Article III. — St. Lasrain or Lassar, of Tipra Roisrain ... ... 400 

Article IV. — Reputed Feast of St. Luican, Parish of Kill-Lucaiu ... 400 

Article V. — St. Brenainn, of Fore, County of Westmeath ... ... 400 

Article VI.— Reputed Feast of St. Dhaidh ... ... ... 400 

Article VII. — St. Guarian ... .., .. ... 402 

Article- VIII.— Reputed Feast of St. Congall, Abbot of Jabhnallivin ... 402 

Article IX. — Reputed Festival of St. Maelrubius, at Maine or Mearns. 

Scotland ... ... ... ... 402 

Article X. — Reputed Feast for the Translation of St. Pantaleon's Relics, 

Cologne ... ... ... 402 

Article XI. — Festival of St. Simeon, the Monk ... ... ... 403 

Article XII. — Reputed Feast of Blessed Marianus, a Recluse at Ratisbon, 

Bavaria ... ... ... ... 403 

^bjentjj^iciijii) ©ag of 3nty. 

Chap. II. 

Article I.— St. Samson or Sampson, Bishop of Dol, or Dola, in Armorica, 
France. [Fifth a nd Sixth Centuries] 

Chap. I.— Introduction — Sources for St. Samson's Biography — 
II- Parentage and Birth— His early Training— He 
studies at the School of St. Iltut — His Life while 
there — He is ordained Deacon and afterwards he is 
raised to the Priesthood — His miraculous Preserva- 
tion from a malicious Attempt on his Life — His Fasts 
and Austerities 

-St. Samson leaves the Monastery of St. Iltutus, and 
places himself under the Direction of St. Piro — His 
Visit to Amon and Conversion of his Family— They 
embrace a religious Life— Samson appointed Abbot 
over Piro's Community — He leaves for Ireland — He 
returns to Britain— His eremitical Life— His Conse- 
cration as Bishop ... 
CHAr. III.— A Demoniac healed by St. Samson— Through a 
Vision, Samson is admonished to leave the Greater 
for the Lesser Brittany— For a Time he resides in 
Cornwall, where many Miracles are wrought— He 
arrives in France— His Religious Habitation at Dol 
—His Interference on behalf of distressed Persons — 
His Reception at Court by King Childebert— The See 
of Dol. ... ... 

CHAP. V.— Incorrect Tradition about St. Samson having been 
Archbishop of York— His Zeal and missionary Work 
in Armorica— II is Disciples— Friendship between St. 
Samson and St. Germain, Bishop of Paris— Presence of 
St. Samson at the Third Council of Paris— He returns 






to Dol Monastery — His Death — Welsh Traditions — 
His Interment at Dol — His Relics — Memorials of St. 
Samson in Ireland, Wales, England and France — 
Festival and Commemorations — Conclusion ... 424 

Article II.— St. Colman, or Comhghall, of Gabla liuin, or Gobhalliuin, in Dar- 

traighe Coininnsi ... ••• ... 433 

Article III.— St. Lenican or Liuicar., said to be of Killucan, County of West* 

meath ... ... ••• ••• 434 

Article IV. — St. Furudrain. or Fura<lhrann ... ... ... 434 

Article V. — St. Uisseoit, of Druim Uisseoit ... ... ... 434 

Article VI.— St. Celsus ... ... ■•• ... 434 

Article VII.— Festival of St. Theophilus ... ... ... 434 

Article VIII.— Festival of St. Pantaleon, Martyr ... ... 435 

Article IX.— Reputed Feast of St. Tessan or Tressan ... ... 435 

ARTICLE X. — Reputed Feast for a Translation of St. Livinus' Relics, Ghent, 

Belgium ... ... ... ••• 435 

Sttocntssiuntij ©au of 3uto, 

Article I.— St. Olave, or St. Olaf, King of Norway and Martyr. [Tenth 
and Eleventh Centuries.] 

Chap. I. — Introduction — Authorities for the Acts of St. Olave — 
Other distinguished Kings, named Olave or Olaf, his 
Contemporaries — His Descent — His Birth — Early 
Dispositions and Desires for Adventure ... 436 

Chap. II. — Early warlike Propensities of Olaf — His first mari- 
time Adventures against Denmark and Sweden, 
Friesland and Holland — Northman Invasions of 
England and Wars with the Saxons — King Olaf 
arrives in Normandy, where probably he was baptized 
— He returns to aid Ethelred in England — His Vic- 
tories — He recovers Norway from the Swedes and 
Danes — He is then proclaimed King of that Country 445 
Chap. III. — The Independence of Norway achieved by Olaf — He 
is acknowledged as sole King — He brings Missiona- 
ries there — His Zeal to spread Religion — His royal 
Progresses — Peace proclaimed between himself and 
the King of Sweden — Attempts to assassinate Olaf, 
King of Norway — He marries Astrida — His regal 
and missionary Tours — The Birth of his Son Magnus 
— He introduces Christianity among the People of 
Greenland, of Iceland, and of the Faeroe Islands ... 456 
Chap. IV. — Canute, King of England and of Denmark, asserts 
his Claim to the Crown of Norway — He prepares to 
invade that Country — Preparations of Olaf, King of 
Norway and of Anund II., King of Sweden, to 
oppose him — Canute expels Olaf from Norway, and 
obliges him to take Refuge in Sweden — Olaf retires 
into Russia — He is again impelled to return to Nor- 
way on Hearing of Hacon's Death — He visits Sweden 
— An Expedition organized there for the Invasion of 
Norway ... ... ... 470 

Chap. V. — Return of King Olaf to Norway, at the Head of an 
Army — The fatal Battle at Stiklestad — Incidents of 
the Engagement — Interment of the King and subse- 
quent Translation of his Relics— The building of 
Drontheim Cathedral and the Shrine of St. Olaf — 
Veneration for St. Olaf's Remains and Miracles 
wrought through his Intercession — Memorials of the 
Saint — His Festivals — Conclusion... ... 478 

Article II. — St. Kilian, Chelian or Coelan, Monk of Inishkeltra, Lough Derg, 

County Clare. [Eighth Century] ... ... 496 

Article III.— St. Justan, of Lene, Manach ., ... 503 


Article IV. — Festival of St. Bitus, or Bite, of Inis Cumscraigh, now Inch, or Innis 

cumhscray, Strangford Lough, County of Down... 
Article V. — St. Cummine or Cuimmein, Son of Aride 
Article VI.— St. Ethelwin, Bishop and Confessor 
Article VII. — Festival of St. Lupus and of St. Simplicius, Bishops 
Article VIII. — Festival of St. Prosper, and Ins Companions 



&Ijtrttetfj ©atr of 3ulg. 

Article I.— St. Sechnasach, Abbot of Ceann-Locha, or Kinlough. 

Article II. — St. Coharchair, or Cobuir, Son of Goll, of Gulban-gort 

Article III.— St. Maeltuile, of Disert-Maeltuile, now Dysart, County of West- 

Article IV. — St. Cobthach, Disciple of Columkiile 
Article V.— St. Saran 

A&TICLB VI. — St. German, Son of Goll, or of Mac Guill 
ARTICLE VII.— Festival of St. Aodh mac Brice, of Sleibh Liage, County of 

Article VIII.— St. Febrithae, or Febrithe 
Article IX.— St. Colman, Bishop 

Article X.— Festival of Saints Abdon and Sennen, Martyrs, at Rome 
Article XI.— Reputed Feast of St. Erentrudis ... 




STIjirt^first ©ag of 3ulg. 

Article I.— Festival for the SonsofNadfraecii, viz., Colman, Follaman, 

PAPAN, Iernoc AND Natalis. {Fifth ami Sixth Centuries.] ... 
ARTICLE II.— St Natalis or Naal, Abbot of Kilmanagh, County of Kilkenny. 

[Fifth and Sixth Centuries.] 
Article III.— St. Colman, Son of Dairine, Bishop of Derrymore, King's County. 

[SixtA Century.] 
ARTICLE IV.— St Papan of Santry, County of Dublin. [Supposed to be of the Fifth 

and Sixth Centuries] 
Article V.— St. Follomon, or Fallamain, Bishop. [Supposed to be of the Fifth and 

Sixth Centuries.] ... 
Article VI.— St. Jarnoc Ailithir, or Jarnog, the Sickly 
Article VII.— Feast for the Translation of the Relics of St. Brieuc, first Bishop 

and Patron of Brieux 
V I II.— Reputed Feast of St. Ann Erentrudis 
i IX.— Reputed Feast of Mac Tail, of Cell Mannch, in the west of 
Article X.— Cromdabh Sunday, or the last Sunday of July 


5 '4 





Rev. Abraham, D.D., 
y of Ossory, Episcopal Residence, 

Power, Very Rev. Patrick, P.istor of St. 
Laurence O'Toole's Church, Cobar, New 
South Wales, Australia. 


<3* The Binder will please to prefix the Frontispiece and Title Page, contained in Pari 74, 
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Compiled from Manuscript and other Sources, 

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Calendars, Martyrologies, and Various Works, 

Domestic or Foreign, 


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jfirsft I3ap of 3ulj>. 






CELEBRATED personages and heroes, most honoured in the esteem of 
men for success and fame acquired on the theatre of this world, are 
covered with the glare of renown in laboured chronicles, sublime song, or 
elegant panegyric. But, how seldom do right and justice direct their aims, 
or how does it so frequently happen, that disinterestedness and self-denial are 
found wanting in a career of ambition, while men are aspiring to human 
grandeur ! In describing the life and virtues of every great saint, when 
reliable materials are furnished for the purpose ; we are not obliged to borrow- 
false rhetorical colouring, when seeking the production of a truthful por- 
traiture. The more simple and exact a biographer's narrative becomes in 
such case, the more his reader feels charmed and edified ; because fidelity to 
the etching of a noble subject brings the thought and heart of man into gene- 
rous relations with all that is morally sublime and illustrious. Patient and 
unobtrusive perseverance, in the pursuit of God's work from early youth to 
manhood's prime, deserves our admiration and praise, since the Almighty 
usually deigns to reward it with an unfading crown. In difficult missionary 
enterprise, the sweat and labour of a true Christian toiler serve to refresh the 
soul. Scanty fare and poor raiment adequately supply the saint's temporal 
wants. Privation may attend upon his course, although Providence guide his 
steps and watch over his sleeping and waking moments. For the truly heroic, 
martyrdom frequently looms in prospect, and waits at the close of his suffering 
yet glorious life. Whatever may be the despair and fear of a criminal, at the 
approach of a violent death j it has no terrors, but it has even peculiar con- 
solations, for the holy martyr. He loves to tread in the footsteps of his Divine 
Master. The great ones of earth feel solicitous to attain temporal honours 

Vol. VII.— No. i. a 


and rewards, which they hope to preserve to life's closing scene ; but, God's 
true servants rather court neglect, practise poverty of spirit, endure reproach, 
persecutions and even death itself, when duty demands the sacrifice. All the 
wealth and fame this world can bestow are poor as compared with their 
rewards. Animated by such generous sentiments, great saints have embraced 
the Cross, and have formed noble resolutions, in quitting friends and native 
country, cherished associations and material comforts, rather than prove 
recreant to the inspirations of Divine Grace. 

Some unpublished Acts of this holyprelate are yet remaining in Manuscript. 1 
A short Life of St. Rumold had been written by Theodoric, Abbot of the 
monastery of St. Trudo or St. Tron. 2 He belonged to the Order of St. Bene- 
dict, and to the Congregation of Cluny, and he was living in the year 1 100.3 
This sketch is comprised in Ten Chapters, 4 and it has been published by 
O'Sheerin. s Another and a more important Life of our saint has been written 
by John Domoyns. This was dedicated by him to the senate and people of 
Mechlin. It is comprised in Twenty-nine Chapters ; having eight additional 
chapters, regarding the Relics and Feasts, instituted in honour of our saint, 
after his death. The Mass and Office of St. Rumold are also appended to 
it. 6 There are several valuable notes succeeding, which purport to have been 
written by Fathers Ward and O'Sheerin. 7 These Acts of St. Rumold have been 
published by FatherThomasO'Sheerin,oras his namehas been Latinized Sirinus, 
with emendations and addition's, from the posthumous papers of Father Hugh 
Ward. He belonged to the Congregation of the Brothers Minors, and he had 
formerly been professor in Louvain University. 8 This work he dedicated to 
the Archbishop of Mechlin, Andrew Creusen. Sirin likewise prefixes some 
introductory remarks for the general reader.9 A summary of our saint's Life 
precedes the two principal Acts of St. Rumold, which follow in the publica- 
tion of O'Sheerin, with certain eulogies regarding him, taken from different 
Martyrologies and from other sources. 10 The remainder of this valuable work 
is made up of a historical dissertation on St. Rumold's country. 11 This is 

Article i. — Chapter i. — ' Among rum, Institorum et Navigantium, Acta 

these are, MS. Bibl. Keg. 13 A x. Ff. 55 b, Martyrium, Liturgia Antiqua, et Patiia, &c. 

61 b, vel. 4to. xii. cent. MSS. C.C.C. Cant. Per R. P. F. Hugonem Vardaeum Hibernum, 

9. PP- 53-58, vel. fol. xi. cent. MS. Arundel, &c. Opus Posthvmvm nunc recens a 

Brit. Mus. 91, Ff. 194 b. 197, vel. fol. xii. V. A. P. F. Thoma Sirino ejusdem Ordinis 

cent. et Collegii Lectore Jubilato recognitum et in 

3 This is a mere panegyrical discourse, nonnullis suppletum," &c, &c. This work 
which had been pronounced on the festival is chiefly quoted in the subsequent pages* 
of our saint. under the abridged title, or as referring to 

Rev. Dr. Lanigan's " Ecclesiastical Vita S. Rumoldi, authore Theodorico, as 

History of Ireland," vol. hi., cap. xix., sect. also to the Vita S. Rumoldi, authore Domyn- 

xv., n. 169, p. 199. s io. 

4 It omits many circumstances relative to » Concerning Father Ward, Colgan and 
the history of St. Rumold, such, for instance, others, who had laboured at the task of pub- 
ai his having been a bishop, although this lishing Acts of Irish Saints, have interesting 
is universally allowed. notices. 

s See '"Sancti Rymoldi Martyris inclyti 10 It would appear, that this work was not 

Archiepiscopi Duhliniends, Mechliniensium accessible to Dr. Lanigan, who relates, that 

Apostoli," «C Vita S. Rumoldi, authore he had not been able to meet with the Acts 

Theodorico, pp. 1 to 11. of St. Rumold, written by Hugh Ward, a 

See ibid. Vita S. Rumoldi, authore learned Irish Franciscan of Louvain, and 

Domynsio, pp. 12 to 53. which were published after his death, by his 

7 See ihd., pp. 53 to 87. confrere Sirin, in 1662. 

This work is intituled: "Sancti Rv- " Regarding his nativity in Ireland, 

moldi Martyris inclyti, Archiepiscopi Dvb- Theodoric is very explicit ; although he calls 

hniensis Mechliniensium Apostoli, Advocati the saint's country Scotia, still we are told, 

sterihum Conjugum, Agricolarum, Piscato- that it was the Island Scotia, separated by- 

July i.] 


demonstratively proved to have been Ireland, in opposition to the assertions 
of some persons, who had called him a native of Scotland. Evidence is 
furnished from various Marty rologies, and from ancient records to establish the 
claim of Ireland for the honour of his birth. This learned Disquisition shows 
a wonderful amount of research by the industrious compiler. 12 There are 
likewise some metrical fragments and inscriptions written by Father Hugh 
Ward, and arranged by his editor Sirinus. 1 * It shall be our endeavour, to 
condense the more important matters contained in this work, so far as they 
bear on St. Rumold's history. We shall refer particularly to portions of the 
work, on which our statements are chiefly grounded. 

Notices of this illustrious saint may be found in Lippeloo, 1 * Molanus, x s 
Miraeus, 16 Baillet, 1 ? and Surius. 18 The tract called the " Life of St. Rumold," 
and published in the enlarged edition of Surius, 1 ? at the ist of July — so far as 
it goes — is apparently rather exact. The Bollandists 2 ° have likewise given 
his Acts. These have reference to his Feast, which is placed at the ist of 
July. One of the Jesuit Fathers, John Baptist Soller, published a fine large 
folio volume of Acts relating to our saint, in over 200 pages, double columns, 
and adorned with various engravings. 21 It appeared at Antwerp, a.d. 17 18. 
The Jesuit Father Stephen White commemorates him at this date, and classes 
him among the martyrs. 22 In the Bre\iary of St. John Lateran are Lessons 
for an office of St. Rumold, at the 3rd of July; and these have been incor- 
porated with the offices of the Irish clergy, as found in the supplement to 
most of their Breviaries printed in Ireland. 2 3 Other Lessons 2 * of St. Rumold's 
office, at the ist of July, have been compiled by Bishop De Burgo, jn his 
" Officia Propria Sanctorum Hiberniae." 2 * To these are added a prayer, proper 

the sea from Britain, and the Island in which 
there are no serpents. To make the matter yet 
plainer, he refers to the well-known words 
of Solinus' description of Ireland. " Hsec 
ilia est Scotia, teste Solino, olim inhumana, 
incolaruin ritu aspero, alias ita pabulosa, ut 
pecua interdum, nisi a pascuis arceantur, in 
periculum agat saties. Illic nullus anguis, 
avis rara." — Vita S. Rumoldi, cap. 2, 
p. 2. 

12 See ibid. Dissertatio Ilistorica de Sancti 
Rumoldi Patria, quam Hiberniam esse 
Scriptorum consensu demonstratur, in 
twelve sections, and some of these are 
subdivided into several additional Articles, 
pp. 88 to 387. 

13 See ibid. Metricoe Inscriptiones aliquot 
Imaginum personas Sanctas, aut Beatas Ec- 
clesiie vel Historicis, aut alias illustres repre- 
sentantium, aliaqu6 Fragmenta Poetica, ex 
pluribus qu?e olim florente setate lusit 
R. P. Fr. Hugo Vardseus, parergi loco et ne 
excidant hie adjecta, pp. 388 to 398. The 
last page of this work has an ingenious 
arrangement of words in six columns, and it 
is headed : Ad Reverendiss. Patrem Fr. 
Benignum a Genua Seraphicae Ordinis S. P. 
N. Francisci Ministrum Generalem Serio- 

14 See " Vitse Sanctorum," tomus hi., pp. 
13 to 27. 

15 See "Natales Sanctorum Belgii," pp. 
136, 137. 

16 See " Fasti Belgici et Burgundici," pp. 

x ? See " Les Vies des Saints," tome ii., 
pp. 25, 26. 

18 See "De Probatis Sanctorum Vitis," 
tomus iv., i. Julii, pp. 24 to 27. 

*9 Issued at Cologne, A.D. 1618. 

20 See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus i., I 
Julii. De Sancto Rumoldo Episcopo . et 
MartyreMechlinisein Belgio, pp. 169 to 266. 

21 It is intituled : " Acta S. Rumoldi 
Episcopi etMartyris Mechliniensium," Col- 
legit, digessit, illustravit, Joannes Baptista 
Sollerius Societatis Jesu Theologus. Many 
valuable historic documents are contained in 
this volume. 

22 To this he refers with some degree of 
triumph, in refuting the statements of Giral- 
dus Cambrensis, that Ireland furnished the 
Church with no martyrs. See " Apologia 
pro Hibernia," cap. ii., p. 15. See also 
cap. iv., p-37. 

23 See ex. gr. Richard Coyne's Dublin 
edition, printed 1844, of " Breviarum Ro- 
manum," Supplementum ad Partem ^Esti- 
vam, pp. cexx., cexxi. 

24 These consist in great part of silly fables, 
according to Dr. Lanigan. Some of these 
may be seen in Harris' account of St. 
Rumold at " Bishops of Dublin." See Rev. 
Dr. Lanigan's "Ecclesiastical History of 
Ireland," vol. iii., chap, xix., sect, xv., n. 
169, p. 199. 

* 5 See Die Prima Julii. In Festo S. 
Rumoldi, pp. 63 to 68. 

26 See vol. i., " Archbishops of Dublin," 
P- 305. 


for this saint. The Lessons of Bishop De Burgo are much less correct, how- 
ever, than those of the office, which is now read in Ireland. 

Some particulars regarding St. Rumold are to be found in Harris' Ware, 36 
as also in the works of Bishop Challoner, 2 7 Rev. Alban Butler, 28 Rev. Dr. 
Lanigan, 7 ? John D'Alton,3° and Bishop Forbes. 31 

The constant tradition of the church of Mechlin, 3 * and the testimony of 
every older writer, who has treated regarding this saint, make St. Rumold an 
Irishman. 33 Rumold is said to have been the son of David, 3 * a king amongst 
the Scots. 3 s Again, it has been asserted, that this David had been King of 
Dublin. However, the name of David which has been given to St. Rumold's 
father by the foreign biographer — even as resolved by Irish writers into Davi, 
Dathi or Nathi — cannot be found in the list of Irish monarchs, so as to corre- 
spond with the generation previous to our saint's birth. Nor can it even be 
found, in a list of the Kings in Leinster — to which province Rumold's father 
is thought to have belonged — so as to agree with St. Rumold's chrono- 
logy. 36 A conjectural statement has been advanced, 3 ? which if accepted 
might be assigned probably as the paternal genealogy for our saint. Thus, 
perchance, Rumold was son to David, son of Cormac, son to Falbei, son of 
Eochod Clithfir, son to Columb, son of Cormac Camshron, son to David, son 
ofCrimthann, King of Leinster, &c. It is stated, in a Life of St. Rumold, 
that his father David, being a man of virtue and of exalted birth, was 
anxious to procure a partner, possessed of like advantages. He had heard 
much regarding the fame and virtues of Cecilia, a daughter to the King of 
Sicily. This lady he espoused, with her father's consent, and their nuptials 
were celebrated with great pomp. The people of his own nation testified 
extraordinary joy, on the happy occasion. 38 Another writer 3 ? states, that his 
queen was Csecilia, daughter to a King of Cashel. However, Theodoric and 
the Lateran Breviary omit altogether the names of St. Rumold's parents. 
These authorities merely state, that he was of the royal house of Ireland, and 
by right of succession heir to a throne/ An ancient writer of his Acts ^ 
declares, that as he had no knowledge regarding the parents and ancestors of 
St. Rumold, so should he not refer further to them, while it must be unneces- 

2 * See M Britannia Sancta," part ii., pp. Dr. Lanigan to be meant for Dathy. By 

2, 3* persons writing in Latin, this Irish name has 

28 See " Lives of the Fathers, Martyrs, and been sometimes changed into David, 
other principal Saints," vol. vii., July i. 35 According to the Life of St. Rumold, 

29 See "Ecclesiastical History of Ire- by Domyns. 

land," vol. hi., chap, arix., sect, xv., pp. 197 3 6 The most probable conjecture, which 

to 201. Ward or O'Sheerin can form is, that per- 

3° See «• Memoirs of the Archbishops of haps, David or Nathy, the father of Senach, 

Dublin," pp. ,21 to 23. was also the father of St. Rumold. To 

31 See "Kalendars of Scottish Saints," escape a difficulty which occurs in the Life of 

P- 44 2 - our saint, that his father had been without 

33 The Martyrology of Mechlin states, children, this is supposed referable to St. 

that St. Rumold had been Archbishop of Rumold's mother alone. By her, or by any 

Dublin ; and hence, as well as from other other woman, it is thought he had nolegiti- 

documents, Molanus justly argued against mate offspring, excepting our saint, 

some persons, who— taking advantage of 37 See Annotationes, p. 78. 

the name Scotia as being the country of his 3« See vita S. Rumoldi, cap. i., auctore 

birth — strove to make him a native of the Domynsio, p. 15. 

present Scotland. 39 See De Burgo's " Officia propria Sanc- 

» See Rev. Dr. Lanigan'i " Ecclesiastical torum Hibernix," Noct. ii., Lect. iv,, p. 65. 

ry of Ireland," vol. iii., chap, xix., <° See Rev. Dr. Lanigan's "Ecclesiastical 

sect, xv., n. 169, p. 200. History of Ireland," vol. iii., chap, xix., 

3* Molanus says, that old documents of the sect, xv., n. 171, p. 201. 

church of Mechlin make him son of a King ♦« See Theodoric's Vita S. Rumoldi, cap. 

David, which name is supposed, by Rev. 2, p. 2. 


sary to seek additional fruit from the parent trunk, when one of its branches 
produced more than sufficient to spread fertility around. It is related, that the 
saint's father ruled over a principality, called Gueruiana. This prince was a 
man of remarkable prudence, as also exceedingly wealthy and powerful.'* 2 In 
the comments of Fathers Ward and O'Sheerin, some attempts are made to 
investigate the exact personality of this king, and the location of his princi- 
pality.^ Having stated, that no place, called Gueria, Gueriana, Guaria, or 
Guaruiana can be found in Scotland ; it is thought, there are several places 
in Ireland, which bear an affinity to such names. Among others, in the 
ancient territory of Breffny O'Reilly, there is a mountain well known as Sliabh 
Guere ; there is another castle, in the county of Galvvay, called Durlas 
Guere ; 44 there is another place, called Gort-insi-Guere, near the former, an 
inheritance of the O'Shaughnessys ; 4 * and another village is known, lying 
between Dublin and Wexford — distant from one place twenty-three miles and 
thirty-seven miles from the other — this was called Guere an Ri. This latter 
place is supposed to have been the city belonging to our saint's father, and 
which was named Gueruiana. Some conjectures have been hazarded, 46 to 
show, that St. Rumold was an Anglo-Saxon, who had embraced the monastic 
state at Mayo, and that having heard of St. Willibrord's progress in Belgium, 
he went to that country, and thence to be qualified for the mission to Rome, 
where he was consecrated bishop. 4 ? Then it was thought, that he returned 
to Belgium, and thus had been advanced to the See of Mechlin. But he was 
an Irishman 48 by birth, and a Scot of the original Scotia. The Martyrology 
of Mechlin brings St. Rumold from that part of Scotia, which is now called 

We may take it for granted, that much of the story which follows is purely 
imaginary, but it is to be found in the legend of St. Rumold's Acts. Being 
without children, David his father felt desirous of having a son, who might 
inherit his principality ; however, his marriage did not appear to accomplish 
the king's wishes, for a long time. The pious couple had frequently offered 
prayers in the churches, and had exercised other works of piety, so that the 
Almighty would be pleased to grant an heir, for their large possessions. It 
is said, they entreated the holy Gualafer 4 ? — then Archbishop of Dublin s° 
according to St. Rumold's Life — that he too would implore the Most Holy 
Trinity, in their behalf. The prelate prostrated himself in prayer with the 
king and queen. An angel then appeared to them, saying these words : 

42 See Vita S. Rumoldi, cap. i., auctore propagated the Catholic faith in foreign coun- 
Domynsio, pp. 14, 15. tries, or who illustrated it by their blood. 

43 See Animadversiones in utramque prse- See De Burgo's " Officia Propria Sanctorum 
cedentem historiam Vita? S. Rumoldi, De Hibernise," pp. 65, 66. Also, the same 
auctoribus, pp. 74 to 78. writer's " Hibernia Dominicana," cap. i., 

44 This was formerly a residence of Guaire num. xiv., p. 22. 

the Hospitable, King of Connaught. 49 This mode of spelling is supposed by 

45 This clan claims descent from Guaire Rev. Dr. Lani»an to be identical with the 
the Hospitable. name Gallagher. 

46 By Soller. s° it must be remarked, according to the 

47 The hypothesis of Soller is mentioned, best authorities on Irish history, that at this 
but it has not been adopted, in the " Gallia period there was no archbishop, or even a 
Christiana," tomus v., at Ecclesia Mech- diocesan bishop, at Dublin ; but, it is sup- 
liniensis. posed, the foreign writer had been led into 

48 The opinion of Rumold having been a the error of assigning Gaulafer to this See, 
native of Ireland was so universally admitted, through ignorance regarding the Ecclesiasti- 
that the learned Pope, Benedict XIV., in a cal History of our Island. See Rev. Dr. 
letter written to the Catholic Bishops of Ire- Lanigan's "Ecclesiastical History of Ire- 
land, and dated August 15th, 1741, reckons land," vol. iii., chap, xix., sect, xv., p. 198, 
him among the great Irish saints, who either and n. 170, p. 201. 


* Abandon your grieving, for the queen shall bear a son, most fair in body 
and pleasing to God, and he shall bring many to Christ, from the errors of 
heathenism. "s 1 After this announcement, the queen conceived a son, who 
was born in due course of time. Her infant was exceedingly beautiful, and 
Rumold's birth afforded his parents great joy. Gualafer was selected to 
administer the rite of baptism. s a Yet, when his parents were called upon, to 
name their child, they felt at a loss to agree upon that matter. Whereupon, the 
prelate said : " This child has been asked of God and given by him. I there- 
fore entreat you, prostrate in prayer with me, to offer your prayers devoutly to 
the Almighty, that as he bestowed upon us this infant, so he may also indi- 
cate for us a suitable name." After prayer, an angel stood before the bishop, 
and commanded him to give the name, Rumold, to the boy. This order was 
instantly obeyed. 5 3 Whilst even yet an infant, it seemed as if Rumold were 
destined by heaven, for the exalted mission and sanctity of his after life. It 
is related, that by Divine inspiration, he fasted thrice on each week — on the 
second, fourth, and sixth days ; using only suck, once on the return of these 
days, without taking any other nourishment. The same days were afterwards 
observed by him, in a course of rigid fasting, at a more advanced period of 
his life. 

At the age of five, his parents resigned him to the charge of Guala- 
fer, to be instructed in learning and virtue ; 5 ^ and, under care of this prelate, 
he remained until his fifteenth year. Then, he was withdrawn by his father 
to the palace, where he was to be instructed in all princely accomplishments. 
But, regal pomp and honours seemed to have little attractions for the mind of 
this holy youth, who endeavoured always to acquire a spirit of most profound 
humility, and who spent day and night in prayer, while under the paternal 
roof. All the temporal possessions he acquired were given to the poor ; he 
attended to the wants of infirm persons, and of those in prison ; while he 
showed the greatest affability and submission to all belonging to his father's 
household. Thus, he fulfilled in a most perfect manner, the various precepts 
of God. 55 Whilst engaged in prayer, at a late hour of night, the Angel of our 
Lord once appeared to him, and said : " O Rumold, child of good disposi- 
tions, the Most High hath elected and loved thee, because for his name thou 
hast rejected worldly honours and delights. He is about to bestow on 
thee a heavenly crown, in place of the temporal one, which is thy due. 
Wherefore, thou shalt persevere in what thou hast undertaken, and thou shalt 
not fail to follow, in the footsteps of our Lord Jesus Christ. Rejecting pomp 
and worldly applause, preserve as a flower thy chastity unsullied. Be humble 
towards all, in the name of Christ, bestow alms on the poor and destitute. 
Religiously instruct the people given or to be given to thy charge ; treat the 
Church of God and its ministers with honour and love. In fine, always pre- 
serve yourself free from bad actions, and from impure thoughts ; for, beyond 
doubt, the Most High will direct your acts, by enlightening your mind and 
in guiding your steps." Having spoken these words, the angel disappeared. 
Immediately Rumold resolved upon leaving all earthly possessions for the sake 
of Christ and the Gospel.s 6 He said : " I give thee thanks, O Almighty God, 

5 ' See Vita S. Rumoldi, auctore Domyns- 53 See Vita S. Rumoldi, auctore Domyn- 

sio, cap. n.,p. 15. sio, cap. iii., p. 16. 

■■ ''Gualafer is mentioned as Bishop of 54 See Harris' Ware, vol. i., " Bishops and 

Dublin l,y Molnnus, but no particulars are Archbishops of Dublin," p. 305. 

related 01 him, except that he baptized bis 55 See Vita S. Rumoldi, auctore Domyn- 

Rumold."— John D'Alton's sio, cap. iv., pp. 16, 17. 

Memoii»oftheAi (Dublin/' ■ Bishop Chalknor'a "Britannia 


Sancta," part ii., July I, p. 2. 


who hath thus deigned to instruct me. I pray thee then, through the great- 
ness of that bounty and love, with which thou hast favoured the human race, 
when from the highest heaven and from the right hand of thy Father, thou 
hast descended to this vale of tears. Here, as true man, O most loving Jesus, 
thou hast wished to endure penury, hunger, thirst and heat ; likewise con- 
tumely, injury, derision, and, in fine, a most ignominious death, according 
to the prediction of the Prophets. I pray, that thy bitter passion may not be 
inefficacious as regards me, thy servant. As thou hast promised, I entreat 
thee, always to have a care over me, and lead me into the way of thy com- 
mandments ; that, at length, after this life is over, I may deserve a heavenly 
crown, for which I have left an earthly kingdom." In these pious sentiments, 
our saint persevered as he grew up, and he was loved by all on account of 
his extraordinary virtue.57 

Some time after this occurred, Rumold's parents took counsel with the 
magnates of their principality, as we are informed, to devise a suitable 
matrimonial alliance for their son. When a long time had been spent in these 
consultations, his parents desired Rumold to be summoned to their presence. 
During this interval, he had been engaged at prayer, within his oratory. When 
he attended the summons of his parents and their counsellors, they told him 
the purpose for which they were assembled, viz., that they might be able to 
obtain for him the hand of some lady, distinguished by her illustrious birth. 
Thus they entertained a hope, that legitimate offspring might succeed to the 
inheritance, on the death of Rumold's father. To these remarks the saint 
replied : " My honoured parents and magnates, I entreat you, do not allude to 
this subject. I have renounced for ever this world's vain honours, and woman's 
companionship ; for, I have entirely devoted myself to God, my Creator, and 
I have resolved to preserve chastity in this body. For the Lord Jesus, who 
rejected an earthly kingdom, hath commanded me to follow him in poverty, 
in humility, and in austerity. Forsooth, you may consider, in what manner 
an earthly kingdom and the blandishments of woman should profit me ; 
when, in a short time, I must leave them, having nothing to give, in gratitude 
for numberless benefits I have received. Wherefore, I beseech you, abandon 
those designs j for I have determined, while breath remains in this body, to 
lead a pious, chaste and holy life." Our saint's mother endeavoured to 
change his resolution, by saying, that she felt surprised her son set such little 
value on his principality ; and, the more so, as in his station of life, he could 
apply himself to every practice of devotion. Rumold replied : although 
such might be the case, this opinion admitted of some doubt ; for, if a man 
engaged in much worldly business should lead a blameless life, yet, as a con- 
sequence, the soul's pious aspirations must necessarily be weakened. Where- 
fore, he was resolved to adopt a more secure course, by avoiding altogether 
the allurements of this world.* 8 On hearing these remarks, his father remem- 
bered Gualafer's predictions before Rumold's conception. Moved by them, 
he felt more inclined to consult for his son's wishes than did his mother. 
Wherefore, his father left Rumold free to adopt whatever state of life he had 
resolved on ; notwithstanding his own and his counsellors' previous deter- 
mination. 59 

57 See Vita S. Rumoldi, auctore Domyn- Lect. iv., p. 65. 

sio, cap. v., pp. 17, 18. S3 See Vita S. Rumoldi, auctore Domyn- 

58 << Regales Nuptias, et Regnum sibi a sio, cap. vi., pp. 18, 19. 

Parentibus oblatum, constantissime recusa- *> See De Burgo's " Officia Propria Sanc- 

ret." — De Burgo's "Officia Propria Sane- torum Hibernise," Die Prima Julii, Noct. ii. f 

torum HiberniEe." Die prima Julii, Noct. ii., Lect. iv., p. 65. 



It appears, however, that Archbishop Gualafer, as he is called, died shortly 
afterwards ; and, the canons of his cathedral church, according to their cus- 
tom, assembled together, to elect a successor. But, at this meeting, they 
were by no means unanimously agreed, as to the object of their choice. 
Adopting the advice of a religious and wise man, they prayed to ascertain the 
will of heaven regarding that person, who should be called to discharge the 
office of bishop. Their prayers were heard, for an Angel sent from Heaven 
announced these words : " The Almighty hath heard your prayers, and also 
hath commanded me to indicate the nomination of Rumold. He is an only 
son to the Scottish King, and he should be the Archbishop of your unanimous 
choice. The Eternal God hath designed him for this office, as being humble 
in spirit, abstemious in his habits, a lover of chastity and of charity, as like- 
wise one who advances each day in perfection." These words directed the 
regards of all towards Rumold; but, he as little desired ecclesiastical as civic 
dignities or emoluments. 60 It is said, that having confirmed his election, they 
called upon the Archbishop of Canterbury, and two other Bishops, 61 to assist 
at his consecration. 62 These prelates assented to the requirementsof the canons, 
and they were received with great honour. 6 * These bishops also confirmed 
Rumold's election, and, in company with the canons, and a great number of 
clergy, they approached his father's court, bearing sacred banners. The king 
was not a little surprised at their approach. He received them, however, with 
great respect, and he enquired, at the same time, their reason for approaching a 
worldly prince, with such unwonted demonstrations. The Archbishop of Can- 
terbury 6 * hereupon explained to the king, that his only son had been elected 
Archbishop of Dublin, 6 * by the unanimous vote of the canons, and having his 
own confirmation of their choice. 66 However circumstantially these particu- 
lars have been narrated, yet there do not appear to have been bishops in 
Dublin, prior to the eleventh century. 

61 These two bishops, according to John 
Gilmans, author or compiler of " Hagiolo- 
gium Rubne Vallis," belonged to London 
and to Lincoln. The Codex Tungrensium 
Canonicorum Regularium has a similar 
statement. The Irish commentators on the 
Acta S. Rumoldi are doubtful, however, as 
to whether such assertion be a mere conjec- 
ture, or as resting on some certain autho- 
rity. See Annotations, &c, nota 6, p. 82. 

62 The Fathers of the Council of Nice de- 
creed, that it should be desirable and that all 
the Bishops of the province ought to assist at 
the consecration of a newly-elected Bishop ; 

r, if this were found to be a great in- 
convenience, owing to the length of the 
journey, or because of instant necessity, at 
least three should assist at such consecration. 
Such is the statement as found in the Fourth 
Canon of that Council, quoted by Most Rev. 
Francis Patrick Kenrick, Bishop of Phila- 
delphia, and afterwards Archbishop of Bal- 
timore, in his "Theologia Moralis." He 
adds : "Ad episcopatum conferendum ex 
lege Ecclcsiae ties requiruntur episcopi : 
. . . Sufficere tamen unum episcopum 
at valent consecratio, plurimis probatur dis- 
pensationibus pontificiis vetustis et recentio- 
ribus, aliUque vctcrum exempli*." — Vol. iii., 

Tract xxi. De Ordine, cap. i., sect, ii., 
num. 12, p. 273. 

63 See Vita S. Rumoldi, auctore Domyn- 
sio, cap. vii., pp. 19, 20. 

64 Bishop Burke has a statement concern- 
ing St. Rumold having been consecrated in 
the cathedral of Dublin, by Cuthbert, Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury. See " Officia Propria 
Sanctorum Hibernia-," Die prima Julii. In 
Festo S. Rumoldi. II. Nocturno Lect. iv., 
p. 65. 

65 The Rev. Dr. Lanigan will not allow, 
that there were bishops even in Dublin, in 
these times when St. Livinus, St. Disibod, 
or St. Rumold flourished. He remarks : 
" Ware has judiciously omitted these pre- 
tended Bishops of Dublin, prior to the 
eleventh century ; but Harris has foisted 
them into his additions. I must here ob- 
serve, that some modern writers are not 
sufficiently cautious in distinguishing Ware's 
original work from Harris' interpositions." 
— " Ecclesiastical History of Ireland," 
vol. iii., chap, xix., sect, xv., n. 170, p. 200. 

66 The words of the Martyrology of Mech- 
lin have been copied into the Office of the 
Lateran Breviary, with this sole difference, 
that instead of archbishop, it makes him 




The Archbishop and clergy asked the monarch's consent, as we are told, so 
that he would allow his only son, and the heir of his kingdom, to be conse- 
crated Bishop, according to the heavenly choice made of him. Already 
aware of his son's destination, the king assented to the Archbishop's and 
canons' wishes. He thanked them, also, for the honour to be conferred upon 
himself and upon his son. At the same time, he told them, that Rumold was then 
engaged at prayer. He brought the prelates with their attendants to that part 
of the palace, where our saint had secluded himself. The Archbishop thus 
addressed him : " O Rumold, inflamed with the love of God, before thou wert con- 
ceived in thy mother's womb, the Almighty hath called thee to be Archbishop 
over Dublin, and shepherd of his flock; that you may feed Christ's sheep with 
the sweet pasturage of the Divine word, that you may teach them to worship 
and reverence God himself, and, moreover, that you may illustrate Christ's 
Church with your blood. Wherefore, come, joyfully prepare thyself for that 
state to which the Lord Jesus calls thee, whom thou shalt follow and rever- 
ence with love and willingness. For, behold, we have decided, on making 
you Archbishop of Dublin ; and the whole body of canons, by angelic moni- 
tion, hath elected thee, as their chief prelate." On hearing such words, 
Rumold felt greatly alarmed, saying, he was unworthy of such a dignity. He 
endeavoured by every possible argument, to exempt himself from undertaking 
those arduous duties, to which he was called. At last, not wishing to dis- 
obey the call of Heaven, Rumold humbly submitted to the Archbishop. He 
was then conducted to the cathedral church. There, according to the Roman 
ceremonial, he was inaugurated Archbishop, with great pomp and rejoicing. 
This being accomplished, the consecrating prelates retired to their respective 
dioceses ; taking leave of the newly-appointed Archbishop and of his royal 
parents. These latter even gave thanks to God, for the dignity to which their 
son had been called ; and they exhorted him to persevere in a work, he had 
so happily commenced. They entreated him, likewise, to offer up his con- 
stant prayers for the prosperity of themselves and of their subjects. Taking 
leave of his parents, Rumold commended them to the care of the Most Holy 
Trinity. 1 Having now received a commission for preaching the Divine word, 
his first sermon was delivered on the Holy Trinity, and commenced with 
those, words, taken from St. John's Gospel : " In the beginning was the word." 
He dilated on the mystery of the Incarnation, and he explained the whole 
Gospel of that beloved disciple to his people. Rumold preached many 
sermons in addition, and he drew several to a profession of Christianity, from 
the errors of unbelief. These were probably strangers, who had frequented 
Dublin City, at the time, for the sake of commercial or other pursuits ; 2 while 
besides these, he gained an abundant harvest of souls, by his teaching and 

Chapter ii. — * See Vita S. Rumoldi, cn f hedral church of Dublin had been for- 
auctore Domynsio, cap. viii., pp. 20, 21. It nierly dedicated to the Most Holy Trinity. 
is a coinciding circumstance, also, that the 2 See ibid., Annotationes, &c, n. 7, p. 83. 



miracles. 3 Many who professed the Christian religion, but who lived in a 
state unworthy of their profession, were moved to penance for their sins. 

If we are to credit some of the later writers of St. Patrick's Acts, the Irish 
Apostle had built a church in Dublin— then a small village— when he is said 
to have arrived there, on his way to Munster.* This was called after him, and 
it is stated, also, that he built a mansion, near the present site of Christ's 
Church. 5 However, such account seems only to rest on unreliable twelfth 
century traditions. On the old Maps of Ireland by Ptolomy, Eblana is set 
down as the ancient name for Dublin. 6 When it had an ecclesiastical origin 
may be questioned ; but, it is doubtful if there were any bishop there, until 
the Scandinavians, who built walls around it, became converted to Christianity. 
This must have been long after the time, when St. Rumold is said to have 

flourished. The site on 
which the present Cathe- 
dral of Christ Church — 
formerly the church of 
the Most Holy Trinity — 
stands is supposed to have 
been given by Sigtryg, 
Kingofthe Dublin North- 
men, to Donough, Bishop 
of the Irish and Danes of 
that city, about the year 
1038.7 This prelate con- 
structed the nave and 
wings of the cathedral, 
and at subsequent periods, 
succeeding Bishops and 
Archbishops of the See 
added other construc- 
tions. It was also liberally 
endowed with lands and 
revenues. The history of 
this cathedral has never 
been fully written ; yet, it 
should furnish materials 
for a large volume. At 
different times, it fell into 
decay, when it underwent 
many unsightly repairs. 
In our own day, a large 
amount of money has been 
expended on a complete 
restoration, 8 but for pur- 
poses of Protestant worship.* The architectural features of this cathedral 
before 10 and since have been very fully described. Its historic reminiscences 
must be gleaned from various sources. 11 It seems more than probable, if St. 
Rumold had been consecrated as bishop when in Ireland, it must have been 
for some other See than that of Dublin, and in some other place. It is use- 
less to enquire further into this matter, as no means have been left for us to 
form any tangible supposition. 

Christ Church Cathedral, West Front, Dublin. 

» According to some accounts, St. Rumold 
was only a missionary or a regionary bishop, 

without any fixed See. 
Seasons," p. 183. 

-"The Circle of the 


The saint furnished a living example of holiness to all by his piety and 
charity, as likewise by his extraordinary abstinence, constant labours and 
vigils. His humility and lowliness of spirit reconciled him to the privation 
of many things, which were necessary for his station ; and, whatever he 
possessed or was entitled to, he distributed among the poor, in Christ's name." 
After he had ruled over his diocese for some time, being engaged at prayer 
about the middle of the night, and as formerly to St. Joseph/3 so an angel 
appeared to Rumold, saying : " Depart from thy paternal kingdom and arch- 
bishopric, into foreign countries." It appears, from his Life, that the chiefs 
of his father's principality had resolved on electing our saint to the throne, in 
anticipation of the reigning king's death. To him, Rumold was the only 
lawful heir. Revolving what had been declared by the angel, and considering 
that our Lord Jesus himself left his heavenly kingdom to descend upon earth, 
where he suffered much on account of the love he bore our race ; Rumold 
resolved in like manner to obey the Divine will, by leaving his native country. 
He thus took up his cross, in a voluntary spirit, and not being compelled 
thereto, like Simeon the Cyrenean, as the author of his Life remarks. The 
better to accomplish his object, our saint left his native country, in a private 
manner, and without his designs being made known to the people, lest they 
might seek to detain him, against his will. 14 The saint embarked, 
it is stated, on board a vessel formed of branches woven together, 
and covered with hides, the interstices of which were coated with pitches 
He first sailed for England. He afterwards went to France. There, 
he found a man who was blind from his birth, and who asked for 
alms. Rumold replied: "I have neither silver nor gold, nor anything 
else, which I can give thee ; but, I entreat our Lord Jesus Christ, who of his 
Divine will opened the eyes of a man born blind, that he also would give 
thee sight, who hast been deprived of it from thy earliest years. In his name, 
I say to thee, arise and see, that thou mayest obtain by thy labour food for 
thy sustenance." The man was immediately restored to the use of his sight, 
giving thanks to God and to his servant Rumold ; and, at the same time, he 
made a vow in presence of the Almighty, and in the name of his Blessed 
Virgin Mother, that from this time forward, he would serve them, with entire 
self-abandonment. This miracle induced many pagans, to profess the faith of 
Christ and to receive baptism. Several were moved, also, to a detestation of 
sin, and to observe practices of penance. 16 Having remained for some days 

* See the account already given, in the Architecture in Ireland." 
Third Volume of this work, at the 17th of " Much may be found in the " Book of 

March, Art. i., in the Life of St. Patrick, Obits and Martyrology of the Cathedral 

chap. xvii. Church of the Holy Trinity, commonly 

5 See Colgan's " Trias Thaumaturga," called Christ Church, Dublin," edited by 
SextaVitaS. Patricii, cap. Ixxi., p. 91, and John Clarke Crosthwaite, A.M., with an 
nn. 70, 71, 72, p. 112. Introduction, by James Henthorn Todd, 

6 See Sir James Ware, " De Hibernia, et D.D. Published by the Irish Archaeological 
Antiquitatibus ejus," cap. x., pp. 43, 44. Society, Dublin, 1844, 4to. 

7 See John T. Gilbert's " History of the I2 See Vita S. Rumoldi, authore Domyn- 
City of Dublin," vol. i., pp. 98, 99. sio, cap. ix., pp. 2l ; 22. 

8 An extensive distiller and citizen of I3 See Miss Rosa Mulholland's " Prince 
Dublin, Mr. Roe, expended more than and Saviour : The Story of Jesus simply told 
^100,000 on this undertaking. The architect for the Young," p. 29. 

was Mr. Street. I4 See Vita S. Rumoldi, authore Domyn- 

9 The accompanying illustration represents sio, cap. x., p. 22. 

the great western entrance on Winetavern- IS These were the coiraghs regarding 

street as lately renovated. From a photo- which Sir James Ware treats, in his work, 

graph of William Laurence, William F. " De Hibernia et Antiquitatibus ejus," 

Wakeman has drawn this subject on the cap. xviii., pp. 84 to 86. 
wood, engraved by Mrs. Millard. 6 See Vita S. Rumoldi, authore Damyn 

10 See Thomas Bell's " Essay on Gothic sio, cap. xi., p. 23. 


in France, Rumold entered Upper Germany, where he announced the Gospel 
truths. Whilst there, he was accosted by a pagan, who was a leper. He thus 
addressed Rumold: u If thou art a holy man, as they say thou art, give me 
some alms." Rumold said : " I have no temporal alms to bestow on thee, 
but I will give thee spiritual favours. In the name of the Lord Jesus Christ, 
who cured ten lepers, arise from this place in which thou art ; then, trusting 
in God, believe in him, and presently thou shalt be healed from thy leprosy.'' 
The leper arose immediately, and his whole body was relieved from his 
loathsome disease. Believing in Christ, he was baptized by our saint, who 
then admonished him to avoid sin for the future. This miracle also furnished 
occasion for the conversion of many persons.'? Having preached to the 
people, Rumold journeyed among the mountains and valleys, 18 which lay be- 
tween Germany and Italy. He announced the Gospel to the inhabitants, as 
he proceeded. On his way, he came to that place, where Hannibal, by fire 
and vinegar, is said to have opened a passage for his soldiers through the 
Alps, when marching upon Rome. To this latter city, our saint also directed 
his course. His mind was filled with pious desires, while his body suffered 
much fatigue, during his tiresome progress. x 9 

According to the Life of our saint, 20 St. Rumold arrived in this city, 
during the pontificate of Pope Stephen II., who succeeded Zacharias, whose 
death took place a.d. 752." The commentators on our saint's Life are of 
opinion, as this Pope Stephen died a few days after his consecration, it must 
have been during his successor's pontificate — also called Stephen II. by many 
writers — that our saint arrived in Rome ; and that he had an interview with 
this latter Pontiff, who presided over Christ's Church, for the term of five 
years. In the opinion of Ward and Sirin, our saint must then have had this 
interview, with Pope Stephen III., during the year of his accession, 752, or 
during the following year, before he went into France. What they consider 
more probable is, that after this Pope's return from France, 22 and about the 
year 755, Stephen accorded him an audience. On being introduced to him, 
Rumold threw himself at the Pontiff's feet and kissed them with reverence. 
He then besought the Pope to take the ring of consecration, which he had 
received, when he had been consecrated Archbishop of Dublin. Full of 
admiration, the Pope thus addressed him : " Who art thou, son, what is thy 
name, and where is that Archiepiscopal See, thou hast mentioned ?" The saint 
replied: "Rumold is my name; I am a native of Scotia ; and the Archbishopric 
of which I spoke is Dublin." The Pontiff, who had heard of our saint's fame 
long before, then said : " O son, thou art born legitimate heir to the Scottish 
kingdom ; of thee, I had long ago heard a most favourable report ; and I was 
told, thou wert divinely collated to that Archbishopric. On this account, 
beloved son, seek thy kingdom, and subdue the intractable people of that 
country to Christ's sweet yoke ; lest wandering into error they may go astray. 
Like an nctive shepherd, bring this people to the flock of Christ, that is, to 
eternal lite." Hearing these words, the saint replied : i( O holy father, this 
is by no means allowable; for Christ himself, the chief shepherd of souls, 

1 See ibid., cap. xii., p. 24. of Devotion, July 1st. This work, pub- 

" Allusion must here be made to Switzer- Iished in London, 1869, 4to, is not parcel, 

land, to which before his time the light of " This happened in 754. See l'Abbe 

the Gospel had been brought by St. Colum- Fleury's "Histoire Ecclesiastique," tome ix., 

ban and St. Gall. liv. xliii., sect, xv., p. 348. 

'» See Vita S. Rumoldi, authore Theo- a3 This account is irreconcilable with the 

dorico, cap. 2, p. 2. known history of Dublin City, as given in 

ao By Domyns. Charles Haliday's "Scandinavian History 

ai " He visited Rome about th(! year 750.'' of Dublin," book i., chap. i. to x., pp. 1 

— *' Lives of the Saints," from ancient Books to 81. 


hath announced in the Gospel, unless a man renounce his parents and all 
things in the world, he cannot enjoy the kingdom of heaven. Wherefore, holy 
father, since I have been taught by the angel, to adjust my life according to 
Gospel rules, I have proposed to take leave of those things, which belong to 
the world. For this reason, I ask your holiness for spiritual blessings, and I 
give what is worldly to earthly princes. Thus deprived of all things, I have 
determined, so long as I live, to imitate Jesus Christ, who bore poverty for 
us." Having discovered the bent of our saint's disposition, the Pope con- 
sented to gratify his desires, by receiving his resignation of Dublin See. 2 * To 
this another Bishop was appointed. 2 * These matters being thus arranged, our 
saint, filled with joy, visited those monuments of the saints, 25 and especially 
those sacred spots where St. Peter was crucified, where St. Paul was beheaded, 
and where other saints suffered martyrdom. With most earnest desires and 
profuse tears, Rumold prayed the Almighty, that he too might merit the 
martyr's crown. Having visited all those places, the angel of the Lord again 
appeared to him while at prayer. This heavenly messenger said : " Thou 
shalt not endure martyrdom in this place. But return, by the same way thou 
earnest hither, until thou shalt come to where the River Scaldis 26 empties 
itself into the sea, and where it flows along, following the moon's course. 2 ? 
For thou shalt sanctify that country, by thy holy example, and there shalt 
thou possess the kingdom of heaven, being crowned with laurels of martyr- 
dom." Rumold gave thanks to God, who had thus deigned to indicate the 
place of his triumph. 28 

On the following morning, our saint reverently went to the Sovereign 
Pontiff, and asked his permission to seek the district for his future suffering. 
He also besought the Pope to bestow various indulgences on that place pointed 
out by the angel. The Pontiff said : " Since thou desirest no rewards, but 
such as are eternal, I will not detain thee longer. But go, and proceed 
where the Lord Jesus hath called, through his angel ; there, being perfect 
in every virtue, give encouragement to the weak, by thy holy doctrine and 
piety. Bring back to religion, likewise, through thy fervent prayers, those who 
have been estranged from Christ. Moreover, by authority of the omnipotent 
God, whose viceregent I am upon earth, and of his holy Apostles, Saints Peter 
and Paul, I bless the place of thy habitation ; that whoever may seek the 
Divine favour in it, shall obtain all lawful requests, through thy merits. In 
that spot, be happiness, holiness, benediction and every good \ that those who 
dwell there may prosper, even in worldly and material things, which you so 
much despise, whenever in the same place, they implore God through your 
merits. May they also rejoice and be delighted with Divine and everlasting 
benefits, to which you alone aspire." Bidding farewell to the Pontiff, and 
being thus divinely admonished to go into Belgic Gaul, 2 9 Rumold left Rome, 
desirous to take possession of that place, indicated by the angel.3° 

While Rumold journeyed through Lombardy, 31 he found many persons in 
lamentation, at a particular station, where they demanded his assistance. He 

24 See Vita S. Rumoldi, authore Domyn- 28 See Vita S. Rumoldi, authore Theo- 
sio, cap. xiii., pp. 24, 25. dorico, cap. 2, pp. 2, 3. Also Vita S. 

25 See Bishop Challenor's " Britannia Rumoldi, authore Domynsio, cap. xiv., 
Sancta," part ii., July 1st, p. 2. pp. 25, 26. 

26 The River Demer is now the name of 39 See Bishop Challenor's " Britannia 
that rivulet, near which Mechlin is located, Sancta," part ii., p. 2. 

and it falls into the Dyle. See the " Gazet- 3 ° See Vita S. Rumoldi, authore Domyn- 

teer of the World," vol. ii., p. 862. sio, cap. xv., p. 26. 

27 The river alluded to runs from east to 3 ' Before the Roman Conquest, Lombardy 
west, in its general direction. It is a branch had been occupied by a powerful colony of 
"of the Scaldis or Scheld. the Gauls. About the middle of the fifth 


was told, that a certain person there was possessed by a demon, from whom 
he could not be exorcised. Our Bishop said to the person possessed : " May 
our Lord Jesus Christ, who expelled a mute devil, through his benign mercy 
and great power, restore thee to health." He then commanded the impure 
spirit to leave that man. Immediately, the demon departed; while the 
wretched victim seemed more like a dead than a living person, on account 
of those tortures he had previously suffered. This man's friends asked our 
saint to restore him to bodily health, as he had thus been delivered from his 
mental infirmity. Then, St. Rumold raised the man from earth, with his 
hand, saying : " Depart, restored creature, nor defile yourself any longer with 
crime. But, take care, that you recollect this hereafter, and that you com- 
mend me, also a sinner, to Divine protection." The man was thus restored 
to health ; so that many, by this miracle, were powerfully drawn to Christ. 3 2 
Setting out from this place, Rumold entered Germany. He passed on 
towards the Scheld, until he came to Brabant, 33 where he stopped at the pre- 
sent site of Mechlin, that place designed by the angel for his future habita- 
tion. This district was then a waste uncultivated desert, abounding in thorns, 
thickets, trees, and wild beasts. In this region, Rumold found a great number 
of people, dancing to the sound of harps, pipes, and other musical instru- 
ments; and this occurred, about the time when the Church celebrated our 
Lord's Passion. Seeing this, he interrupted their amusements, and began to 
preach truths of the Christian religion. He announced to the rude people 
what sufferings our Lord Jesus Christ endured, for our salvation. This he 
accomplished, with such effect and holy energy, that the people were wonder- 
fully animated with Divine love, and to some extent, they were imbued with 
intelligent ideas regarding the Most Holy Trinity. When he had concluded 
his sermon, our saint retired to a quiet part of the wood. There, he devoted 
himself to exercises of Heavenly contemplation. 34 

At this time, Count Ado 35 W as governor over the country around Mech- 
lin* He is said to have been a kinsman to King Pepin of France.3 6 He had 
married an illustrious and a virtuous lady, named Elysa,37 with whom 3 s he 
lived for sixty-six years, without their having had offspring. However, the 
probable meaning is, that Ado was sixty-six years of age, at the time of St. 
Rumold's arrival at Mechlin. 35 The pious couple, having heard concerning 

century, it was overrun by Attila. Later 3S He is styled " Pipini Fiancorum Regis 

still, Alboin, King of the Lombards, sub- cognato," in De Burro's " Ofiicia Propria 

jected it to his sway ; hence the name it now Sanctorum I Iibernise," Die prima J ulii. In 

bears. Kiny lVpin of France invaded Lorn- Festo S. Rumoldi, Noct. ii., Lect. v., 

hardy in 754, and subdued its ruler Aistol- p. 66. 

phus. He undertook another expedition, 36 For an account of the Acts of this 

A - u - 755» when he compelled Aistulphus to heroic monarch, the reader is referred to le 

restore the possessions, and to respect the P. G. Daniel's " Histoire de France," 

rights of the Church of Rome. See Rev. tome i., Seconde Race, pp. 507 to 551. 

John Alzog's "Manual of Universal Church 37 Also called Adeliza, the dau-hter of 

History," translated by Rev. F. J. Pabisch Lambert, a chief of llasbania. See John 

and Rev. Thomas S. Byrne, vol. ii., Second P>aptist Soller's "Acta S. Rumoldi Fpiscopi 

, Epoch i., part i., chap. 2, sect. 165, et Martyris Apostoli et Patroni Mceh- 

p. 105. liniensium," p. 92, n. (e), Antverpiie, 

.e Vita S. Rumoldi, authore Domyn- 1718, fol. 

sio, cap. xvi., pp. 26, 27. 38 According to the Life of St. Rumold. ' 

31 See Rev. Alban Butler's " Lives of the 39 Such is the commentator's opinion, in 

Fathers, Martyrs and other principal Saints, ' case it should not be supposed that the noble 

vol. vii., July 1. Count had attained his hundredth year, at 

34 See Vita S. Rumoldi, authore Theo- the time of our saint's death. See Annota- 

dorico, cap. 3, p. 3. Also, VitaS. Rumoldi, tiones, &c, n. 13, p. 85. 

authore Domynsio, cap. xvii., p. 27. 40 See Vita S. Rumoldi, authore Theo- 


the commencement of our saint's missionary labours in their province, sent 
him word, that they desired the honour of a visit from him to their palace. 
Having accepted this invitation, the .prelate was most honourably received on 
his approach, and treated with the greatest hospitality. In return for this 
kindness, Rumold refreshed the minds of his guests with Gospel precepts. 
Among other duties, he exhorted them to bestow alms on poor persons, as 
being a work most acceptable to God. The Count ordered an apartment to 
be fitted up in his palace, for the special accommodation of our saint. In 
this chamber, also, Rumold would have an opportunity of offering up prayers 
to Heaven, for their salvation. 40 

One day, while our saint was in their palace, the Count and his lady com- 
plained, that they had long lived in the holy state of matrimony, without 
having children to inherit their principality, after death. Wherefore, they 
entreated Rumold to offer rdevout prayers, for them. Raising his eyes 
towards Heaven, he thus prayed : " I give thee thanks, O Almighty Father, 
for all the favours conferred upon me, and especially, because thou hast never 
heard thy servant, without lending a gracious ear. And now, most merciful 
Father and bounteous Lord, confiding in thy great clemency, I suppliantly 
beseech thee, that thou reject not my humble prayers. I entreat thee, that 
thou hear me, as thou hast heard Abraham, who had a son, named Isaac, 
born to him of his wife Sara, who was old and sterile. Thou, likewise hast 
heard the. prayer of Manue, 41 when his wife, who was a long time barren, gave 
birth to Sampson, a most robust man, she having received comfort from an 
Angel. Also, thou hast deigned to hear the prayer of thy servant Anna, a 
long time childless and who brought forth the prophet Samuel to Helcan ; 43 
and thou hast given John the Baptist, to his unfruitful mother, Elizabeth. 4 ^ 
Thou hast wished, also, O Lord Jesus, to be born of thy most pure Virgin 
Mother, in a miraculous manner. Wherefore, I entreat thee, on behalf of 
these thy servants, to exert thy omnipotence for thy honour and glory, that 
those may obtain legitimate offspring, through thy immense clemency. Deign,, 
also, in the name of the Most Holy Trinity, to send them offspring." Having 
thus prayed, and gifted with the spirit of prophecy, our saint declared, that 
the Count's lady should shortly conceive, and bring forth a son, remarkable 
for his beauty, talents and virtue. Rumold declared, likewise, that this child- 
should afterwards, be .baptized by himself, be adopted as a god-child/* 4 and 
be named Libertus. So much faith was given to these promises, by the 
religious Count Ado and his wife, that they trusted a child should be born to 
them, although contrary to all natural appearances. 4 ^ . In accordance with 
their expectations, the Countess conceived, and in due course, she gave birth 
to a son. This circumstance caused great joy to her husband, and to all his 
people. The pious couple presented their newly-born babe to the Most High, 
accepting their son as a gift from Heaven. Being baptized by Rumold, this' 
infant was called Libertus. Finding all things predicted by Rumold now 
accomplished, the Count turned to him and said : "Most holy Bishop, thy 
wonderful power and inimitable virtue have been fully manifested, in thy 
son Libertus ; and, I acknowledge myself indebted to thee, for many reasons.. 
Wherefore, choose a place for thyself, where thou mayest dwell permanently ; 
and, be it my privilege, to reverence thee as a father, and as a most faithtul 

dorico, cap. 3, p. 3. Also, Vita S. 44 " Suscipiendum velut lustrico parente." 

Rumoldi, authore Domynsio, cap. xviii., ■ — Vita S. Rumoldi, authore Domynsio, 

p. 28. cap. xix., p. 29. « 

41 Judges, xiii. 4S See De Burgo's " Officia Propria Sanc- 

42 See i. Kings, i: torum Hiberniae," Die prima Julii. In 
« See Luke, ii. Festo S. Rumoldi, No.ct. ii., Lect. v., p. 66. 


friend." Accordingly, Rumold complied with the Count's wishes ; while the 
boy Libertus grew up, the darling of his parents and of their people. This child 
appeared to progress in virtue, each day. He was known frequently to dis- 
tribute bread among the poor. He always offered up a prayer for the salva- 
tion of those whom he met. He well applied every lesson of piety given to 
him, and he avoided whatever might displease God. He was so much loved 
by his parents, that they hardly suffered him to be out of their sight, for a 
moment, even when engaged in those sports peculiar to youth/ 6 

Notwithstanding this great care bestowed upon him, whilst one day play- 
ing with his young companions beside some water, and pursuing small 
birds with childish delight, Libertus approached too near the edge of a bank, 
when he was precipitated into the river and drowned.*? This account was 
immediately conveyed to his father, who, in an agony of grief, wrung his hands. 
With eyes elevated to Heaven, Ado cried out : " O Father Almighty, what 
have I done, that thou shouldest afflict me with this grief? When that day, 
on which in thy goodness thou hast made me joyful by giving me a son, 
occurs to my mind ; I am agonized with sudden grief, because death has 
snatched him from a wretched father. Alas ! what consolation can be afforded, 
for the loss of my own and my wife's dear child, so suddenly taken away from 
us? You, that ardently loved me, why have you called me fortunate ? rather 
should you call me wretched ; for now 1 am afflicted with a grief, far greater 
than the joy I first received. Let my older friends mourn with me, and let 
my younger omit their sports, for sake of my departed child. It has profited 
me little, to have had Libertus as a son ; since misfortune shall prey upon 
me, and I must pine away with grief, for the rest of my life. My joy and 
comfort have at once vanished, as a dream. O, my dear son, my flower, my 
support, the most beautiful of children, hereafter, I shall no more embrace 
thee as my child, nor shalt thou inherit thy father's wealth and possessions. 
If thou hadst been taken away by any kind of natural death, this at least might 
afford some solace to thy parents." While he indulged in this paroxysm of 
grief, running towards him, the Countess enquired the cause for his lamenta- 
tions ; and, on being told, she fell senseless to the ground, when her atten- 
dants bore her way. All the people living within their province deeply 
sympathised, in the affliction of these bereaved parents. Young and old 
hastened to the river, to find the noble youth's body. In boats, and by 
swimming or by diving, some persons endeavoured to find the object of their 
search. Standing on the bank, some held consultation as to how their object 
might best be effected. Some drew nets along the bed of the river ; others 
used hooks and drags, for a like purpose. The divers employed could find 
no trace of the body. After all their efforts had been unavailing, it occurred 
to them, that Rumold, by whose prayers that youth had obtained the first 
breath of life, should be sent for, that through him also, the boy might be 
brought again into the land of the living. Messengers were despatched for 
God's servant, then absent from Mechlin/ 8 

About this time, a holy man named Gummar 4 9 was born, and he was edu- 
cated in the village of Embleem, in the province of Renensis.s° He was one of 

46 Vita S. Rumoldi, authore Theodorico, 31, 32. 

cft P- 3» P- 3- Als0 Vita S. Rumoldi, authore 4y This saint— also called Gundemar— had 

Domynsio, cap. xix., xx., pp. 28 to 30. his festival at the nth of October. 

« See Les Petits Bollandistes, "Vies del s« Other writers— such as Molanus, Gram- 
Saints," tome vii., i c Jour de Juillet, p. 582. may and Miiceus— have the name Riensis, 

48 See Vita S. Rumoldi, authore Theo- and it is stated to have been that part of 

dorico, cap. 3, p. 4. Also Vita S. Ru- Brabant, in which Antwerp, Lira and other 

moldi, authore Domynsio, cap. xxi., pp. towns were included. 


King Pepin's military companions, and he often contended against heathens, 
who made inroads upon the French and Belgium territories. This man em- 
braced a religious course of life, from his youth, and he had formed a friend- 
ship with our saint. Both these illustrious servants of God had a place 
appointed, where they met at stated times, to discourse on religious subjects. 
That place was known as " the Oak,"* 1 and probably from the circumstance, 
that a tree of this kind grew at the spot. We are informed, that this place — 
anciently called Stanteyck* 2 — was an intermediary station, between their 
respective places of residence ; and, each year they met at this spot, many of 
the people and clergy being also present. It is said, that both these saints 
were accustomed to fasten their staves in the ground, near the oak. Their 
staffs produced leaves, in the presence of people there assembled. The 
memory of such a miracle, as also that place becoming a favourite rendez- 
vous for the saints, afterwards occasioned an annual festival to be held; while 
great numbers of the people and clergy assembled there, to engage in religious 

After an interval of three days, Rumold was informed about the melancholy 
occurrence of the death of his alumnus, Libertus. Then, coming to the place 
where he had been drowned, the holy Bishop shed tears, in common with 
others who were around him. While those tears flowed, Rumold raised his 
eyes towards Heaven, and prayed the Almighty with earnestness, that Liber- 
tus might be restored to his parents and to life. As he prayed, a great crowd 
of persons stood around, awaiting the event. Before the Bishop had con- 
cluded his prayer, Libertus appeared standing before him, and as if after 
awaking from sleep, for his hair, face and garments seemed dry and unsoiled. 
The boy's parents, their friends, and all the people rejoiced greatly, when 
they saw this much-loved youth restored to life.54 In the exuberance of his 
joy and gratitude, Count Ado offered the saint a great quantity of gold and 
silver, as a reward. But the man of God rejected these gifts, saying : " O 
illustrious Count, I am not able to obtain these favours, through my own 
power, but relying on Divine assistance. For which reason, you should refer 
what you have obtained, to the all powerful God ; through the aid of whom 
alone, these things were done by me, his servant. I have long since rejected 
temporal things, which thou hast offered me, as being earthly and evanesent. 
They might become to me an occasion of sin. But, near this place lies an 
uncultivated marshy spot, abounding in trees; a spot producing alders, thorns, 
yews and brambles. In the name of God, I ask this tract of land to be given 
by thee for no other purpose, than that it may be permitted me there to cele- 
brate the Divine praises, with God's ministers." The Count was much 
pleased with this suggestion ; and, the more so, as the place selected was not 
far from his own residence. At once, he gave his sanction to the saint's pro- 
ject. Rumold obtained a remote part of the wood, which was frequented 
much by wolves and by other wild animals. There he built a cell for him- 
self," and which he used as a place of residence.* 6 It was surrounded by a 
trench, filled with water. Rumold laboured at this work of construction, with 

s 1 The Codex Tungrensis calls this place S4 See John Baptist Soller's " Acta S. 

Stadeley ; while Haraeus in his Vita S. Rumoldi, Episcopi et Martyris Apostoli et 

Gummari writes it Stadeki. Patroni Mechliniensium," cap. v., sect. 32, 

sa This name was afterwards corrupted 33, p. 93. 
into Seaedeneyck. See Grammay's work, ss At a later period, a college of Regular 

"De Antverpia," lib. iv M cap. 8. Canons occupied its site. See Les Petits 

S3 See Vita S. Rumoldi, auctore Domyn- Bollandistes, "Vies des Saints," tome vii., 

sio, cap. xxii., pp. 32, 33. i e Jour de Juillet p. 582, 



his own hands. He selected some companions, who were renowned for 
sanctity, to celebrate with him the Divine mysteries, in this place. By a 
solemn testament, the Count confirmed his donation, and gave special privi- 
leges, for the future protection of this foundation. There, Rumold built a 
church in honour of the proto-martyr, St. Stephen -p and frequently interrupt- 
ing his exterior functions to renew his spirit before God, he lived many years, 
in that place, together with his protege, Libertus.s 8 However, these state- 
ments have been questioned by Father John Baptist Soller, 5 ? who critically 
examines the circumstances, as found in history. That chapel, which the 
saint is said to have built, existed in the time of Domyns, the author of his 
Life, 60 as we are informed by this writer. 



Under the guidance and precepts of St. Rumold, his young disciple Libertas 
grew up in the practice of every virtue ; while moved by his master's example 
and instruction, he learned to shun all dangerous occasions of sin, and to 
detest every semblance of vice. In true humility, Libertas laboured to 
become perfect ; and, he was destined at last to attain heaven, through the 
crown of martyrdom. 1 It so happened — probably about the beginning of 
the ninth century 2 — that the Huns or Danes, who were fierce barbarians and 
gentiles, made an irruption into that part of the country where he dwelt, and 
they devastated the cities, towns, churches and religious houses, with fire and 
sword, not only in the Low Countries, but even so far as Cologne. The holy 
man Libertas went into Hasbania to visit his relatives, and also, as it seems, 
to avoid the fury of those pagans. However, their ravages extended, like- 
wise, to that place, and the people were obliged to flee for their lives. There, 
too, the sacred edifices fell before their ravages. Libertas entered a church 
dedicated to St. Trudo,3 where he was surprised by the barbarians. He then 
fled towards the high altar, which he embraced, but he was massacred by the 
impious intruders. Having demolished several Christian houses and shrines, 

56 In the Vita S. Rumoldi of Theoderic, sium,'" Commentarius Proevius, sect, xii., 
cap. 3, p. 5, is added: " Nomen loco num. 130 to 141, pp. 301033. 

Ulmus ab ulmorum illic luxuriantium co- 6o The commentator, however, adds : 
piam." In a comment on this passage, the "sed postmodum anno 1580 a Gensiis dim- 
editor supposes this to be the place, not of turn." — Annotationes, &c, n. 20, p. 86. 
our saint's cell, but of the desert in which it Chapter III. — ■ See Vita S. Rumoldi, 
was built. See Annotationes, &c, note 12, auctore Theodorico, cap. 3, p. 5. His 
pp. (recte) 63, 64, 65. martyrdom, however, happened long after 

57 See Rev. Alban Butler's " Lives of the that of St. Rumold. 

Fathers, Martyrs and other principal Saints," a In the Annales Eginhardi, the invasion 

vol. vii., July i. of the Low Countries by the Normans we 

s * See Vita S. Rumoldi, authore Domyn- find chronicled in the years 810 and 811 

sio, cap. xxiii., pp. 33 to 35. 3 The festival of this Belgian saint is held 

59 See "Acta S. Rumoldi Episcopi et on the 23rd of November. 

Martyris Apostoli et Patroni Mechlinien- * See Vita S. Rumoldi, auctore Domyn- 


the Huns carried off their preys ; and, then, after causing sad scenes of deso- 
lation, they returned to the places whence they had come. 4 

Our saint was mindful of the Apostolic words : " He who labours not, let 
him not eat," and also : " We labour with our hands, that we be not a burthen 
to anyone." 5 Exercising himself frequently in manual labour, he still con- 
tinued his pious prayers. Thus, it was his practice, to sow seeds and plant 
trees of various kinds ; and, it was remarked, that whatever he sowed or 
planted produced abundantly — a heavenly blessing being bestowed on his 
labours. He had planted a certain bush, which grew much fruit of an excellent 
kind ; and, he often delighted to sit under the shade of that tree, while sing- 
ing hymns and reciting the Psalter of David. 6 Hence, our saint was looked 
upon, as the tutelar or patron of earth's fruits and of mechanic arts. It was 
customary for the country people, in after time, to invoke his patronage, with 
these expressions : " May God and St. Rumold assist our labours." About 
this time, he led an eremitical life. 7 Many were accustomed, in course of 
time, to pay tithes of their corn and fruit to this saint. 8 

Our saint engaged at the building of a chapel, in an elegant style. He 
was in the habit each evening of inspecting this work, as it progressed, that 
thus he might punctually pay his labourers the amount of wages they merited. 
He was mindful regarding these words of Sacred Scripture : " Thou shalt not 
delay the wages of thy workmen until the morning." He often took occasion to 
admonish them about the necessity for leading better lives. Among other 
vices, he frequently inveighed against the crime of adultery. It appears, that 
one of the workmen addicted to this crime was inflamed with hatred towards 
the holy prelate, on account of his frequent reproofs. This man opened his 
designs to another companion, whom he imposed upon with representations, 
that Rumold must have a great sum of money concealed, as he was not 
deterred from executing any work on account of its cost. A proof of this 
assertion was sought to be furnished, likewise, from that regularity with which 
his labourers were paid each evening. 10 This workman told his companion, 
moreover, that they should endeavour to better their condition, and in an easier 
way, than by daily labour, which was not so remunerative. He recommended, 
for this purpose, that they ought to murder Rumold in a private manner, and 
thus escape that punishmentdue to their crime. They arranged, also, to plunge 
his body in the river after death. The tempted man's avarice being thus excited, 
he consented to become participator in that proposed crime of the adulterer. 
Wherefore, arming themselves with axes and mattocks, they endeavoured to 
find a suitable opportuninty, for putting their wicked project into execution." 
Such occasion was afforded to them one evening, when, according to his usual 
custom, the holy Bishop was about to inspect the progress of that work on 

sio, cap. xxiv., pp. 35, 36. 8 See Vita S. Rumoldi, authore Domyn- 

s ii. Thess. iii., 8, 10. sio, cap. xxv., p. 36. 

6 A rather different version of this cir- 9 Leviticus xix., 13. 

cumstance is given, in the Vita S. Rumoldi, I0 " Theodoric states, that their motive 

by Theodoric, as follows : " Fagineam hoc was to get the money, which they thought 

negotio nutriverat sylvulam, sub quarum the saint possessed of, and adds that they 

plerumque recubans tegmine meditabatur had been attendants of his. Probably, they 

harmonium Davidicee melodise. Ad nostra supposed that he must have had some money 

usque tempora una harum perdurat arborum, about him towards forwarding the object of 

dulci digna religione, et grata plantatoris his mission."— Dr. Lanigan's ' Ecclesiasti- 

sui recordatione excresit ad materiam lau- cal History of Ireland," vol. iii., chap, xix., 

dis."— Cap. 8, p. 8. sect.xv., n. 172, p. 201. 

i This is stated, by an ancient writer, as " See Vita S. Rumoldi, authore J~>o mvn - 

we learn from Mirwus' " Fasti Belgiciet Bur- sio, cap. xxvi., pp. 36,37-. Also > Vlta S ' 

gundici," p. 360. Rumoldi, authore Theodonco, cap. 4, p. 5. 


which they were engaged, and in order to pay his labourers at the close of 
day. The cruel murderers selected a lonely place, where they attacked the 
holy man. One of the wretches, with a stroke, inflicted a deadly wound on 
the prelate's head. He fell on the spot, and almost instantly breathed his 
last. When his purse was examined, however, it was found to contain only 
three pieces of silver. This confirmed a common report, that the saint only 
kept about him, what was sufficient to pay his men. The avaricious mur- 
derer, hereupon, began to upbraid his adulterous companion, who had urged 
him by deception, to the perpetration of a most grievous crime. To consult 
for their mutual safety, however, they agreed to submerge St. Rumold's body 
in water. Afterwards, drawing the branches of trees over it, they hoped that 
it might not be discovered by the people. Thus, because like John the 
Baptist, 12 St. Rumold had reprehended an adulterer, our holy prelate merited 
his crown of martyrdom. The assassination of St. Rombaut is said to have 
taken place on the 24th of June, or on the viii. day of the July Kalends. x 3 
He passed gloriously to his reward, during the seventh year of Charlemagne's 
reign over the Franks, and in the year of our Lord, 775. J * The English 
Martyrology I5 has placed his martyrdom, at this date, and various other 
authorities correspond. This is the year also assigned for the martyrdom of 
St. Rumold, by Molanus, Usher, Pagi, and by various other writers. 16 

Having gone abroad, about the middle of the night, certain fishermen saw 
a brilliant light shining over the water, into which St. Rumold's body had 
been thrown. On what side soever they turned, this unusual spectacle met 
their eyes. Ignorant concerning the cause, these fishermen felt terrified, and 
they feared to approach that place. However, they went to Count Ado, with 
a relation of such an occurrence. He was much astonished. However, he 
resolved to witness the prodigy with his own eyes. 1 ? Accordingly, Ado set 
out in the middle of night, and accompanied by those fishermen. He found 
all things to happen in accordance with the account he had before received. 
Suspecting that the body of blessed Rumold must have lain under such a 
preternatural light, he ordered the fishermen to bring their fishing drags to 
that place. Those having obeyed his directions, the corpse of this glorious 
martyr was at once discovered. Immediately when drawn from the water, 
Ado recognised the countenance of his lamented friend. Seeing the grievous 
wound inflicted on St. Rumold's head, the Count burst forth into a passionate 
exclamation : " Who hath murdered thee so cruelly, O holy prelate, and most 
renowned priest ?" His tears and groans choked further utterance. After 
some time, the Count ordered those who were present, to bear the saint's 
body away, that it might be buried in that chapel, which he had built while 
living. There, Count Ado erected a beautiful mausoleum, to the memory of 
his beloved friend. Moreover, he bestowed many gifts and ornaments on 
that chapel, in which Rumold's remains were placed. The saint's body was 
covered with rich vestments. A great crowd of clergy and of laity afterwards 

" See St. Matthew, xiv. " hIC C*s Vs Ce CIdIt fLUVIo la Ct Vs 

13 According to the Carthusian Martyr- ne Ce Capta."— Ibid., Vita S. Rumoldi, 

ology or Usuardus Auctus, printed at authore Theodorico, cap. 4, p. 5. 

Cologne, and also according to the English 15 Printed a.d. 1608. 

Martyrology, printed a.d. 1608. Thus: ,6 See Rev. Dr. Lanigan's " Ecclesiastical 

" MechlinME in Hrabantia passio S. Rumoldi History of Ireland," vol. iii., chap, xix., 

Episcopi et Martyris, filii cujusdam Regis sect, xv., n. 173, p. 201. 

Hibemise." -7 See Vita S. Rumoldi, authore Domyn- 

" M See Vita S. Rumoldi, authore Domyn- sio, cap. xxviii., pp. 38, 39. Also, Vita S. Ru- 

sio, cap. xxvii., p. 38. " Annus antem necatt moldi, authore Theodorico, cap. 4, p. 5. 

tanti Martyris, hocce versiculo continetur : x8 See Vita Rumoldi, authore Domynsio, 


resorted to his tomb, through pious motives, and to offer up their prayers for 
spiritual and temporal wants. Those attacked by maladies were restored to 
health, by invoking the prayers of St. Rumold. The Almighty was pleased 
to work various miracles, at his tomb, as a testimony to the sanctity of his 
servant. 18 

Rumold was regarded as the Apostle of all that region. x 9 After giving us 
the particulars of our saint's life, Domyns subjoins a remark to the pre- 
face afterwards introduced, that he has omitted the relation of many miracles 
recorded in works, from which his biography had been drawn, in order to give 
various facts regarding the elevation, translation, and other particulars, con- 
nected with St. Rumold's relics. Theodoric relates some miracles, connected 
with our saint's memory, and which have been omitted by Domyns. Their 
record will be found, in the concluding chapters of that short Life, which 
Theodoric gives ; and to these, the reader is referred, for a more extended 
relation of events, connected with the name and memory of this great servant 
ofGod. 20 

When several years had elapsed after the holy martyr's death, Belgium was 
overrun, by the Danes and Northmen. Yet, notwithstanding these incursions, 
the church of our saint and his shrine remained intact. 21 During these incur- 
sions, which prevailed in the ninth century, the inhabitants of Mechlin were 
obliged to seek a place of greater security. The citizens and canons, as we 
are told, judged it advisable, to remove St. Rumold's shrine to the fortified 
town of Steynockesel. 22 This, however, is deemed to be improbable. 2 * It is said 
likewise, that the saint's silver reliquary was buried there in the ground, for better 
concealment. 2 « Even then, as before, many miracles were wrought, through 
Rumold's intercession. When the dangers of war were over, the body was 
exhumed, it is stated, and brought back to its former place, in solemn pomp, 
and with sacred banners unfurled. At this time, there lived at Steynockesel 
a Count, who suffered from a certain disease, and who felt unwilling, that the 
saint's relics should be removed from his principality, until he had first been 
restored to health. The clergy advised this man to offer up his prayers to 
the Almighty, through the holy martyr, so that his request might be effectually 
obtained. When the Count asked them in what manner he should pray, he 
was told, that he should abandon his crimes, and produce acts of sincere con- 
trition for them, so that he might propitiate the Divine assistance. Where- 
upon, the whole body of canons went upon their knees, and fervently offered 
up prayers to the Most High, for that Count's restoration. Their request was 
favourably heard. The canons of St. Rumold obtained the right of present- 
ment, in Steynockesel village, as a reward for the efficacy of their prayers. 

cap. xxix., pp. 39, 40. Also, Vita S. Ru- to Father John Baptist Soller's statement, 

moldi, authore Theodorico, cap. 4, pp. 5, 6. that in the time of Theodoric, about a.d. 

19 See Bishop Challenor's "Britannia 1 100, there appears to have been no disturb- 
Sancta," part ii., p. 3. ance of the saint's remains from the church 

20 See Vita S. Rumoldi, authore Theo- cal]ed after him in Mechlin, as he remarks 
dorico, cap. 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, pp. 6 to 1 1. regarding the first burial of Rumold, that 

21 See Vita S. Rumoldi, authore Theo- his body had been brought " quo nunc re- 
dorico, cap. 5, p. 6. quiescit loco." See the Bollandists' "Acta 

22 Otherwise written Steenockerseel, and Sanctorum," tomus i., Julii i. De Sancto 
it has been Latinized Okersalia Petrea, an Rumoldo Episcopo et Martyre Mechliniae in 
old village between Louvain and Wilvord. Belgio. Commentarius praevius, sect, xii., 
It is a parish specially dedicated to St. num. 130 to 141, pp. 19810201. 
Rumold, and therefore supposed to have 24 This is supposed, by Father Ward, to 
possessed at one time his relics. have occurred during the ninth century. See 

23 For fuller proofs, the reader is referred Notae in Vitam ex Domynsio, n. 23, p. 87. 


In memory of this privilege, a pendant lamp was kept constantly burning 
day and night, in the midst of the choir of St. Rumold's canons. 25 

It is not wonderful, that the fame of St. Rumold had been mainly con- 
fined to the people of Mechlin and its neighbourhood for nearly two centuries 
after his death, owing to the Norman incursions. In the time of Notger or 
Notker, bishop of Liege, 26 and temporal ruler of Mechlin, the fame of St. 
Rumold began to spread, when that illustrious prelate restored the churches 
of his city, and also founded a college of Twelve Canons, with a Dean as their 
head. These appear to have been attached to that church built by our saint, 
and endowed by Count Ado and St. Libertas. 2 ? In honour of our saint, the 
celebrated cathedral of Mechlin was built, in the twelfth century. 28 Its chief 
external feature is the fine but unfinished Moresco western tower, 2 9 which 
rises to the height of 348 feet, and which is surmounted by a high parapet on 
the top, whence a delightful view of the city beneath, and of the level country 
surrounding it, may be seen to a vast distance. In a separate illustrated work,3° 
relating to our saint's Acts, we are presented also with imposing views ; one 
of these representing the present magnificent but unfinished tower,* 1 which 
so proudly dominates, not alone over the cathedral, but likewise over the 
whole city of Mechlin. The other view presents a completed design which 
appears, however, to have been abandoned, or at least, it was greatly modified 
in details, before the present structure had been erected. The general effect 
of the fine Mechlin cathedral is much heightened by the picturesque enclosed 
yet open square, in which it stands. The general appearance of the whole 
building is gloomy and majestic. The plan of the building is cruciform, with 
a bold apse. The whole interior — large, lofty and elegant — is groined. The 
clerestory is formed of very large windows, with tracery of meagre but 
tolerably good design. The triforia in the choir are panelled, while in the 
nave, they are a series of open panelling.* 2 Beyond the north aisle, a row 
of chapels extends. None of the choir chapels, however, except the Lady's 
chapel, have altars. Externally the roof has no crest. 33 

We are told, that after the lapse of many years, and the performance of many 
miracles, the holy martyr's body was disentombed, about the beginning of the 

25 Vita S. Rumoldi, authore Domynsio, tails, and appearing as if the tower were 
cap. II, pp. 41, 42. completed in tall and tapering proportions 

26 From A.n. 972 to A.D. 1007, when he to the summit, which bears a cross over a 
died. See notices of him in Le Dr. Hoefer's ball. 

" Nouvelle Biographie Generale," tome 3 ° This, however, is only a reprint of 

xxxviii., cols. 300, 301. what is included in the "Acta Sancto- 

*7 See the Bollandists' " Acta Sancto- rum." 

rum," tomus L, Julii i. De Sancto Rumoldo 3I See John Baptist Soller's "Acta S. 

Episcopo et Martyre Mechlini^e in Belgio. Rumoldi Episcopi et Martyris, Apostoli 

Commentarius proevius, by Father John et Patroni Mechliniensium," sect, xx., 

Baptist Soller, sect, viii., num. 83, 84, p. 54. 

p. 187. 3* The piers are not well moulded ; they 

28 A very searching and full enquiry re- are cylindrical, with flowered caps, under 
garding the erection and progress of Mechlin octagonal abaci. Statues of the Apostles, of 
cathedral has been instituted by Father John a late date, and of bad design, are set against 
Baptist Soller, in the " Acta" Sanctorum," each pillar in the nave. Some fragments of 
of the Bollandists, tomus i., Julii i. De late Flemish glass yet remain in the win- 
Sancto Rumoldo Episcopo Martyre Mech- dows. 

liniae in Belgio. Commentarius Praevius, 33 See Rev. Benjamin Webb's Sketches 

sect, xix., xx., pp. 219 to 225. of Continental Ecclesiology," pp. 10, II. 

29 In the work just quoted, there is a 3 * According to conjecture about the year 
copper-plate engraving of this grand tower, 803. Annotationes, &c, nota 22, pp. 86, 
as it appears at the present day, as also a 87. 

design beside it, differing very much in de- M See Vita S. Rumoldi, authore Domyn- 


ninth century,34 and that it was found to have been buried with spices, having an 
aromatic smell. Then, it was replaced in a wooden coffin covered with a silkgar- 
ment, inwrought with threads of gold. The whole was placed in a shrine of silver, 
and it was erected over the Blessed Virgin's altar, in the hall of the principal 
choir.35 Unless the foregoing statement refers to a much later period, there 
seem to be no grounds which warrant it, other than vague and uncertain popu- 
lar traditions. 3 6 Three brothers, sons ofUrso, with another accomplice, who 
had murdered the illustrious Thomas a Becket,37 Archbishop of Canterbury, 38 
by a Divine judgment were deprived of their senses of taste and smelling.39 
Touched with remorse for their crime, those guilty men left England for 
Rome, to obtain absolution from Alexander III. ,4° who then filled St. Peter's 
chair. After he had heard their confession, that Pontiff enjoined it as a pen- 
ance, that they should make a pilgrimage around the world, until they 
recovered the use of those senses, of which they had been deprived. In pur- 
suance of such a mandate, they came to Cologne, on the Rhine. There, for 
the first time, on some wine being presented, they found the usual flavour 
and aroma of that juice pressed from the vine. Thus, they found their sense of 
taste fully restored. Afterwards, on coming to Mechlin, when they approached 
its city gate, they experienced their sense of smell returning, and were made 
sensible of bread being prepared, through action of their olfactory nerves. 
Wherefore, full of joy and gratitude, they exclaimed in a transport : u O sacred 
Cologne ! O happy Mechlin I" Afterwards, they returned to Rome, with an 
account of what had occurred. Whereupon, Pope Alexander bestowed many 
special privileges, on both those cities. The three brothers then came to 
Mechlin, that there they might live, for the remainder of their days. They 
built some houses behind St. Rumold's church, where the miracle had 
occurred in their favour. These houses afterwards obtained the name, Onder 
hoot berghen, in the Flemish language. These brothers died at Mechlin.* 1 
About the year 1301,* 2 according to Grammay,*3 the city of Mechlin was 
beset by a host of enemies. Its citizens placed themselves under the leadership 
of a certain English knight, named Peter Dondelier.** This leader demanded 

sio, cap. i., p. 41. A Life of Archbishop Thomas Becket, in 

36 The earliest known writer of St. Ru- Icelandic, with English Translation, Notes 
mold's Acts was Theoderic, who died in the and Glossary. Edited by Eirikr Magnusson, 
fourth century after the subject of his bio- Sub-Librarian of University Library, 
graphy lived,- or about AD. 1 107. He is Cambridge, vols, i., ii. London, 1875, et seq. 
silent regarding those particulars stated in the 8vo. 

text, and the whole of this matter is critically 39 This incident is related by Domyns, as 

examined by Father John Baptist Soller, in occurring in 11 74. 

the Bollandists' " Acta Sanctorum," tomus 4 ° After the death of Pope Adrian IV., in 

i., Julii i. De Sancto Rumoldo Episcopo et 1 159, Alexander III. ruled until August 

Martyre Mechlinise in Belgio. Commenta- 30th, A.D. 1 181, when he died. The events 

rius Pnevius, sect, ii., pp. 171 to 173. Also, of his pontificate are chronicled by Abbe 

sect, xii., xiii., pp. 198 to 204. Fleury, in his " Histoire Ecclesiastique," 

3 7 He is venerated as a saint and martyr, liv. lxx., lxxi., lxxii., lxxiii., pp. 66 to 
at the 29th of December. A very complete 437. 

account of him maybe found, in "Ma- 4I The following epitaph was inscribed on 

terials for the History of Thomas Becket, their tomb : " Kichardus Brito, necnon 

Archbishop of Canterbury (Canonized by Norwilius Hugo, Gullelmus Frachi, Regi- 

Pope Alexander III., a.d. 1173). Edited by naldus filius Ursi, Thomam martyrium fecere 

James Craigie Robertson, M.A., Canon of subire beatum."— Vita S. Rumoldi, authore 

Canterbury, vols, i., ii., iii., iv., v. London, Domynsio, cap. viii., pp. 45, 46. 

1875, et seq., 8vo. 42 The " Chronicum Mechliniense " places 

38 His Life in Icelandic with an English this event at A.D. I3°3-. 
translation has been published under the fob 43 In his work, lib. iii., sect. 5. 

lowing title : Thomas Saga Erkibyskups. ** Probably from the name an Anglo- 


a relic, when one of the martyr's ribs was presented to him. This he fastened 
to his shield, relying on the protection of God and of St. Rumold. The 
townsmen offered up public prayers to obtain the Divine assistance ; and they 
brought our saint's shrine in solemn procession, through their city. When 
they came towards the gates, this shrine was deposed within the walls, and 
their whole army went forth to fight Their enemies were then conquered. 
As a token of gratitude for their victory thus obtained, and at his own cost, 
their leader had St. Rumold's relics covered with gold and silver. The other 
citizens of Mechlin offered such treasures in token of public gratitude, that 
the saint's silver shrine was replaced by a golden one. They made a vow, 
likewise, that on each returning year, St. Rumold's body should be brought 
in solemn procession through their city with lighted tapers. This ceremony 
was annually performed, on the recurrence of every Easter Tuesday. But, 
their miraculous victory appears to have taken place, on the feast of Holy 
Thursday. 45 A beautiful silver shrine was prepared for the saint's remains, 
and on April 3rd, a.d. 1369, 46 these were solemnly placed therein. 

In the year 1479, on tne ^ east °f tne Blessed Virgin's Annunciation, while 
John of Burgundy, brother to Phillip, Duke of Brabant, presided over the See 
of Cambray, St. Rumold's relics were exhibited to the people, by Godofrid, a 
monk of the Carmelite Institute. He was afterwards elected to the See of Cam- 
bray. In the shrine was found a wooden case, in which the sacred bones of 
Rumold lay, being wrapped in a silk covering, inwoven with golden threads. 
The skull was also to be seen, marked by a fracture. A number of physicians 
were present, who examined the saint's body. This was found to be entire, 
even to the most minute joint. Seven Abbots were present, at this exposi- 
tion. Their names were — Francis Villariensis, Livinus Boulous, Martin of 
St. Bernard, John of St. Michael, Bartholomew Aveibod, Guernerus of Ton- 
gerloo, Marcus Grimberganus. The relics were publicly exhibited for the 
whole Octave, morning and evening, and this exposition took place before the 
Pascal days. The old garment was then removed from our saint's body, and 
a new one of a green colour was substituted. In this, our saint's remains 
were wrapped. The former garment continued to be shown. The relics of 
this holy martyr were reposed within a shrine, on which a seal and a suitable 
inscription were placed.*? The great church of Mechlin was much frequented 
by pious pilgrims, who came to pray at the tomb of our saint. The Sovereign 
Pontiff, Paul IV., who ruled from a.d. 1555 to 1559, 48 raised Mechlin to the 
metropolitical dignity.** 

That beautiful shrine, which had been prepared for St. Rumold's relics, in 
1 369,5° was destroyed two centuries later^ 1 during the troubles that agitated 
the Low Countries in 1578. Through all the province of Mechlin, the Feast 
of St. Rumold had been celebrated as a Double Festival, with an Office of 
Nine Lessons. 52 In 1631, a rich and a new silver shrine 53 had been pre- 

Norman. so It i s said, this had been prepared at an 

45 See Vita S. Rumoldi, authore Domyn- expense of 66,000 florins. See John D'Alton's 
sio, cap. iii., pp. 42, 43. " Memoirs of the Archbishops of Dublin," 

46 This is represented, in "Acta S. Ru- p. 23. 

moldi Episcopi et Martyris, Apostoli et * See Les Petits Bollandistes, " Vies des 

Patroni Mechliniensium," by John Baptist Saints," tome vii. Premiere Jour de Juillet, 

Solier, sect, xv., p. 42. p. 583. 

47 See Vita S. Rumoldi, cap.iv., pp.43, 44. ^ See Harris' Ware, vol. i., " Bishops of 

48 See Sir Harris Nicolas' "Chronology of Dublin," p. 305. 

History," p. 211. 53 a representation of this fine object of 

49 See Rev. Alban Butler's " Lives of art and devotion may be seen, in John Bap- 
the Fathers, Martyrs, and other principal tist Seller's " Acta S. Rumoldi Episcopi et 
Saints," vol. vii., July i. Martyris, Apostoli et Patroni Mechlinien- 


pared for the relics of St. Rumold, and it was placed over the high altar in 
the cathedral. Once more, during the French Revolution, and when Belgium 
had been invaded by the Republican army, a.d. 1794, the valuable shrine 
which had been placed in the cathedral of Malines, 54 was carried off to the 
treasury of Bruxelles, and it was broken up to satisfy the exactions of the 
invaders. 55 At this period, the French soldiers were badly provided for, by 
the administration in Paris, and the assignats or paper money, in which they 
had been paid, were greatly depreciated in value, so that they requisitioned 
eighty millions of francs from Belgium alone, and this sum was levied from 
the clergy, the churches, the abbeys, nobles and corporations. 56 In the year 
1825, there was a great semi-seculaire jubilee of St. Rumold celebrated at 
Malines, when the diocese voluntarily contributed funds to prepare a new 
silver shrine, 5 ? which is to be seen at the present day, 58 and it is placed over 
the high altar. 

In order that our saint's festival should not interfere with that of St. John 
the Baptist, 5 ? the anniversary of St. Rumold's death was commemorated, on the 
istday of July. 60 This date falls on the Octave of St. John's feast. The Trans- 
lation ofSt. Rumold's Relics is kept, moreover, on the 27th of October, although 
it took place, within the festival of St. Luke, the Evangelist. 61 However, the 
chief feast of St. Rumold has been set down, at the 1st of July, in the ancient 
Martyrology of the Carthusians at Cologne, 62 and in Hermann Greven's tran- 
script of it, 6 3 in the old^Cologne Martyrology known as Usuardus Auctus, 64 in 
John Molanus, 65 as also, in the ancient Martyrology written in German, 66 and 
edited by Rev. P. Petrus Canisius. According to the Martyrology of Done- 
gal, 6 ? a festival was celebrated at the 1st of July, in honour of Rumoldus, 
Bishop of Duibhlinn, which was called Ath-cliath. He is likewise called 
Rumoel, in a table appended to that Martyrology. 68 In the anonymous 
Calendar of Irish Saints, published by O'Sullevan Beare, the name Rumoldus 
occurs at this date, as also in the list of Henry Fitzsimon, Rumoldus, Bishop 
and Martyr, is found. 60 Throughout the province of Dublin before the Refor- 
mation, as we are informed, St. Rumold's was a Double Festival, with an 

sium," sect, xvii., p. 47. Saints," tome vii., i e Jour de Juillet, p. 

54 A.D. 1631. 583. 

55 See Les Petits Bollandistes, Vies des s 9 Held on the 24th of June. 

Saints," tome vii., i e Jour de Juillet, p. 6o This transference was by a Decree of 

583. Pope Alexander IV. See Harris' Ware, 

56 See Thiers' " Histoire de la Revolu- vol. i., Bishops of Dublin, p. 305. 

tion Francaise," tome vii., chap, xxvi., 6t See Vita S. Rumoldi, auctore Domyn- 

p. 2. sio, cap. v., p. 44. 

S70nit, St.Rumold is represented as having 6 * Thus: " Sancti Rumoldi Episcopi et 

a crown on his head, assuming him to be son Martyris, filii Regis Hibernise, et Archiepis- 

of a Scottish or Irish king ; as raising to life copi Dubliniensis. 

the young son of the Duke of Malines ; as 63 Noticed thus : " Mechlinise S. Rumoldi 

preaching in a wood ; as healing a blind Episcopi Hiberniensis et Martyris." 

man ; as giving up the episcopal insignia to 6 * Thus : " In Brabantia S. Rumoldi Epis- 

become a monk; as healing a possessed copi Hibemiseet Martyris, qui passusquidem 

person ; as engaged building a monastery ; et 8 Kal. Julii ; sed ejus celebritas hie festi- 

as protecting by his prayers a religieuse cap- vius recolitur." 

hired by pirates ; as striking the earth with 65 Both in his " Indiculus Sanctorum 

his staff, and causing a fountain of water to Belgii," and in " Natal es Sanctorum 

spring up; as being struck with a spade, Belgii." 

pick, axe and club by the criminal workmen 66 In this, St. Rumold is regarded as 

he had employed ; as being found in the Bishop of Dublin, and of royal race, 

water, owing to the miraculous light shining 67 Edited by Drs. Todd and Reeves, pp. 

over his corpse; and as standing glorious 184, 185. 

and treading the assassins beneath his feet. 68 See ibid., pp. 462, 463. 

5 8 See Les Petits Bollandistes, " Vies des C9 The latter quotes Johannes Donnius— 


Office of Nine Lessons. 7° By a decree of the Congregation of Rites, 8th of 
July, 1 741, it was decided, that the office of St. Rumold should be celebrated 
as a Duplex Majus, on the 1st of July, with Nine Lessons.7 l 

Heroically many martyrs of God were linked together in a common Faith, 
a common danger, and a common suffering. In the majority of cases, the 
struggle between the natural and supernatural element must have been a 
terrible one, even when Christian fortitude and Faith sustained them in the 
victory of martyrdom. The present holy man was destined to pass through 
that ordeal, because he felt it to be a great pastoral duty to reprove vice, and 
to promote virtue. Envy and avarice, both base and odious crimes, prompted 
to revenge and murder ; but, a holy life had been well spent, when the 
martyr's crown became the reward of this glorious and apostolic prelate, in a 
country, where he had zealously laboured. 

Article II.— St. Servan, Serb, Serf, or Seran, Apostolic Mis- 
sionary in Scotland. [Fifth or Sixth Century.'] One of the most cele- 
brated saints, connected with the early missions of Scotland, was the holy 
man, who is called Serb, by Irish writers, and about whom so many 
inconsistent accounts have received circulation. According to one account, 
his original name was Malachias, which at the time of his baptism was 
changed into Servanus. Serf is another form of this name. He is also called 
Servan, 1 or Seran. In some parts of Scotland, the people have corrupted his 
name to Sair or Sare. 2 The Festival of St. Servanus or St. Serf 3 has been 
assigned to the 20th day of April, where we have already given the legendary 
Acts and the conjectures of several writers regarding him, as also the specu- 
lations referring to his period and locality.* Again, there is a notice of him, 
at the 13th of May. 5 It must be unnecessary to repeat what has been already 
stated, but as this holy man has another festival assigned at the 1st of July, 
we can only briefly subjoin what serves to amplify, yet hardly illustrate, his 
proceedings. On this day, the Bollandists have several unsatisfactory notices 
regarding him, 6 in a previous commentary 7 to his Life, as found in the Breviary 
of Aberdeen. The early history of St. Servan seems to be involved in con- 
siderable obscurity. Already has allusion been made to the Manuscript 
Life of St. Servanus, 8 as found in the so-called Codex Kilkenniensis,? and to 
which Archbishop Ussher refers, where he styles it a compound of foolish 
portents and of lying fables. 10 Indeed, for all historical purposes, it is not 
only utterly worthless, but it is flagrantly in opposition to well-established 
facts of church history." The Aberdeen Breviary seems to contain the prinii- 

probably Joannes Domyns is meant. See * See at that date, in the Fourth Volume 

O'Sullevan Beare's " Historic Catholicse of this work, Art. iv. 

Ibernia? Compendium," tomus i., lib. iv., s See the Fifth Volume of this work, at 

cap. xi., xii., pp. 50, 56. that date, Art. vi. 

See Harris' Ware, vol. i., " Bishops of 6 See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus i., Julii i. 

Dublin," J). 305. De S. Servano Epis. et Conf. Orcadum In- 

f See De Burgo's " Officia Propria Sane- sularum Apostolo, pp. 55 to 58. 

torum Hibernise," Die prima Julii. In 7 in thirteen paragraphs, written by Father 

Festo S. Rumoldi, pp 63 to 68. John Baptist Soller. 

Article ii.— ' This is usually written 8 In the Fourth Volume of this work, at 

Servanus, by the Latin compilers of accounts, the 20th of April, Art. iv. 

relating to him. 9 i n Archbishop Marsh's Library, Dublin, 

a See Bishop Forbes' " Kalendars of and classed vol. 3, 4, 16. 

Scottish Saints," p. 447. «o g ee << Britannicarum Ecclesiarum Anti- 

3 See an account of him in Rev. Dr. J. F. quitates," cap. xv., p. 353. 

S. Gordon's " Scotichronicon," pp. 42, 43. " The reader may find the full version of 


tive legends, regarding the origin and career of this holy Bishop and Con- 
fessor, 13 who is said to have drawn his descent from the nation of the Scots — 
a matter which is altogether likely, although a different parentage has been 
assigned to him. It has been stated, also, that he was a Pict on the mother's 
side ; her name being Alma, a daughter to the King of the Cruithne. Again, 
other accounts have it that his father was Pore, King of Canaan, in Egypt. 
If we are to trust the Martyrology of Aberdeen, 13 he was of royal origin ; his 
father being Obeth, 14 while his mother is said to have been Alixa/s the 
daughter of a King in Arabia. 16 Servan himself is said to have been King of the 
Cananii, 1 ? but leaving his kindred through a supernatural motive, he resolved 
to seek more distant countries. With an illustrious company of holy men, he 
travelled far away from the territory of the Cananii to Jerusalem, thence to 
Rome, thence to France, and finally he arrived in Scotland. 18 Were we to 
credit Thomas Dempster's account, he flourished in the year 293, having 
been elected bishop from the flock of the Culdees; 1 ^ but, most assuredly, he 
did not live at this early period, for heathenism then wholly prevailed over 
Scotland. St. Servan has been classed among the disciples of St. Patrick. 20 
However, we cannot find him enrolled as such, in the list furnished by 
Colgan. 21 We are told, 22 that he lived under the rite and form of the primitive 
church, until the arrival of Palladius. 2 3 St. Servan sailed for Scotland, to 
preach the faith among the people. There, he is said to have erected a 
monastery, on the winding shores of the Forth. 2 * According to some accounts, 
St. Servan founded a monastery, near the town of Culenros, the modern Cul- 
ross, in Fifeshire ; while others have it, that before Palladius visited Scotland, 
there had been a religious school established at that place, in which the pre- 
sent holy man received his education. 2 5 He took care to chastise his body 
and bring it under subjection, while he lived there in solitude. The fame of 
some miracles he had wrought created for him a great veneration in the minds 
of the multitude. 36 There, too, he lived, with a religious society of disciples. 2 ? 
One of the most renowned among these was St. Kentigern, 28 who was 

this Life of St. Servanus, in William F. so See Right Rev. Patrick F. Moran's 

Skene's " Chroncles of the Picts, Chronicles "Irish Saints in Great Britain," chap, v., 

of the Scots, and other early Memorials of p. 155. 

Scottish History," Appendix, sect, vi., pp. 2I See " Trias Thaumaturga, " Quinta Ap- 

412 to 420. pendix ad Acta S. Patricii, cap. xxiii., pp. 

12 See Right Rev. Patrick F. Moran's 265 to 269. 

" Irish Saints in Great Britain," chap, v., 22 In the Aberdeen Breviary. 

pp. 155, 156. 23 See his Life, in the present Volume, at 

13 At the Kalends of July we find the fore- the 6th of July, Art. i. 

going notice, as contained in the text. 24 See Right Rev. Patrick F. Moran's 

See " Proceedings of the Society of Antiqua- "Irish Saints in Great Britain," chap, v., 

ries of Scotland," vol. ii., pp. 265, 266. p. 155* 

l * The son of Eliud, according to the 2S Such is the account, as given by Came- 

Dublin MS. Life. rarius, who tells us furthermore, that Saints 

15 Called "Alpia filia regis Arabie," in Kentigern and Ternan taught humanities and 
the Dublin MS. Life. sacred lessons, in that place. 

16 It is said, they were without children for a6 The Martyrology of Aberdeen says, 
twenty years, before the miraculous birth of " preclara sua miracula posterum stupenda 
their twin sons Malachias, otherwise called merito Seruanum summe extollendum laudi- 
Servanus, and Generatius. bus efferunt et sine fine in celesiibus regna- 

x * Otherwise called Cananeans. turum insinuant." 

18 See the particulars of these migrations 2? See Rev. Thomas Innes' "Civil and 
set forth, in the Fourth Volume of this work, Ecclesiastical History of Scotland," book ii., 
at the 20th of April, Art. iv. sect, vii., p. 125. 

19 See " Historia Ecclesiastica Gentis Sco- 28 He has a double festival : one for the 
torum," tomus ii., lib. xvii., num. 1032, 13th of January, andthe other for the 13th 
p. 574. 01 November. 


educated under his care. He and his mother Thenog a 9 were baptized by 
this holy man ; the former having been born, after the latter had been cast 
ashore in a boat, at Culenros,3° and on the coast of Fife. When St. Kentigern 
resolved on leaving Culross, St. Servan who tenderly loved him showed the 
greatest sensibility of soul. He cried out : " Alas ! my dearest son ! light of 
mine eyes ! staff of my old age! wherefore dost thou desert me? Call to 
mind the days that are past, and remember the years that are gone by ; how 
I took thee up when thou earnest forth from thy mother's womb, nourished 
thee, taught thee, trained thee, even unto this hour. Do not despise me, nor 
neglect my grey hairs, but return, that in no long time thou mayest close 
mine eyes."* 1 And when St. Kentigern nevertheless continued his course, 
Servan again cried aloud, asking to be permitted to accompany him, and to 
be reckoned among his disciples; but Kentigern replied : " I go whither God 
calls me, but do thou return, I pray thee, my father, to thine own disciples, 
that in thy holy presence they may be trained in sacred doctrine, guided by 
thy example, and restrained by thy discipline. 32 When Pope St. Celestine 1.33 
had destined Palladius 34 for the conversion of the Irish-Scots, 35 — then having 
some knowledge of the Christian religion — his mission there failed. His course 
was afterwards directed to Scotland. Among his disciples was St. Servan. 
But whether the latter accompanied him from Rome, or whether he had been 
a native of Ireland or of Scotland, appears to be uncertain. Equally so is the 
conjecture, that he had been found in either of these Islands, and that he had 
been instructed in the Faith by Palladius. However this may be, both were 
associated in the work of preaching and of administering the sacraments 
among the people of Scotland. As he was gifted with singular goodness and 
humility, St. Palladius consecrated St. Servan a bishop, according to received 
accounts. 3<5 The latter became a coadjutor to his apostolic master^ while 
spreading the light of the Gospel in those northern parts he had chosen for 
the exercise of his zeal. Another account has it, that when St. Palladius failed 
in preaching the Gospel among the Orkneyans, St. Servan became eminently 
successful in that effort. 3 8 While St. Palladius destined St. Tervan to become 
Archbishop of the Picts, he directed St. Servan to become the great missionary 
and Apostle of the Orkneys. 39 Again, it has been supposed, by some writers, 
that St. Tervan had been the first missionary sent to those Islands, while St. 
Servan succeeded him in that post/ As T and S are frequently commu table 
in the Celtic dialects, it may be a subject for fair investigation, to discover if 
Tervan and Servan be not one and the same person ; while, if such be the 
case, we have another disturbing historic element introduced into the present 

■» Her feast is kept on the 1 8th of July. 3<s Such is the statement of Polydore 

3° See " Lives of St. Ninian and St. Ken- Virgil. 

tigern," compiled in the twelfth century. 3 ? See Fordun's " Scotichronicon, lib. iii. 

Edited from the best MSS. by Alexander cap.ix. 

Penrose Forbes, D.C.L., Bishop of Brechin, 38 See Ussher's "De Primordiis Britanni- 

Life of St. Kentigern, chap, iv., p. 40. carum Ecclesiarum," p. 671. 

Edinburgh, 1874, 8 vo. 39 See Lesley, " De Origine, Moribus, et 

31 Vita S. Kentigerni, cap. viii. Rebus Gestis Scotorum," lib. iv., Rex xli., 

31 See Right Rev. Patrick F. Moran's p. 137. 

"Irish Saints in Great Britain," chap, v., 4Q To these statements has been added the 

PP- x 55' l $6- report, that both had a charge to extirpate 

33 About the year 431. the Pelagian heresy among the people of 

34 See his Acts in the present volume, at those northern parts. The contradiction is 
July 6th, Art. i. obvious, if we only suppose, that those people 

35 According to the Chronicle of St. had yet to receive Christianity through the 
Prosper of Aquetaine. ministry of Saints Tervan and Servan, 

July i.] 



perplexing memoir. However, this may be, we are inclined to believe, that 
the success of St. Servan's missionary career among the Orkneyans — if con- 
siderable in his time— could not have been of a very permanent character. 
St. Servan was sent into the Orkney Islands by St. Palladius, and his mis- 
sionary career was so successful there, that he has since been regarded as the 
Apostle of that group. Some writers state, that St. Palladius and St. Sylves- 
ter 4I shared that Apostleship with him. At this period, the people of Orkney 
were in a rude state ; 42 yet, we have few accounts left us by writers, to throw 
much light on their pagan condition. *3 Picts or Britons appear to have been 
the earliest inhabitants. 44 The Fir-galeoin 4S — a tribe of the Firbolgs — are 
said also to have inhabited them. In the time of St. Columkille,* 6 they seem 
to have relapsed into paganism ; if indeed, Christianity had previously made 
any progress among them. Towards the end of the sixth century, some of 
St. Columba's disciples 47 appear to have gained a foothold there ; and Irish 
Papae or Fathers were found in those Islands, when they had been invaded 
by the Norwegians in the ninth century. 48 Gradually a great number of 
churches and monasteries were established in those Islands, after the Norwe- 
gian colonists had conformed to Christianity. Under the Jarls, Kirkwall 
grew up to be the chief seat of power, and there too was established the epis- 
copal See of the Orkneys. After the remains of St. Magnus 4 9 the Martyr 
had been removed to Christ Church, Bersa,s° his nephew Ronald resolved on 

41 He is said to have had a feast on the 
5th of February, in the Orkney Islands. 

42 See Bellenden's Hector Boece's " Scoto- 
rum Historian, "tomus i., lib. vii., cap. 1 8, p. 286. 

43 For a fuller account, the reader is re- 
ferred to the Second Volume of this work, 
at the 14th of February, Art. iii. 

44 See Chalmers' "Caledonia," vol. i., 
book ii., chap. iv. 

45 See "The Irish Version of Nennius." 
Note of Rev. Dr. Todd, p. 146. 

46 See his Life, in the Sixth Volume of this 
work, at the 9ih of June, Art. i. 

4 ? Among these, St. Cormac Ua Liathan 
appears to have been distinguished, as ap- 
pears from his Life, at the 21st of June. See 
ibid., Art i. 

48 See Rev. George Barry's "History of 
the Orkney Islands,'' &c, p. 115. 

49 See his Life, in the Fourth Volume of 
this work, at April 16th, Art. ii. 

5° See Robert William Billing's " Baronial 
and Ecclesiastical Antiquities of Scotland, " 
vol. iii., p. 2. 

5' The See of the Church Bay (Kirk Vaag) 
in the Orkneys was founded a.d. i 102, and 
the fine cathedral— of which there is a 
ground plan — was begun A.D. 1 138. See 
Rev. Mackenzie E. C. Walcott's " Scoti 
Monasticon," p. 173. 

52 The accompanying illustration was 
drawn on the wood by William F. Wake- 
man, from an approved drawing ; and it 
has been engraved on the wood by Mrs. 

53 In the year 1468, the Orkneys were 
transferred from the kingdom of Denmark 
and annexed to the Scottish crown. See an 

account of this transaction, in John Pinker- 
ton's " History of Scotland from the Acces- 
sion of the house of Stuart to that of Mary," 
with Appendices of Original Papers, vol. i. , 
book vii., pp. 262 to 266. 

54 See a further account of this most in- 
teresting structure, in Rev. Mackenzie E. C. 
Walcott's " Scoti Monasticon," pp. 173 
to 178. 

55 According to the Martyrology of Aber- 

56 See an account of him, in Bishop 
Forbes' "Kalendars of Scottish Saints," pp. 
445 to 447. 

57 According to the Bollandists' "Acta 
Sanctorum," tomus i., Julii i. 

58 See Bishop Forbes' "Kalendars of 
Scottish Saints," p. 42. 

59 Thus : " Sancti Servani Episcopi, 
xii., 1., ii. m." '—Ibid., p. 59. 

60 Thus : " Servani Episcopi, Conf. ix., 1." 
—Ibid., p. 118. 

61 See ibid., p. 132. 

62 Thus : "S. Serffe bischop of Orknay and 
confesor vnder King Eugenius 2." — Ibid., 
p. 156. 

63 Thus: "In Insulis Serfi primi illius 
populi Apostoli." — Ibid., p. 204. 

<> 4 See "Old Statistical Account of Scot- 
land," vol. x., p. 131, and vol. xviii., Ap- 
pendix, p. 649. 

63 See " New Statistical Account of Scot- 
land," Perth, p. 600. 

66 See " Lives of S. Ninian and S. Ken- 
tigern," compiled in the Twelfth Century. 
Edited from the best MSS., by Alexander 
Penrose Forbes, D.C.L., Bishop of Brechin. 
Notes P, pp. 324 to 326. 



[July i. 

the erection of a magnificent cathedral at Kirkwall in the twelfth century, 51 
When completed, he had the remains of St. Magnus removed thither, and 
afterwards this holy martyr gave name to that church, of which he was regarded 

as the patron. The interior 
presents much of the original 
plan and style, in the massive 
columns and rounded arches 
within the nave and aisles. 53 
The five eastern bays of the 
nave were built with pillars, 
fifteen feet in circumference, 
by Bishop William I. in 1160; 
while, owing to the disturbed 
state of affairs in the Orkneys, 
the cathedral remained un- 
finished." The remaining bays, 
with the western front and 
three western bays in the same 
style, were built by Bishop 
Reid in 1540. 54 St. Servan 
lived to a venerable old age. 
He departed this life at Cul- 
ross. There his relics were 
afterwards preserved. 55 Be- 
sides the commemorations of 
this holy man already entered 
at the 20th of April, and at 
13th of May, there is a festival 
set down, at the 1st of July, 56 
which is supposed to have been 
the date for his death. In his 
Universal Martyrology, Castellan has the feast of Servanus, a Scot, at the 
latter date, but the place assigned for him is Wales. 5 ? Otherwise, we know 
not of any recorded connexion the present St. Servan had with the latter 
principality. In the Kalendar of Hyrdmainstown, at the 1st of July, there is 
an entry of Servanus Episcopus, with a notice that he had an Office of Nine 
Lessons; 58 also, in the Kalendar of Culenros ; 5 9 likewise, in the Kalendar, 
attached to the Breviary of Aberdeen; 60 also, in the Martyrology of Aber- 
deen ; 61 in Adam King's Kalendar; 62 and, in Thomas Dempster's Menolo- 
gium Scoticum. 6 3 Until a late period, an annual procession attended with 
public festivity was held in his honour, on the first of each recurring July. 
Early on the morning of that day, all the inhabitants, young and old, men 
women and children assembled, and carried green branches through the town. 
They also decked the public places with flowers, and spent the rest of the day 
in recreation and public rejoicing. 6 * In 1839, this custom had not altogether 
disappeared, 65 but the day had been altered to the 24th of June — the birth- 
day of King George III. — in consequence of the neighbouring lairds and 

Cathedral Church of St. Mngnus, Kirkwall, 
Orkney Island, Interior View. 

Article hi.— 1 Edited by Rev. Dr. 
Kelly, p. xxviii. 

a It is in the parish of St. Peter's, barony 
of Athlone, and it is shown on the '"Ord- 
nance Survey Townland Maps for the 
County of Roscommon," sheets 52, 55. 

3 See John O'Donovan's "Tribes and 
Customs of Hy-Many," n. (j), pp. 79, 80. 

* Allusion is also made to this place, in a 
note to Colgan's M Acta Sanctorum Hiber- 
niae," xv. Februarii. Vita S. Farannani, n. 
28, p. 339- 


magistrates being strong Hanoverians, 66 and their desiring to wean the 
affections and celebration of the people from an old Scottish saint to the 
regal representative of the Guelph family. 

Article III. — St. Ailill of Cloonown, County of Roscommon, 


Armagh. In the Martyrology of Tallagh, 1 at the 1st of July, we find the 
entry Ailella, Bishop of Cluana Emain. The name Cluana Kmain — where 
seven bishops were venerated — has been identified with Cloonowen, or 
Cloonown, 2 an old church situated on the River Shannon, and not far 
removed from Athlone. It lies to the south-east of this town, 3 and it is within 
the county of Roscommon. 4 There seems to have been an error admitted, 
in deeming him to have been an Archbishop of Armagh, and the second of this 
same name. However, the Martyrology of Tamhlacht calls him bishopof Cluain 
Emain, but without any mention of Armagh, as elsewhere found. Marianus 
O'Gorman simply names him; but, the gloss adds, Epscop Arda Macha. He is 
not mentioned in the Feilire of /Engus, nor in the Dublin copy of the Scholia. 
The present saint is said to have succeeded his namesake Ailill or Ailild I., 
in the See of Armagh.s He died in the year 526, on the 13th day of January, 
and this holy man, the second of his name in that primatical See, is thought 
to have been elected, soon after the chair had been vacated. Ailill II. sprung 
from the same family as his namesake and predecessor. 6 While the Bollan- 
dists 7 enter the name of Alellus or Alildus II., Archbishop of Armagh, at this 
date, on the authority of Colgan ; they declare, likewise, that they know not 
from what authority he has been entered on the Catalogue of Saints, and they 
defer to a supplement, at the 13th day of January, any further notices regard- 
ing him. We read, that Ailill II. ruled for ten years over the Irish Church, 
and he died on the 1st of July, 8 according to Marianus O'Gorman, and other 
Martyrologists, a.d. 535, but according to other chronologists, in the year 
536.9 At this same date, the Martyrology of Donegal IO records him as 
Ailill, Bishop, of Ard Macha. Some words within brackets are added in a 
more recent hand, [i.e. Elias, according to the corresponding synonyme, at 
Rathbuanae."] Where this place was situated, we have no means for deter- 

Article IV. — St. Cuimmein, Bishop of Nendrum, or Mahee Island, 
County of Down. [Seventh Century ■.] On the 1st of July, in the Martyr- 
ologies of Tallagh, 1 of Marianus O'Gorman and of Charles Maguire, 2 it is men- 
tioned, that veneration was given to Cuimmein, Bishop of Aendruim. This 
place is now known as Mahee Island, inStrangford Lough, and in the county 

s A considerable nmount of ecclesiastical ' See Harris' Ware, vol. i., "Archbishops 

information regarding this Archdiocese may of Armagh," p. 39. 

be found, in Sir Charles Coote's " Statistical I0 Edited by Drs. Todd and Reeves, pp. 

Survey of the County of Armagh," part i., 184, 185. 

chap, i., sect. 4, pp. 9 to 21, and Appendix, " They signify, that Elias is the usual 

No. xxi., pp. 28 to 33. Latinized form of the Celtic name Ailill, 

6 See James Stuart's "Historical Memoirs and that this Ailill died or was honoured as 
of the City of Armagh," chap, i., p. 92. a saint, at Rathbuanae. 

7 See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus i., Article iv. — x Edited by Rev. Dr. 
Julii i. Among the pretermitted feasts, Kelly, p. xxviii. 

p. 2. 2 See Colgan's "Acta Sanctorum Hiber- 

8 See Ussher's " Britannicavum Ecclesia- niae," xii. Januarii. De S. Cumiano Epis- 

rum Antiquitates," Index Chronologicus. copo, n. 6, p. 59. 


of Down. 3 The Bollandists, 4 who have a notice of this holy man, at the ist 
of July, refer to Hugh Ward's work s for the entry; but, they defer to treat 
about his veneration and Acts, until they had more certain evidences. It has 
been stated, in Rev. Dr. O'Conor's text of the Annals of the Four Masters, 
that he died a.d. 658 ; 6 but, this is faulty, for according to Tighernach, he 
departed a.d. 659.7 He is said to have rested — about the year 661 — by Duald 
Mac Firbis, 8 in his text, De Quibusdam Episcopis.9 This tract was found 
among the Bodleian Manuscripts, at Oxford. 10 This holy Bishop's name is 
entered, in the Martyrology of Donegal, 11 at the present date. 

Article V. — St. Cathbadh or Cathbath. We find in the Martyr- 
ology of Tallagh, 1 Cathbadh's name, at the istof July. It is to be regretted, 
that ecclesiastical and religious persons, whose opportunities or position 
enabled them to record passing events, wanted either the taste or inclination, 
to preserve reminiscences and edifying accounts of those, with whom they 
had been intimately associated. Owing to such omissions, no doubt, posterity 
has lost a knowledge of this holy man's place and age, as in many similar 
cases. There is a notice of St. Cathladius, 2 in Jocelyn's Life of St. Patrick. 3 
He is said to have been a pilgrim and of British race. He was the third 
Bishop of Ath-Truim or Trim, in succession to St. Loman or Luman,* 
appointed by St. Patrick himself, and to St. Fortchern.s Now, Colgan thinks, 
that Cathladius was probably the same person as Cathfadius, whose Natalis 
has been placed in the Irish Martyrologies, at the ist of July, or at the 16th 
of September. The Bollandists, 6 who record Cathfadius at the ist of July,' 
do not forget to state, that Sirinus has suggested Cathbadius for Cathfadius. 
At this date, the Martyrology of Donegal 8 has only the simple record 

Article VI. — St. Lugid or Lughaidh, Son of Lugeus or Lughaidh. 
As these, who ascend the heights of the Himalaya Mountains, avoid the con- 
tagious diseases and oppressive atmosphere of the plains below ; so do the 

saints escape, by their ascent towards exalted perfection, the noisome moral 

3 See what has been already stated, at the I0 Classed Rawlinson, No. 480. See 
31st January, the festival of St. Mochumma " Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy," 
or Documma, Bishop of InisMahee ; as also, vol. ix., 1856, p. 184. 

at the 23rd of June, the feast of St. Mochaoi ,x Edited by Drs. Todd and Reeves, pp. 

or Mochay, Abbot and Patron of Nendrum. 184, 185. 

4 See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus i., Article v. — • Edited by Rev. Dr. 
Julii i. Among the pretermitted feasts, p. 4. Kelly, p. xxviii. 

s See "Sancti Rumoldi Martyris Inclyii, 2 Under this form, his name is not found 

Archiepiscopi Dubliniensis, Mechliniensium in our Irish Martyrologies. 

Apostoli," Dissertatio Historica, &c, sect. 3 See Colgan's "Trias Thaumalurga," 

9, num. 9, p. 159. Sexta Vita S. Patricii, cap. lii., p. 76, and n. 

6 See " Rerum Hibernicarum Scriptores," 59, pp. no, in. 

tomus iii., p. 215. * See an account of him, at the 17th of 

7 See Rev. William Reeves' " Ecclesias- February, in the Second Volume of this 
tical Antiquities of Down, Connor and Dro- work, Art. iii. 

more," Appendix A, p. 149. Also, Appendix s See ibid., Art. iv. 

LL, p. 379. b See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus i., 

8 See " Proceedings of the Royal Irish Julii i. Among the pretermitted feasts, p. 5. 
Academy," Irish Manuscript Series, vol. i., 7 They add, that should further lights be 
part i., nn. 20, 21, p. 85. vouchsafed, on the matter of identity, it 

' Translated into English, by D. H. might be possible to say more, at the 1 6th 

Kelly, M.R.I.A., and annotated by W. M. of September. 

Hennessy, M.R.I. A. 8 Edited by Drs. Todd and Reeves, pp. 


contagion of the worlding's low position. The Martyrology of Tallagh x 
enters the name of Lugidius, son of Lugeus, as having veneration paid him, 
at the 1st of July. Thus was he distinguished, at an early period of our 
ecclesiastical history, among his contemporaries. Marianus O'Gorman has a 
similar notice in his Martyrology, at this day. Cathal Maguire agrees in the 
paternity, and he adds, that the present holy man was Bishop of Cluain- 
camaint. It is now difficult to identify this ancient place. The Bollandists, 2 
who notice Lugidius films Lugei at the 1st of July, state, that Cluain-camaint 
was unknown to them, but they suggest, that a Cluaid-camhain is mentioned 
in the Annals of Donegal, at the year 1089. Where they obtained such infor- 
mation is not apparent to us. 3 Lughaidh, son of Lughaidh, is the entry of 
the O'Clerys, in the Martyrology of Donegal/ at this date. 

Article VII. — St. UltaN. Veneration was given at the 1st of July to 
Ultan, as we read in the Martyrology of Tallagh. 1 In this Calendar, there 
is a double entry of the name ; but, it is hardly probable, two saints, thus deno- 
minated, were intended. This duplication, in all likelihood, arose from some 
error on the part of a copyist. The Bollandists, 2 at this date, notice, that 
there are two Ultans recorded by Sirinus,3 and numbered among the Irish 
Saints. No less than eighteen, bearing the same name, are to be found in 
the Martyrology of Donegal/ There are some prophetical Poems 5 extant, 
and ascribed to Ultan, of Leitrim. Whether he was identical with this or 
any other saint bearing the name — for many Ultans are in our Calendars — 
cannot be determined. In the Martyrology of Donegal, 6 at this date, we 
only find Ultan's name simply entered. 

Article VIII. — St. Sineall, or Sillin. We find the simple entry 
Sillin recorded in the Martyrology of Tallagh, 1 at this date. The Bollandists 2 
have Sillinus or Sinellus, and the Martyrology of Donegal,3 Sineall, at the 1st 
of July. In the Table appended to this latter record, his festival is incor- 
rectly placed, at the 1 st of the preceding month; however, it is probably 
only an error in the printing or transcription/ 

Article IX. — St. Barrinu or Bairrfhinn. It is inserted, in the 
Martyrology of Tallagh, 1 that St. Barrinu's feast was held on this day. Also, 

184, 185. 4 See Table, pp. 476 to 479. 

Article vl— l Edited by Rev. Dr. s These are among the Messrs. Hodges' 

Kelly, p. xxviii. and Smith's Irish Manuscripts (No. 27, a 

2 _ See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus i., small paper 4to), in the Royal Irish Aca- 

Julii i. Among the pretermitted saints, demy's Collection. There are here similar 

p. 3» Poems, ascribed to Maeltamhleachta. These 

3 It is not to be found in Rev. Dr. Poems have special reference to the Anglo- 
O'Conor's version, nor in Dr. O'Donovan's Norman Conquest. 

Four Masters, at the foregoing date. 6 Edited by Drs. Todd and Reeves, pp. 

4 Edited by Rev. Drs. Todd and Reeves, 184, 185. 

pp. 184, 185. Article viii.— r Edited by Rev. Dr. 

Article vii.— * Edited by Rev. Dr. Kelly, p. xxviii. 

Kelly, p. xxviii. 2 See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus i., 

2 See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus i., Julii i. Among the pretermitted saints, 
Julii i. Among the pretermitted saints, p. 3. 

P- 3- 3 Edited by Drs. Todd and Reeves, .pp. 

3 In " Sancti Rumoldi Martyris Inclyti, 184, 185. 
Archiepiscopi Dubliniensis, Mechliniensium 4 See ibid., pp.470, 471. 

Apostoli," &c. Index Sanctorum. Article ix.— l Edited by Rev. Dr. 


at the i st of July, and on the authority of Sirinus, the Bollandists 2 place 
Barninus or Barindus. In the Martyrology of Donegal,* a festival in honour 
of Bairrfhinn, at the ist of July, is commemorated. 

Article X. — St. Connan. A festival in honour of Connan, is inserted 
in the Martyrology of Donegal, 1 at the ist of July. The Bollandists 2 enter 
Connanus, at the same date, on the authority of Sirinus.3 This is probably 
the saint, whose festival has been entered for the same date, in the Martyr- 
ology of Tallagh.4 There, however, he is called Commai, bishop. 

Article XI. — St. Ernin. The name Ernin appears in the Martyrology 
of Donegal, 1 at the ist of July. On the authority of Sirinus, the Bollandists 2 
have inserted the simple denomination of Erninus. 

Article XII. — Reputed Feast of St. Tarnanus, Bishop of Lis- 
more, Scotland. In the Martyrology of Dempster, 1 and in the Calendar 
of Ferrarius, 2 at the ist of July, there is a festival for St. Tarnanus, Bishop of 
Lismore. Whether there is warrant for such a statement does not seem to 
be very clear.' The Bollandists 3 refer to the T2th of June, for their notices 
of him. At the same date, in the Sixth Volume of this work/* an account of 
St. Ternan, Apostle of the Picts, may be found. 

Article XIII. — St. Emant, of Cluain. According to the Martyrology 
of Donegal, 1 Emant, 2 of Cluain, was venerated on this day, and Marianus 
O'Gorman is cited as authority for the statement. When and where he 
flourished does not seem to be known. 

Article XIV. — Festival of Aaron, First Priest of the Mosaic 

Law. In the Feilire 1 of St. ^Engus, at the ist of July, we find a festival in 

Kelly, p. xxviii. ■ See " Catalogus Generalis." 

2 See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus i., 3 See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus i., 
Julii i. Among the pretermitted saints, Julii i. Among the pretermitted feasts, 
p. 3- p. 2. 

3 Edited by Drs. Todd and Reeves, pp. « See Art. ii. 

184, 185. Article xiii.— ' Edited by Drs. Todd 

Article x.— x Edited by Drs. Todd and Reeves, pp. 184, 185. 

and Reeves, pp. 184, 185. 2 In a note 2, the Rev. Dr. Todd says at 

3 See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus i., Emant: " This name is added by the more 

Julii i. Among the pretermitted feasts, recent hand from Mar. O'Gorman, who 

p. 3* styles him 'bishop.'" 

3 See " Sancti Rumoldi Martyris Inclyti, Article xiv.— x In the " Leabhar 

Archiepiscopi Dubliniensis, Mechliniensium Breac" copy, the following rann is found, 

Apostoli," &c. and its English translation has been fur- 

* Edited by Rev. Dr. Kelly, p. xxviii. nished by Whitley Stokes, LL.D. :— 

Article XI.— * Edited by Rev. Drs. 

Todd and Reeves, pp. 184, 185. hunt ikl. rmnbuil 

3 See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus i., tTHnne mor^r- nuch^ 

Julii i. Among the pretermitted feasts, bar -Anom r <*b rrunche 

p. 3« Simon A^ur" CacVia. 

Article xii.— x See " Menologium 

Scoticum,"— Bishop Forbes' " Kalendars "On July's marvellous Kalend is Mary 

of Scottish Saints," p. 204. whom Matthew magnifies : the death of 


honour of Aaron. To this entry, the scholiast has added Latin notes, stating 
that he was the first priest, and brother of Moyses, while it is added, that he 
died on Mount Oir. 3 

Article XV. — Feast of Mary. The Feilire x of St. ^Engus has a 
festival on this day for Mary, whom Matthew magnifies ; and therefore, the 
commentator has it, that she was the Mother of our Lord, and Blessed Virgin 
Mary. 2 

Article XVI. — Festival of Saints Simon and Thaddaeus. In the 
Feilire 1 of St. ^Engus, at the 1st of July, a Festival for Saints Simon 2 and 
Thaddaeus 3 is noted. 

£>erontr JBap of Sfttljn 


ONLY a supposition can be raised, that the present holy man lived in 
the early period of the Irish Church. In the Martyrology of Tallagh, 1 
we find a festival entered, at the 2nd of July, in honour of Ternoc, of Cluana- 
moir. In the Martyrology of Marianus O'Gorman, at the 2nd of July, this 
saint is eulogized, as being innocent and virgin-like. 2 Whether this was the 
St. Mernocus, or Ternocus, who is mentioned, as having lived a solitary life in 
that delightful Island, near the Mountain of Stone, and who flourished before 
that time when St. Brendan the Navigator 3 sailed on his adventurous voyage 
beyond the Atlantic, cannot well be determined.* We have seen already, 
that St. Columkille s had a disciple named Ternoc, who interrogated him re- 

Aaron a mighty man of wisdom: Simon and Leabhar Breac adds to his name "Canna- 

Thaddaeus." — "Transactions of the Royal neus." See ibid., p. cxv. 

Irish Academy," Irish Manuscript Series, 3 The following Latin note is added by the 

vol. i., part i. On the Calendar of Oengus. commentator : " tatha .i. tatheus qui dicitur 

By Whitley Stokes, LL.D., p. cix. et iudas et frater iacopi .i. filii alfei." See 

2 Also added : " I Uil i kl. mirbuil 71I." ibid., p. cxv. At this date, the scholiast has 

See ibid., p. cxv. an entry of his own as follows : "hiuil .i. 

Article xv. — ' See "Transactions of proprium sancti in albain nescio ubi est." 

the Royal Irish Academy," Irish Manu- This is translated " Julius, i.e., the proper 

script series, vol. i., part i. On the Calendar name of a saint in Scotland. I know not 

of Oengus. By Whitley Stokes, LL.D., where he is. 

p. cix. Article i. — ' Edited by Rev. Dr. 

2 Thus annotated : "jkiuire .i. mater do- Kelly, p. xxviii. 

mini. Matha .i. oirdned matha." The latter 2 The Latin words are " candidus et vir- 

w r ords are translated "Matthew's ordina- gineus." 

tion. " See ibid., p. cxv. 3 See his Acts in the Fifth Volume of this 

Article xvi. — * See "Transactions of work, at the 16th of May, Art. i. 

the Royal Irish Academy," Irish Manuscript 4 See Colgan's "Acta Sanctorum Hiber- 

Series, vol. i., part i. On the Calendar niae," xxii. Martii. Egressio S. Brendani, 

of Oengus. By Whitley Stokes, LL.D., p. 721, and n. 3, p. 725. 

p. cix. 5 See his Life, in the Sixth Volume of this 

2 The commentator on the Feilire in the work, at June 9th, Art. i. 


garding futurity f yet, we should be far from intimating, that he was identical 
with the present saint. The St. Ternog under consideration appears to have been 
venerated at a place, called Cluain-mor ; but, where it was situated, we are not 
informed. It must be observed, that Mr. John M'Call places it, in the county 
of Carlow ; and, if such be the case, it seems most likely, that the present 
holy man was that Abbot or Bishop of Ferns, mentioned in the note of 
Colgan to St. Brigid's Acts,? and who died a.d. 662. 8 The name, however, 
is there printed Tuenocus, or Tuenoc, yet elsewhere Ternoc.9 There is a 
parish of Clonmore, 10 in the county of Wexford, and in connexion with it, 
we find allusion made to the present St. Temoc, 11 whose feast has been set 
down, by Colgan, in one instance at the 2nd of June, 12 and in another place, 
at the 2nd of July '3 — which latter is the correct date. Nevertheless, we are not 
to assume, that the present Cluain-mor is to be confounded with Cluain-mor- 
Moedhoc, which was in the county of Carlow. However, of the many Clon- 
mores in Ireland, we cannot know with certainty to which of these the pre- 
sent holy man belonged. The Martyrology of Donegal, 1 * at the 2nd of July, 
enters a feast for Tern6g, of Cluain-mor. In the Manuscript Calendar of 
Professor Eugene O' Curry, the feast of St. Ternog is entered, at the 2nd of 
July. At the present date, citing the authority of Sirinus, the Bollandists 1S 
have a misprinted entry of Fernacus de Cluain-mor ; but, they desire to have 
clearer evidences regarding him. 

Article II. — The Daughter or Daughters of Cathbath, or Cath- 
badh, of Airedh Fotha. A festival to honour the Daughters of Cathbadh, 
of Airiud, is entered in the Martyrology of Tallagh, 1 at the 2nd of July. 
Marianus O'Gorman has a notice concerning the chaste Daughters of 
Cathbad of Airida Foda, on the same day. In the Acts of St. Patrick, 3 there 
is a Fothadh3 — probably identical — mentioned as having been a rflll in 
Tyrconnell. We find this place also written Airedh fotha, in the published 
Martyrology of Donegal, 4 at this same date, when there is only mention made 
of the Daughter of Cathbath, without giving her proper name ; while the 
Bollandists,s quoting the same authority, have the Daughters of Cathbad in 
Airiudh, yet they want a fuller and more distinct account in reference to the 
foregoing insertions. 

6 See Colgan 's " Trias Thaumaturga," batis, n. 17, p. 597. 

Prince O'Donnell's or Quinta Vita S. I3 See "Trias Thaumaturga," Quinta 

Columbee, lib. i., cap. ciii., p. 406. VitaS. Columbse, lib. i., cap. ciii., n. 84, 

1 See "Trias Thaumaturga," Quarta p. 451. 

Vita S. Brigidse, lib. ii., Cap. ii., n. 2, ,4 Edited by Drs. Todd and Reeves, pp. 

p. 564. 184, 185. 

8 See Dr. O'Donovan's " Annals of the lS See " Acta Sanctorum," tomus i., 
Four Masters," vol. i., pp. 272, 273. Julii ii. Among the pretermitted saints, 

9 In the Tertius Index Historicus, to p. 293. 

Colgan's "Trias Thaumaturga," p. 695. ARTICLE II.— 1 Edited by Rev. Dr. 

10 It is situated, chiefly in the barony of Kelly, p. xxviii. Thus entered " Inghena 
Bantry, 4,821a. 3r. 3op., and partly in the Cathbadh in Airiigrl." 

barony of Shelmaliere West, 1,945a. or. 35p. • See his Life, in the Third Volume of 

It is described, on the " Ordnance Survey this work, at the 17th of March, Art. i. 

Townland Maps for the Cownty of Wexford/' 3 See Colgan's "Trias Thaumaturga," 

sheets 25, 26, 31, 32. Septima Vita S. Patricii, lib. ii., cap. cxii., 

" See "Letters containing Information rela- p. 144. 

live to the Antiquities Of theCounty ofWex- 4 Edited by Drs. Todd and Reeves, pp. 

ford, collected during the Progress of the 184, 185. 

Ordnance Survey in 1840," vol. ii., p. 35, s See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus i., 

■ See "Acta Sanctorum Hibernia," Julii ii. Among the pretermitted saints, 

xii. Martii. Vila S. Mochoemoci Ab- p. 293. 


Article III. — Reputed Festival of St. Canicus, among the 
Hebrideans, Scotland. [Sixth Cetitury.~\ Among the Scottish Entries in the 
Kalendar of David Camerarius, as found in Bishop Forbes' work, 1 there is a 
festival set down for St. Cahinnicus, Abbot, at the and of June. The Bollan- 
dists 2 copy this notice, likewise, but they remark, that his Acts more properly 
refer to the nth of October, at which date they were destined for further 

Article IV. — Festival of St. Euticius, Martyr, at Rome. The 
Martyr Euticius was honoured with a festival, in the ancient Church of Ireland, 
on the 2nd of July. This we know from the " Feilire " of St. ^Engus, 1 where 
he is called a Bishop. This notice seems to have been extracted from the 
old Martyrology of St. Jerome, and the Bollandists 2 appear to have gleaned 
little in addition, at this date, to elucidate his period and sufferings. 

Article V. — Feast of Saints Processus and Martinianus, Martyrs 
at Rome. There was a festival, for the holy Martyrs Processus and 
Martinianus at Rome, held in the old Irish Church at the 2nd of July, and as 
stated in the "Feilire" of St. ^Engus. 1 To this, the commentator has added 
an explanatory note. 2 The Acts of their martyrdom are given by the Bollan- 
dists, 3 from Surius, with a previous commentary, in three sections and in 
seventeen paragraphs, at this same date. 

CftfrU 2Bap of SWp* 


NOTWITHSTANDING historic doubts— justifiable within a certain 
limit — that the present holy man should be regarded as having an 
early veneration, and that he should be considered as the first missionary 

Article hi.— * Thus : "2 Die. Sanctus tinianus."— " Transactions of the Royal 

Cahinnicus Abbas miraculis et vitae puritate Irish Academy," Irish Manuscript Series, 

apud Hebridianos et Orcadienses Scotos vol.i., part i. On the Calendar of Oengus, 

Celebris." — " Kalendars of Scottish Saints," p. cix. 

p. 238. 2 See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus 1., 

2 See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus i., Julii ii. De S. Euticio Martyre Romano, 

Julii ii. Among the pretermitted feasts, p. 306. Edited by Father John Baptist 

p. 294. Soller, S.J. 

Article iv.— * The following stanza, Article v.— x See Leabhar Breac copy, 

and its translation from the Irish, are from Royal Irish Academy, and Transactions of 

the Leabhar Br-eac copy, in the Royal Irish the Royal Irish Academy," Irish Manuscript 

Academy :— Series, vol. i., part i. On the Calendar of 

Oengus. By Whitley Stokes, LL.D., p.cix. 

CAimuHiOucAicefpoc 2 Thus : " Marciani vel martiani .i. pro 

■OAtnAfi conani marticiani per concisionem mediae sjjlabs in 

pAif p|\ocefp f^S^ utroque nomine vel martiniani." — Ibid., 

HiAr mon tTUnciAui. p. cxv. 

3 See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus 1., 

"The death-bed of bishop Euticius of Julii ii. De Sanctis Processo et Martiniano 

Damasus with splendour : the passion of Martyribus Romre, pp. 300 to 305. Edited 

kingly Processus : the great torture of Mar- by Father John Baptist Soller, S.J. 


Bishop in the Isle of Man, a constant tradition has there prevailed, that his 
mission was delegated to him from Ireland, in its first century of Christianity, 
and that he had then been classed among the disciples of St. Patrick. 1 He 
is also called Jarmanus. 2 The Bollandists have published some brief notices 
of this saint, 3 in three paragraphs. Notices of him occur in Bishop 
Challenor's * work. We know few particulars of an authentic character 
regarding him ; and, we are left in a state of uncertainty, respecting the 
country and parentage of the present holy man, who appears to have been a 
native of France or of Great Britain. But, whether he had been baptized in 
the Christian Faith at an early age, or whether he had received first instruc- 
tion from the Irish Apostle, must be a matter left for further historic investi- 

In the fifth century, lie lived, according to a general supposition ; while some 
writers maintain, that the present German 5 was not a distinct person from 
St. Germanus of Auxerre, 6 to whom the cathedral of Man was dedicated.? 
one opinion 8 has it,9 that the German of Man had been consecrated Bishop 
by Pope Celestine I., after his appointment as a Canon of St. John Lateran's 
church, in Rome. It is stated, also, that the dignity of Bishop was conferred 
on him, when the Irish Apostle had been elevated to that distinguished office. 10 
This is improbable, for it does not rest on any well sustained evidence. We 
are informed, 11 however, that St. German became a disciple of St. Patrick. 12 
By the illustrious Irish Apostle, he was called to the ministry; but, whether 
in Ireland or in Great Britain has not transpired. 

Finding in Ireland, that the harvest was great, but the labourers few, T 3 St. 
Patrick passed over into Britain, about the year 447, I4 according to a gene- 
rally received opinion. The Irish Apostle proposed to procure a number of 
learned and religious men, to be his assistants in the work of the Gospel. 
We are informed, also, that he desired to remove the Arian and Pelagian 
heresy from Britain, at this time. After a short stay in Britain, he returned 
to Ireland, accompanied by a great many notable labourers. No fewer than 
thirty of these were afterwards made Bishops. T 5 

Long before the time of this great Apostle, the Isle of Man — inhabited 
by an ancient Celtic race — seems to have been under the influence of druid- 
ism, 10 and it is supposed that several of their monuments yet remain. Its 
remote history is not very well known. At an early period, it was subject to 
the King of North Wales. In the fourtr century, 1 ? the Scots are said to have 

Article i.— * See Colgan's " Trias 8 That of Colgan, who refers to the Office 

Thaumaturga," Quinta Appendix ad Acta f the Canons Regular of Lateran. 

S. Patricii, cap. xxiii., p. 266. 9 See " Trias Thaumaturga," Sexta Vita 

a By Castellan. S. Patricii, cap. xcii., n. 103, p. 113. 

3 See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus i., I0 See ibid., Appendix Prima ad Acta S. 

Julii iii. I)e S. Germano Episcopo, in Patricii, Lect. v., p. 196. 

Mantua sive Mona, Maris Hibernici Insula, ll By Jocelyn, the monk of Furness. 

pp.667. " See Colgan's " Trias Thaumaturga," 

* See "Britannia Sancta," part ii., July Quinta Appendix ad Acta S. Patricii, cap. 

3rd, pp. 8, 9. xxiii., p. 266. 

sit may be observed, a St. Germanus, a I3 See Colgan's "Trias Thaumaturga," 

Martyr at Tarsus., in Cilicia, was venerated, Sexta Vita S. Patricii, cap. xcii., p. 86. 

likewise, on this day, July 3rd. m See Ussher's "Britannicarum Ecclesia- 

6 This holy Bishop is venerated, on the rum Antiquitates," Index Chronologicus, 
31st of July. p. 518. 

7 See what has been written already in the J s See Colgan's "Trias Thaumaturga," 
life of Maguil, or Machaldus, Patron and Sexta Vita S. Patricii, cap. xcii., p. 86. 
Bishop, in the Isle of Man, in the Fourth ,6 See " Gazetteer of the World," vol. ix., 
Volume of this work, at the 25th of April, p. 85. 

Art. i. "7 According to Paulus Orosius, in his 


inhabited Monaor Mevania 18 — ajncient names for Man 1 ? — as also Hibernia. 
To reclaim its inhabitants from their superstitions, 30 as also from their mystic 
and druidic rites, the Irish Apostle turned his attention to this Isle, when he 
had laboured with success in Ireland. He thereupon sailed over to Man. 
St. Patrick, who lived for some time on an Island or Peninsula — which 
afterwards bore his name — wrought miracles while he was there, and he 
laboured to gain the people 2I over to the truths of religion. 22 He then ap- 
pointed one of his disciples, named Germanus, a wise and holy man, to be direc- 
tor over this new church. He is said to have been consecrated as first Bishop of 
the Isle of Man. 33 - His mission was consolidated, by the erection of a church, 
which was the first known to exist in the Isle ; and this formed the nucleus 
of a See, Sodor and Man, 2 * the origin of which is rather obscure, but it is 
said to have been so constituted by Pope Gregory IV., 2 5 at Sodor. While 
some are of opinion, that Sodor had been situated in the celebrated Isle of 
Iona, others state, that it was in Man itself. Again, it has been asserted, that 
after the Danes and Norwegians held sway over this Island in the eleventh 
century, as also over Dublin and Fingal, together with the Hebrides of Scot- 
land \ these western clusters were divided into Norder, meaning " northern," 
and Sudor, meaning " southern," in the Norwegian language, Man being 
included in the Sudor, and Sodor thus became the title for its See. 20 

The church of St. Germanus was built on an Island promontory, called 
after St. Patrick. 2 7 It has also been called Kirck-Jarmans, and it is situated 
near Peel Castle, being nearly surrounded by the sea, and isolated in posi- 
tion, 28 on the western side of the Isle, near the margin of a spacious bay 
The channel which divides it from the mainland at high water is very deep ; 
but, when the tide is out, the water is scarcely mid-leg deep, being only 
separated by a little rivulet, which flows from Kirk-Jarmyn Mountains. The 
present ruinous cathedral 20 is thought to have stood on the site of a more 
ancient church. It was constructed, about the year 1245,3° and it is built in 

work, " Ad versus Paganos Historiarum 22 According to the " Chronicon Manniae," 

Libri VII.," lib. i., cap. 2. This work only St. Patrick was the first to preach the Catho- 

comes down to a.d. 316. Leyden, 1738 or lie Faith to the Maux. See Ussher's "Bri- 

1767, 4to. This writer flourished about the tannicarum Ecclesiarum Antiquitates," cap. 

beginning of the fifth century. See Michaud's xv., p. 335. 

" Biographie Universelle Ancienne et Mo- 23 See "The Beauties of England and 

derne," tome xxxi., p. 409. Wales ; or Delineations, Topographical, 

18 " The ancients were acquainted with it Historical and Descriptive," vol. iii. The 
under various names. Caesar distinguishes it Isle of Man, p. 269. 

by that of Mona ; Ptolemy calls it Monczda, 24 According to Gough's Camden's "Bri- 

or the more remote Mona, to distinguish it tannia," vol. iii., p. 701. 

from Anglesea, the Mona of Tacitus. Pliny 2 5 He ruled over the See of St. Peter, 

styles it Monabia; Orosius, Mevania; and from A.D. 828 to 844. See Sir Harris 

Nennius, Eubonia and Manaw. The appel- Nicolas' " Chronology of History," p. 209. 

lation given to it by the Britons was Menaw ; 26 See " Gazetteer of the World," vol. ix., 

the natives call it Manning." —" The Beau- p. 85. 

ties of England and Wales ; or Delineations, 27 Train's " History of the Isle of Man " is 

Topographical, Historical and Descriptive." a work of great research, in reference to the 

By John Britton and Edward Wedlake ecclesiastical antiquities of this Island. 

Brayley, vol. iii. The Isle of Man, p. 248. 28 The accompanying view is copied from 

19 See Ussher's " Britannicarum Ecclesia- an approved illustration, by William F. 
rum Antiquitates," cap. xv., p. 335. Wakeman, and drawn on the wood, en- 

20 Some of these are pleasingly introduced graved by Mrs. Millard. 

by the great master of historic romance, Sir 29 A south-east view of it with various 

Walter Scott, in his " Peveril of the Peak," other illustrations in detail, may be found, 

chap, xvi., with historic notes appended. in the "Archaeological Journal," vol, iii. See 

21 According to Jocelyn, the former name J. L. Petit's Ecclesiastical Antiquities of the 
of Man was Eubonia. Isle of Man, pp. 49 to 58. 



[July 3. 

the form of a cross, with a coarse grey stone j* 1 however, the angles, window- 
cases and arches are coigned, formed with a stone found in the neighbour- 
hood, and almost as red as brick. 3 2 A little to the west are the ruins of St. 
Patrick's church. This is of ancient style with round-arched windows. A small 
round tower — like the Irish or Brechin round towers — lies near it westwards. 
A flight of steps ascends to the door, and within it are stairs for ascending to 
the top of that building.33 Beside it are the ruins of a quadrangular church, 
having features in common with many of our old Irish churches. 34 

St. German's Cathedral, Isle of Man. 

St. Germanus is said to have laboured in the work of his ministry, until 
the time of his death, in the Isle of Man.35 On St. Patrick's return from 
Britain, he visited the islands, in order to gain them over to Christ. In par- 
ticular, he preached the Christian faith with great success in the Isle of Man. 3 6 
Nevertheless, it is thought, that he left mainly to Germanus the task of com- 
pleting his mission. The date for St. German's death has been assigned to 
a.d. 474.37 In the ancient Martyrologies, however, we are at a loss to dis- 
cover the name of this Germanus. On this day, July 3rd, his festivity is 
usually recorded. 3 8 St. Patrick consecrated two others of his disciples, St. 

30 See Grose's "Antiquities of England," 
toI. vi. 

dimensions are minutely given, in 
J. L. Petit's paper, already mentioned. 

32 A ground plan of the cathedral church 
of St. German in Peel Castle in the Isle of 
Man, as also an effective copperplate engrav- 
ing of that ruined fane, taken in 1775, may 
be found in " The Beauties of England and 
Wales ; or Delineations, Topographical, 
Historical and Descriptive," vol. ii., The 
Isle of Man, pp. 288, 289. 

33 See Gough's Camden's " Britannia," 
vol. iii., p. 703. 

34 A well-executed wood engraving of this 
ancient church and the round tower may be 

seen prefixed to the article, written by J. L. 
Petit for the " Archaeological Journal," enti- 
tled Ecclesiastical Antiquities of the Isle of 
Man, vol. iii., p. 49. 

35 Several beautiful illustrations of this 
Island may be found, in the Abbotsford edi- 
tion of Sir Walter Scott's Waverly Novels. 
See vol. vii., " Peveril of the Peak." 

36 This account is confirmed, by a Manu- 
script Chronicle of that Island. 

37 See Ussher's " Britannicarum Ecclesia- 
rum Antiquitates," Index Chronologicus, 

A.D. CCCCLXIV., p. 522. 

38 See Les Petits Bollandistes, " Les Vies 
des Saints," tome viii., iii c Jour de Juillet, 
p. 2. 


Conindrius 39 and St. Romulus 4 ° to be Bishops of Man, when our saint 
passed away to bliss. After their death these were succeeded by St. 
Maguil,* 1 Macaldus.4 2 After conversion, this latter prelate was eminent for 
his sanctity and for his miracles. These were the first fathers and founders 
of the church, which was established in the Isle of Man, by our great Apostle. 
In later times, and after the Reformation, while the Protestant Bishops of 
Sodor and Man «3 became suffragans to the Archbishop of York, the 
Catholics on the Island were subjects of the Catholic Archbishop of Dublin; 
in the present century, however, they have been annexed to the See of Liver- 
pool, England. 

Article II. — St. Guthagon, Confessor, in Belgium. [Probably in 
the Eighth Ctntury.'] Incidentally we are informed, that the Belgian 
Flemings were formerly accustomed to bestow the name of Scots on strangers 
to their own country, and who differed from the Belgians in manners and 
customs ; much after the habit of the Romans, who called all other extern 
people — except those living in Italy or Greece — by the depreciating title of 
barbari or "barbarians." Wherefore, an insinuation is conveyed, 1 that 
several of the Belgian saints called Scoti may have been strangers only, and 
not necessarily natives either of Ireland or Scotland. However, in the pre- 
sent case, no argument is sought to be drawn against the generally received 
statement, that Guthagon had been a native of Scotia ; whether of the greater 
or lesser Scotia has been controverted, but it is left to the decision of the 
investigator. The most ancient authority for St. Guthagon's Acts — briefly as 
they are recorded — seems to have been an old office, belonging to the church 
at Oostkerke, near Bruges, in Belgium. From it, Jean Ver-Meulen, 2 better 
known by the Latinized form of Molanus, probably copied that relation of 
the present saint in his Indiculus of the holy persons connected with the 
Netherlands. Notices of St. Guthagon are to be found, likewise, in the 
" Natales Sanctorum Belgii et eorum Chronologica Recapitulatio," at the 3rd 
of July. 3 Jean Cousin, also denominated Canonicus Joannes Cognatus, has 
copied from him/ what had been related about the present holy man. The 
Bollandists s have some particulars regarding this saint, and prefixed in a 
commentary 6 of ten paragraphs, to an office read in the church at Oostkerk. 
There are notices of him, at the 3rd of July, by Bishop Challenor.? At this 
date, also, he is commemorated as a recluse, by the Rev. Alban Butler. 8 He 

39 According to Colgan, he is more cor- 2 He was born at Lille, A.D. 1553, and 
rectly to be named Condirius, who is vene- being distinguished as a learned theologian 
rated in our Irish Calendars, at the 17th of and ecclesiastical historian in the University 
November. See "Trias Thaumaturga," of Louvain, he died prematurely, on the 1 8th 
Quarta Vita S. Patricii, nn. 63, 64, p. 50. of September, 1585. See an account ofhim 

40 Colgan states, that he had another name, and of his works in Michaud's " Biographie 
Romanus, and that his feast is to be found, Universelle, Ancienne et Moderne," tome 
at the 1 8th of November. See ibid. xxviii., pp. 516, 517. 

41 His feast has been assigned to April 3 In two paragraphs, pp. 139, 140. 

25th. At that date, his Acts are to be found 4 See " Historia Tornacensis, tomus iii., 

in the fourth Volume of this work, Art. i. p. 272. 

42 See Colgan's "Trias Thaumaturga," 5 See " Acta Sanctorum," tomus i., Julii 
Jocelyn's " Sexta Vita S. Patricii," cap. cli., iii. De S. Guthagono Confessore Oostkerae 
clii., pp. 98, 99. apud Brugas in Flandria, pp. 668 to 670. 

43 The Protestant bishop of Sodor and 6 Written by Father John Baptist 
Man is the sole baron of the Island. See Soller, S.J. 

" The Popular Encyclopedia ; or Conversa- 7 See " Britannia Sancta," part ii., p. 8. 

tions Lexicon," vol. iv., p. 655. 8 In his "Lives of the Fathers, Martyrs, 

Article II. — I By Father John Baptist and other principal Saints," vol. vii., 

Soller, S.J, July iii. 


is noticed, likewise, in Les Petits Bollandistes,? at the 3rd of July. This 
saint, according to the Belgian traditions, was either a king, 10 or son to a King 
of Scotia. As usual, the Scottish writers contend, that he was their country- 
man; 11 but, the Irish seem to have stronger claims for the honour of his 
nativity in their country. He is thought to have flourished during the eighth 
century. Some will have it, that he journeyed to Rome ; yet, although such 
pilgrimages to the shrines of the Apostles and martyrs there were undertaken 
by the Irish, Scots and Angles, soon after their conversion to Christianity, 
there does not appear to have been sufficient warrant for that statement in 
reference to St. Guthagon. Through religious motives, however, he entered 
on a pilgrimage, and with a companion, named Gillon. They arrived in Bel- 
gium, but at what period is not with certainty known. They rested at a place 
known as Knocken or Cnokem, which was situated on the maritime shore of 
Flanders. Nor was it far removed from Oostkerke. This village lay near 
Burges, on the sea side, between it and Slusa." There the virtuous life of St. 
Guthegon gave very great edification to the people of that country. Another 
companion, Gildulfus, is commemorated with the foregoing, and he spent an 
eremitical life with them, in Belgium.^ Here, St. Guthagon led a solitary life, «4 
until the time of his death. It is not known for certain, whether he died at 
Cnokem or at Oostkerke. However, the clergy and people of that district 
reverently interred his body, according to tradition in the western part of the 
cemetery of Oostkerke. Those holy men, Saints Guthagon and Gillon, rest at 
Oist-Kerke, in Flanders. After St. Guthagon's death, miracles were wrought 
at his grave. Gerald, Bishop of Tournay, in the year n 59, exhumed St. 
Guthagon's body and placed it in a feretrum. The Abbots of Aldenburg, 
Dunens and of Quercetan were present. 15 It would seem, that at a subsequent 
period, towards the end of a.d. 1444, there was another translation of St. 
Guthagon's remains. In the succeeding century, Jean Ver-Meulen relates, 
that he saw these relics kept within iron gratings in the wall of the church. 
It has been remarked in our saint's office, that the shrine was hardly kept in 
a becoming manner. The Calvinists profaned the relics of St. Guthagon 
after the Reformation, 16 and they seem to have utterly destroyed them; 
nothing having remained but a tooth of the holy man, which had been trans- 
ferred to the collegiate church of St. Saviour, at Bruges. On the case con- 
taining it had been inscribed these words : " Dens S. Guthagonis." In the 
beginning of the last century, the tooth of St. Guthagon was kept in the 
church at Oostkerke, and on the 3rd day of eacli July, it was there exposed 

9 See "Vies des Saints," tome viii., Oostkerke stated to Father Soller, that this 
iii e Jour de Juillet, p. I. village was situated " in agio Franconatensi 

10 In the ancient Office of St. Guthagon, he inter Brugas et Slusam, distans ab Utraque 
is called King of Scotia, as also by other sesquimilliari." Before his time it was a 
writers. much more important place, while it had two 

" Thus, at the 3rd of July, in Adam pastors and llnee assistants, with five thou- 

King's "Kalendar," he is placed in the first sand communicants, lie adds, moreover, 

century, and in the following words : " S. that he knew three villages bearing the same 

Guthagon sone to ye King of Scotland con- name in Belgium, "nempe apud Brugas, 

fess. banished for ye catholik faith in flan- apud Furnas, et in Brabantia apud Tu- 

ders vnder diocletiane, 99." — Bishop Forbes' bise." 

" Kalendars of Scottish Saints," p. 156. I3 See Father Stephen White's " Apologia the same date, in Thomas Dempster's pro Hibernia," cap. iv., p. 42. 
" Menologium Scoticum " are these words : ' 4 See " Circle of the Seasons/' p. 185. 

" Oostkerkae Guthagoni confessoris, regis ' 5 See Mirseus* " Fasti Belgici et Burgun- 

filii, qui divino amore tactus, regnum terre- dici," p. 364. 

num sprevit, ut cceleste obtineret B.K. ML." l6 See Bishop Challenor's "Britannia 

— Ibid., p. 204. Sancta," part ii., p. 8. 

" A learned nobleman and toparch of t? Printed a.d. 1509. 


for the veneration of the faithful. Formerly, his feast was kept there with 
great solemnity, and on it there was an obligation for hearing Mass. This, 
however, had been abrogated, yet a proper office for a Confessor not a Pontiff 
had been recited, and he was invoked as a minor patron of that place. The 
feast of this saint is set down at the 3rd of July, in the enlarged edition of 
Usuard's Marty rology; also, in a Manuscript Catalogue of the Saints of Scot- 
land ; as likewise, in the Breviary of Aberdeen. x ? John Wilson, in his 
" Martyrologium Anglicanum," sets him down as an Irishman, at this day. 
The name of Guthagon occurs, at this date, in the anonymous Catalogue, 
published by O'Sullevan Beare, as Guthagonius. Molanus and Henry Fitz- 
simon set him down, as Guthagonus, Rex et Confessor, at the 3rd July. 18 
Again, a feast has been assigned to him, at the 1st of October. This appears 
as having reference to the Translation of his Relics. 

Article III. — St. Cilline or Cillen, Droicteach, Abbot of Iona, 
Scotland. {Eighth Century.'] Among a long line of illustrious abbots who 
presided over Iona, the present holy man is classed. In the Martyrology of 
Tallagh, 1 at the 3rd of July, the simply entry of Cilline, Abb. Iae, occurs. He 
is noted in the Martyrology of Marianus O'Gorman, at the 3rd of July. 2 At 
this date, the Bollandistss have noticed him, also, on the foregoing authority 
and on that of Sirinus. Some notices of him occur, in the work of Bishop 
Forbes/ This distinguished saint derived his origin from the race of Conall 
Cremthainne, son to Niall of the Nine Hostages, of the southern Hy-Neill. 
This saint's pedigree is thus given in the Naemhsenchas. His father's name 
was Dicolla, son of Cilline, son to Amalgadh, son of Feradhaigh, son to Feic,* 
son of Cerbaill, who was son to the aforesaid Conall Cremthainne. 6 He was 
born in Ireland, probably towards the close of the seventh century. The 
epithet, suffixed to his original name Cilline, and which was Droicteach, sig- 
nifying "Bridge-maker," has reference apparently to work of that kind on which 
he had been engaged, previous to his leaving Ireland for Scotland. It is 
likely, that he felt a religious inspiration to join the Columban institute in 
Iona, and there, too, it would seem, that he chose to live as an ancho- 
rite,? according to the custom of those monks, who desired to observe a very 
strict discipline. His virtues were so highly esteemed by that community, 
after the death of St. Cilline Fada, or the Tall Abbot of Iona, whick took 
place, a.d. 726, Cilline Droicteach was selected as his immediate successor. 8 
Meanwhile, Feidhlimid or Failbhe seems to have been elected Abbot of Iona 
in the year 722, nor do we find that he ceased to enjoy that title, during the 
administration of Faelcu,9 of Cillene Fada, 10 and of Cilline Droicteach, until 
he departed this life at the very advanced age of eighty-seven years, com- 

18 See O'Sullevan Beare's "Historia baill, King of Ireland, who reigned 21 years, 

Catholica Iberniae Compendium," tomus i., and who died a.d. 565. 

lib. iv., cap. xi., xii., pp. 50, 54. 6 According to the Leabhar Lecain, in the 

Article hi. — * Edited by Rev. Dr. Royal Irish Academy. 

Kelly, p. xxviii. ^ In the Annals of Tighernach and of 

2 Thus : " Kellenus cognomento Droich- Ulster, he is only styled ancorita. 

theach, virgo, miles egregius." 8 In a gloss on his name, in the Calendar 

3 See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus i., of Marianus O'Gorman, he is expressly 
Julii iii. Among the pretermitted saints, styled -Abb 1^e ColAim cible. 

p. 631. 9 See an account of him, in the Fourth 

4 See " Kalendars of Scottish Saints," Volume of this work, at April 3rd, Art. iv. 
p. 301. I0 For a notice of him, see ibid., at April 

5 He was brother to Diannait Mac Cer- 14th, Art. iii. 


pleted in 759, and during the administratorship of Slebhine. Whether 
Feidhlimid or Failbhe " had been the principal or only a coadjutor Abbot 
over Iona cannot be gleaned with any degree of distinctness from the Irish 
Annals. 12 It is thought, that owing to the circumstance of Cilline Droicteach 
having chosen the rigid rule of an anchorite's state, the active duties of his 
presidency, over the monastic institute of Iona, had been in a great measure 
discharged by his coadjutor, Fedhlimid. He continued alive, during the pre- 
sidency of Cilline Droicteach. The present hoiy man brought to Erin that 
shrine of the many relics,^ which Adamnan had collected, to make peace 
and friendship between the Cinel-Conaill and the Cinel-Eoghain. This 
appears to have occurred in the year 727. The Relics collected by Adamnan 
were returned to Iona in 730. The present saint, called Cilleine Droctigh, 
anchorite of la, died on the 3rd of July, a.d. 747. I4 Other accounts have 
a.d. 751 J s and 752. l6 He is reputed to have been the fourteenth abbot of 
Iona, commencing with the great founder, St. Columkille. 1 ? We have him 
recorded, in the Martyrology of Donegal, 18 at this same date, as Cillen 
Droichtech, Abbot of la Colum Cille. 

Article IV. — St. Tirechan, Bishop. {Seventh Century^ It is much 
to be regretted, that we know very little relating to the personal history of the 
present distinguished bishop, so much regarded in his day, and who was 
remarkable, doubtless, for his holiness of life, as for his proficiency in learn- 
ing. Being one of St. Patrick's early biographers should alone give him a 
special claim on our veneration. Marianus O'Gorman has an entry of Tire- 
chan, at the 3rd of July, in his Calendar. It may be supposed, that Tirechan 
had been a native of Cashel or of its vicinity, if he is to be confounded with a 
Tirechan who had gone to Rome, and who at the entreaty of his mother was 
recalled, at a time when St. Fechin, Abbot of Fore, had visited that city, over 
which Moenach then ruled. 1 Tirechan tells us himself, 2 that he was the dis- 
ciple of St. Ultan, who wrote the Acts of St. Patrick. He was bishop of Ard- 
brecain, and he died a.d. 665.3 In the Book of Armagh are found Latin 
annotations on the Life of St. Patrick by Tirechan, 4 and which throw some 
light on the source whence his narrative had been drawn. 5 Like his master 

" He seems to have been elected, when l6 According to the Annals of Tiger- 

nbout fifty years old, and it may be, that in- nach. 

firmity or necessity obliged him to have an '? See Rev. William Reeves' Adamnan's 

assistant. " Life of St. Columba," Additional Notes O, 

12 See Rev. Dr. Reeves' Adamnan's "Life pp. 382 to 385. 

ofSt. Columba," Additional Notes O, pp. l8 Edited by Drs. Todd and Reeves, pp. 

38210386. 184, 185. 

13 This is the beginning of a poem which Article IV. — ' See Colgan's " Acta 
Adamnan composed, on placing the bag, Sanctorum Hibernise," xx. Januarii, Vita 
containing those reliquaries, on the back of Secunda S. Fechini, cap. xiv., pp. 134, 
Cillen : — 135. 

2 See Very Rev. James Henthorn Todd's 

" O youth, illustrious is " St. Patrick, Apostle of Ireland," chap, iii., 

The bag which thou takest on thy p. 444. 

back," &c. 3 iJis feast occurs, at the 4th of Septem- 

M See Colgan's "Trias Thaumaturga," 4 See Professor Eugene O'Curry's " Lec- 

Quinta Appendix ad Acta S. Columlxe, tines on the Manuscript Materials of 

cap. ii., sect, v., p. 502. Ancient Irish History," Lect. xvi., p. 347. 

15 The " Annals of Ulster " have dated it, 5 Atfol. ga, we find there the following 

at this year. passage : " Tirechan Episcopus hec scripsit 

July 3.] 



Ultan, this saint wrote the Acts of St. Patrick, in two books. 6 We are informed 
in these, that he was a disciple of that holy Bishop, from whose lips or from 
whose book, he had composed his own work. He also tells us in it, that he 
was himself a bishop, but he does not state where his See had been. A copy 
of this Life of St. Patrick by Tirechan is extant in the Leabhar Arda Macha, 
or the Book of Armagh. 7 This is quoted by Dr. Jeoffry Keating. 8 It has 
lately engaged the attention of an able and a learned editor,9 so that the read- 
ing public shall soon have an opportunity of becoming acquainted with its 
contents. 10 These Acts were in possession of the learned Archbishop Ussher, 
who frequently quotes from them, in his valuable historic work, " De Primor- 
diis Ecclesiarum Britannicarum." 11 Extracts from them have also been 
reproduced, by the learned hagiologist, Father John Colgan. 12 This interest- 
ing ancient memoir by Tirechan throws very considerable light on the early 
ecclesiastical history of Ireland, as also on the biography of the Irish Apostle. -3 
According to the chronology of Tirechan, 1 * he places the death of St. Patrick, 
at a.d. 436 from the Passion, or a.d. 469 from the Nativity of Christ. He 
states, likewise, that King Loiguire reigned two or five years after the Irish 
Apostle's decease; while he supposes the total duration of that reign, to have 
been thirty-six years. 15 A conjecture has been offered, 16 that the present holy 
man complied with a request made by St. Fechin, J 7 Abbot of Fore, to visit 
his mother. This seems to come within the range of possibility. The times 
agree very well. Thus, Ultan died a.d. 655, and he was contemporary with 
St. Fechin, who departed this life, on the 20th of January, a.d. 664. 18 The 
present saint was a bishop, and he is said to have ruled 10 over the church of 
Ardbrecain. He is thought to have flourished, about the middle of the 
seventh century. 20 On the 3rd of July, in the Martyrology of Donegal, 21 
appears within brackets the name of Tirechan. 32 

ex ore vel libro Ultani episcopi, cujus ipse 
alumpnus vel discipulus fait." — Ibid., Ap- 
pendix, No. cvi., pp. 607, 608. 

6 See Sir James Ware, " De Scriptoribus 
Hibernise," lib. i., cap. iii., p. 23. 

7 This is generally believed to be as old as 
807 ; but, Eugene O'Curry deems it to be 
older than the year 727. See " Lectures on 
the Manuscript Materials of Ancient Irish 
History," Lect. xvi., p. 343. 

8 In his " General History of Ireland." 

9 The Rev. Father Edmund Hogan, S.J. 
See " Vita Sancti Patricii Hibernorum 
Apostoli, Auctore Muirchu Maccumachteni 
et Tirechani Collectanea de S. Patricio." 
The portion already published has appeared, 
in the " Analecta Bollandiana," tomus i., 
Fasc. iv. Edited by Fathers Carolus de 
Smedt, Gulielmus Van Hooff and Josephus 
de Backer. Paris and Bruxelles, 1882, 
royal 8vo. 

10 This is the more to be desired, as Sir 
William Betham has very inaccurately 
printed the Book of Armagh, in his " Irish 
Antiquarian Researches," part ii. Dublin, 
1827, 8vo. It is so full of errors as to be 
quite useless. See Rev. Dr. Todd's "St. 
Patrick, Apostle of Ireland," p. 150, n. I. 
Also William F. Skene's " Celtic Scot- 
land," vol. ii., p. 14, n. 22. 

11 See cap. xvii., pp. 829, 835, 848, 853, 
887, 899. Dublin edition, A.D. 1639, 4to. 

12 See " Trias Thaumaturga," Appendix 
Secundaad Acta S. Patricii, pp. 196, 197. 

13 Thus he states : " Inverii quatuor no- 
mina in libro scripta Patricio apud Ultanum 
episcopum Conchuburnensium, Sanctus Ma- 
gonus qui est clarus, succetus qui est [deus 
belli], Patricius, Cothirthiacus quia servivit 
iiii domibus magorum, et empsit ilium unus 
ex eis cui nomen erat Miliuc Maccuboin 

14 In the Book of Armagh, fol. 9 a, b. 

15 See Very Rev. Dr. James Henthorn 
Todd's "St. Patrick, Apostle of Ireland," 
chap, ii., p. 395. 

16 By Colgan. 

17 See his Life in the First Volume of 
this work, at January 20th, Art. ii. 

18 See Dr. O'Donovan's " Annals of the 
Four Masters," vol. i., pp. 276, 277. 

19 As supposed by Colgan. 

20 See Colgan's "Trias Thaumaturga," 
Quarta Appendix ad Acta S. Patricii, pars, 
iii., pp. 217, 218. 

21 Edited by Drs. Todd and Reeves, pp. 
186, 187. 

22 A note by Dr. Todd says* at this inser- 
tion of the name, Tirechan : " Added by the 
more recent hand." 


Article V. — St. Dartinne or Tartinna, of Druimard, or of 
Cill-aird, in Ui-Garrchon, County of Wicklow. We read in the 
published Martyrology of Tallagh, 1 that a festival was celebrated at the 3rd 
of July, in honour of Dartinne, Virgin. To her is probably applied the 
following comment, which closely follows : " inghen Guaire, *'.<?., Cille aird in 
h Ercain." In the M Feilire" 2 of St. ^Engus, there is a commemoration of 
Dartinne's excellent feast, at the 3rd of July. In a gloss, 3 she is said to have 
been a virgin, and to have been of Cill Airnd in Ui-Garrchon in Leinster. 
From this we are to infer, that she was the daughter of Guaire — whoever he 
was — and that the place she occupied was named Cill Aird, meaning the 
* church on the height," in the territory of Ui Ercon, otherwise Ui Garchon.* 
This territory was situated along the eastern sea-shore,s in the centre of the 
present county of Wicklow, and it seems to have extended over the moun- 
tains towards the western boundary. Within it rises Sliabh Gadoe, also called 
Church Mountain, owing to the fact that the ruined walls of an oblong church, 
on the northern and widest part of the area, are there to be found. The 
greatest length of this building was thirty-six feet. This appears to have been 
surrounded by a rude stone enclosure, approaching to an oval form, the 
extreme length being 117 feet, and the width 101. 6 In the most elevated 
part, the breast-work was twelve feet in height, and within it is a holy well, 
still frequented by pilgrims.? The foregoing conclusion as to locality is fairly 
warranted from the statement, that St. Patrick when he left Naas went into 
Hy-Garchon, and soon afterwards he passed from it to the plain of the Liffey. 8 
Here too has been placed 9 one of the Palladian churches at Donard, variously 
called Domnach Arda, Domnach Ardec, and Domnach Airte, or " the Church 
of the High Place," as also Domnach Ardacha, " the Church of the High 
Field." 10 This is now the village of Donard, 11 in the barony of Lower Talbots- 
town." On this site and in the immediate neighbourhood, there are several 
vestiges'pf pagan and of Christian habitations. Here, it is probable, the church 
known as Cill-Aird was located, and it may be regarded as identical with that 
very ancient and curious old ruin, which has so remarkable an elevation on 
the top of Sliebh Gadoe, x 3 otherwise called Church Mountain, near Donard. 

Article v. — * Edited by Rev. Dr. 6 A view and plan of this ancient work 

Kelly, p. xxviii. may be found in Gough's Camden's ** Bri- 

a In the "Leabhar Breac" copy the fol- tannia," vol. iii. 
lowing stanza, translated by Dr. Whitley 7 See J. N. Brewer's "Beauties of Ire- 
Stokes, occurs : — land," vol. i., County of Wicklow, p. 339. 

8 See Colgan's "Trias Thaumaturga," 

rrUpcpA Cirtiomf Septima Vita S. Patricii, lib. iii., cap. xvii., 

Crvifc rnhAc&ch mbitbe xviii., p. 152. 

Camnbpech Comaif Ailbe ' By Rev. John Francis Shearman. See 

£eil T)i5|\Aif "Oarvcinrie. " Loca Patriciana," No. iii., p. 28. 

10 See Very Rev. James Henthorn Todd's 

" Cyrion's martyrdom, no paltry prayer to "St. Patrick, Apostle of Ireland," chap, i., 

Christ : Thomas' translation hear thou : p. 295, n. 3. 

Dairtinne's excellent feast." — "Transactions " This town and townland, in the parish 

of the Royal Irish Academy," Irish Manu- so named, are described on the "Ordnance 

script Series, vol. i., parti. On the Calen- Survey Townland Maps for the County of 

dar of Oengus, p. cix. Wicklow," sheets 15, 21. 

3 See ibid., p. cxv. " See an account of this place in the 

4 This name it seems to have taken from "Parliamentary Gazetteer of Ireland, "vol. ii., 
Garchon, who was father to its ruler Nathi, pp. 32, 33. 

who lived in the time of St. Palladius and I3 For an account of this place, the reader 

of St. Patrick. is referred to Leitch RitcluVs " Ireland, Pic- 

s See Colgan's "Trias Thaumaturga," turesque and Romantic," chap, xiv., pp. 

Secunda Vita S. Patricii, cap. xxiv., xxv„ 259, 260. 
p, 13, and nn. 33, 34, 35, p. 18. ** See the account of Mr. Beauford, in 


A curious local tradition prevailed, 1 * that the pile of stones collected on Slieve 
Gadoe in the twelfth century had been designed to build a church, and also 
to pave a way over this mountain from old Kilcullen in the county of Kil- 
dare, to Glendalough in the county of Wicklow; part of this road, having been 
executed from Glendalough to Glendassan for some miles along the valley, 
still remains perfect ; however, for some reason, the work was discontinued, 
while to this day, the materials for the church remain in their pristine state. 
The district of Hy Garchon is said to have been in the territory of Forthuatha, 
which it is supposed was another name for Ui Mail, in the barony of Upper 
Talbotstown, and county of Wicklow. 1 * In the Martyrology of Donegal, 16 
at this same date, her name is entered, Tartinna, of Cill aird, in Ui Garrchon, 
in Leinster. 1 ? 

Article VI. — St. Maelmuire or Marianus Ua Gormain, better 
known as Marianus O'Gorman, the Irish Martyrologist, Abbot of 
Knock, near Lughmhagh, now Louth, County of Louth. [Twelfth 
Century.'] It is greatly to be regretted, while the present learned and 
holy man has conferred lasting and deserved fame on those who preceded 
him, that posterity should have known so little regarding his own personal 
history. In the Irish language, the name conferred upon him was Maelmuire, 
which in English may be rendered " the servant of Mary." By Sir James 
Ware, 1 he is called Murrius O'Gorman. Where he was born or where he had 
been educated is involved in mystery ; yet, it seems probable enough, that 
he had become a religious in the monastic establishment, which had flourished 
at Lughmagh, from the times of St. Patrick 2 and St. Mochta.3 The latter is 
regarded as the special patron of Louth. Marianus O'Gorman was doubtless 
greatly distinguished among his contemporaries, and he is said to have been 
Abbot of Knock, or Cnoc-na-Sengan,* near Louth. It is now called Knock 
Abbey, and the old Irish-speaking people termed it Teampull a Cnuic ; while 
unbaptized children had been buried on this hill, even when under cultiva- 
tion. This place — formerly called Lughmadh and Lughbadh — is now known 
as Louth, in the county of Louth. Knock na Seangan is said to have been 
endowed and founded for Augustinian Canons,* by Donough O'Carroll, 
Prince of Oriel, and by Edan O'Kelly or O'Killedy, Bishop of Clogher. 6 A 
small fragment of the walls remained in 1836.7 Louth still exhibits various 
ancient remains \ and among these are curiously fortified mounds, which are 
so frequently met with, especially in that part of Ireland. The Fairy Mount 8 
and the Mount of Castle Ring are specimens of this class. They were conical in 
shape, and had concentric circumvallations, evidently intended for defensive 

Gough's Camden's " Britannia," vol. iii. 4 It is said to bear the English signification 

'5 See Dr. O'Donovan's " Leabhar na g "Pismires' Hill," and even it has been so 

Ceart, or Book of Rights," n. (d), p. 207. called by the neighbouring people. 

16 Edited by Drs. Todd and Reeves, pp. 5 See Sir James Ware, "De Hibernia et 

186, 187. Antiquitatibus ejus," cap. xxvi. 

J 7 See, also, Colgan's " Acta Sanctorum 6 See Colgan's "Trias Thaumaturga," 

Hibernke," xxviii. Februarii. Vita S. Aidi p. 305. 

Epis. et Confessoris, n. 15, p. 422. 7 See "Letters containing Information re- 

Article vi. — " See " De Scriptoribus lative to the Antiquities of County of Louth, 

Hibernke," lib. i., cap. viii., p. 56. collected during the Progress of the Ord- 

a See the Life of St. Patrick, in the Third nance Survey in 1835, 1836." Letter of 

Volume of this work, at the 17th of March, Patrick O'Keefe, dated Louth, February 

Art. i. 7th, 1836, pp. 232, 233. 

3 His festival occurs, on the 19th of 8 The accompanying illustration, drawn 

August. on the wood by William F. Wakeman, has 

4 8 


[July 3. 

purposes.9 According to our native records, here stood a religious establish- 
ment, from a remote period, and its superiors are sometimes known as 
comorbans of St. Patrick or of St. Mochta. 10 About the year 1167, we are 
informed, that Marianus O'Gorman wrote a Martyrology, in most elegant 
Irish verse, during the time of Gelasius, Archbishop of Armagh. Sir James 
Ware" states, that the Martyrology of O'Gorman was published in 1171. 
However, it must have appeared later, since we find in it the name of St. 

The Fairy Mount, at Louth. 

Gilda-Machaibeo, who died a.d. i i 74." Marianus speaks of him as a tower 
of piety and of meekness, an ark of wisdom and of science, 1 ^ with similar 
eulogistic epithets. He extracted a great part of his own Calendar from the 
Martyrology of Tallagh, usually called that of ^Engus; 1 ^ however, his own is not 
to be regarded, as a mere supplement to that Calendar.^ Marianus O'Gorman 
does not confine himself to the principal saints of Ireland alone ; but, he takes 
in promiscuously those of other countries. This Martyrology existed in the 
time of Colgan, and it was held in universal esteem, owing to the great 
beauty of its style and the fidelity of its performance. 16 The text of this 
Martyrology is yet preserved, at Bruxelles ; x ? but, it is to be regretted, that 

been engraved by Mrs. Millard. 

» In Thomas Wright's u Louthiana," 
book i., plates xii., xiii., the elevations and 
ground-plan of those objects mentioned in 
the text may be seen, as they existed in 1758. 

10 In our Irish Annals. 

" See "De Scriptoribus Hibernise," 
lib. i., cap. viii., p. 56. 

12 See Rev. Dr. Lanigan's " Ecclesiastics i 
History of Ireland," vol. iv., chap, xxx., 
sect, ii., p. 251, n. 12, p. 252, ibid. 

13 See ibid., chap, xxix., sect, vi., p. 220, 
and n. 48, p. 222. 

14 This is to be collected from the state- 
ment of an old scholiast, in a preface to the 

Martyrology itself. See Colgan's "Acta 
Sanctorum Hibernicc," i. Januarii, Vita S. 
Fanchete, sect, iv., p. 5. 

15 See Harris' Ware, vol. ii., " Writers of 
Ireland," booki., chap, ix., p. 71. 

16 See Colgan's "Acta Sanctorum Hiber- 
nise," i. Januarii. Vita S. Fanchea?, sect, iv., 

P- 5- 

17 In the Burgundian Library. Formerly 
this copy belonged to the Franciscans. 

18 See " Recherches sur les Calend tiers 
Ecclesiastiques," par le R. P. Victor de 
Buck, S.J., sect, viii., p. 19. This posthu- 
mous publication appeared at Bruxelles, 
1877, 8>o. 


as yet, this valuable national and ecclesiastic;)] record has not been pub- 
lished. 18 Our annalists trace a long line of bishops, abbots or priors, in 
connexion with Louth, down to the sixteenth century, when its possessions 
were sequestrated. T 9 In the year of Christ, 1181, the death of Mulmurry 
O'Dunan, Abbot of Cnoc-na-Seangan (Louth) died. 20 This Abbot is thought 
to have been identical with the celebrated Marianus O'Gorman ; because, as 
Colgan states, it should appear from a prologue prefixed to his Martyrology, 
that Marianus was superior over this establishment in the year 1172. 21 
Although it seems not an easy matter to reconcile the apparent difference of 
names ; yet, Dr. Lanigan deems Colgan's conjecture most probable. Accord- 
ing to the Martyrology of Donegal, 22 veneration was given, on the 3rd of 
July, to Maelmuire 3 3 Ua Gormain, Abbot of Lughmhagh. 

Article VII. — St. Ultan. We meet with the simple entry Ultan, in 
the Martyrologies of Tallagh ' and of. Donegal, 2 at the 3rd of July. The 
Bollandists, 3 on the authority of Sirinus, notice Ultanus, on this day. 

Article VIII. — Reputed Feast of St. Kenuinus, Abbot, in Ireland. 
On the authority of Ferrarius, 1 who cites the Martyrology of Petrus Canisius 
at this date, the Bollandists 2 enter " Kenuinus abbas in Hibernia," but they 
point out, that Ferrarius has incorrectly entered both at the 3rd of June and 
at the 3rd of July the feast of a saint, who was no other than Kewinus or 
Keivinus, otherwise Coemginus, Abbot of Glendalough. His festival belongs 
only to the 3rd of June. 3 

Article IX. — St. Colman. A St. Colman receives insertion, at the 3rd 
of July, in the published Martyrology of Tallagh. 1 

Article X. — Reputed Festival of St. Rumold, Martyr, and 
Patron of Mechlin, Belgium. The Bollandists 1 remark, that some 
Kalendars — of little authority however — place a festival for St. Rumold, 
Bishop and Martyr, at the 3rd of July. Yet, in Ireland, it is the date fixed 
for his Office, as a Duplex Majus. His Life will be found in the present 
volume, at the 1st of July, the chief festival for this saint. 

Article XL — St. Breacnat, Virgin. It is mentioned in the Martyrology 
of Donegal, 1 that veneration was given at the 3rd of July to Breacnat, a 

** See Archdall's " Monasticon Hiberni- 186, 187. 
cum," pp. 469 to 479. 3 See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus i., Julii 

20 See Dr. O'Donovan's " Annals of the iii. Among the pretermitted feasts, p. 629. 
Four Masters," vol. iii., pp. 56, 57. Article viii. — * In his " Catalogus 

31 See " Acta Sanctorum Hibernise," xxiv. Generalis Sanctorum," 
Martii, Appendix ad Vitam S. Mochtei, 2 See " Acta Sanctorum," tomus i., Julii 

cap. v., p. 737. iii. Among the pretermitted feasts, p. 629. 

21 Edited by Drs. Todd and Reeves, pp. 3 His Life will be found, in the Sixth Vo- 
l86, 187. lume of this work, at that date, Art. i. 

23 In a note, Dr. Todd says at Maelmuire : Article ix. — ' Edked by the Rev. Dr. 

" This is the author of the Martyrology, Kelly, p. xxviii. 

commonly called Marianus, which is the Article x. — * See "Acta Sanctorum," 

Latinized form of his name." tomus i., Julii iii. Among the preter- 

Article vii.— x Edited by Rev. Dr. mitted feasts, p. 630. 

Kelly, p. xxviii. Article xi. — J Edited by Drs. Todd 

* Edited by Drs. Todd and Reeves, pp. and Reeves, pp. 186, 187. 



virgin. The Bollandists a note this entry, likewise, but through a typogra- 
phical error, they write "Breenada virgine victoriosa," at this same date. 

Article XII. — Feast of St. Thomas' Translation. In the early 
Irish Church, there was a festival at the 3rd of July, to commemorate the 
Translation of St. Thomas' Relics, as we learn from the "Feilire" of St. 
-^Engus. 1 A note is appended, 2 which informs us, that they had been brought 
from the east, or from India to Arabia or to Edessa, a town in Syria. This is 
the Apostle St. Thomas — whose chief feast occurs on the 21st of December 
— but who is commemorated in the Coptic and Chaldaic Kalendars, on the 
3id of July, as the Bollandists 3 observe. 

Article XIII. — Festival of St. Cyrion, Martyr at Alexandria. 
At the 3rd of July, in the early Irish Church, the festival of St. Cyrion was 
celebrated, as we find from the " Feilire " of St. ^Engus. 1 A note in Latin is 
appended, in the " Leabhar Breac " copy. 2 He was one of a company of holy 
Martyrs at Alexandria, as the Bollandists 3 notice them, at the present date. 

jfourti) jaap of 3ulp* 


WE cannot speak with much confidence regarding the present holy man's 
history, although his place has been identified. The name Bolcan, 
of Cill Cuile, is inserted in the Martyrology of Tallagh, 1 as having been vene- 
rated, at the 4th of July. It appears, that his name and festival are to be 
found in the Martyrologies of Marianus O'Gorman and of Charles Maguire. 2 
Indifferently he has been called Olcan, as well as Bolcan, by some writers ; 
and Colgan has thus confounded those names. He seems to have been 
referred to the times of St. Patrick, whose disciple he is said to have been. 

9 See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus i., "Thus: " cirionis .1. circionis .i. per con- 

Julii iii. Among the pretermitted saints, cisionem."— Ibid., p. cxv. 

p. 631. 3 s ee "Acta Sanctorum," tomus i., Julii 

Article xii. — x See "Transactions of iii. De Sanctis Martyribus Alexandrinis 

the Royal Irish Academy," Irish Manuscript Tryphone, Menelao, Cyrione, Euloyio, 

Series, vol. i., part i. On the Calendar Porphoreo, Aprico, Chusto, Juliano, Eradio, 

of Oengus. By Whitley Stokes, LL.D., item Tryphone, Oreste. Addi possunt 

p. cix. Cyrillus, Emerion, alter Cyrion et Julius. 

■ See ibid., p. cxv. Notitia ex Martyrologio Hieronymiano, p. 

3 See " Acta Sanctorum," tomus i., Julii 636. 

iii. Among the pretermitted saints, p. 632. Article I.— ■ Edited by Rev. Dr. 

Article XIII.— * See "Transactions of Kelly, p. xxviii. 

the Royal Irish Academy," Irish Manu- * The Bollandists quote Father Thomas 

script Series, vol. i., part i. On the Calen- O'Sheerin's Manuscripts of the Irish Saints 

dar of Oengus. By Whitley Stokes, LL.D., for this statement in the text. See "Acta 

p. cix. Sanctorum," tomus ii. Among the preter- 


It was Colgan's intention to have treated about St. Olcan, at the 4th of July.3 
This is expressed, also, in his published work.* The Bollandistss have a 
notice of him, at this date, but with many of the doubts expressed, and which 
intrinsically arise from the difficulty of distinguishing this individual saint. 
He is known by the name Olcan of Kilmormoyle, alias Kilmoremoy or Kil- 
more, near the Moy. He is said to have been connected with the church of 
Kilchule, in the territory of Siolmuiredhuigh. 6 This was a parish church, in 
the diocese of Elphin.? We are told, the present holy man was a disciple of 
St. Patrick, and that he was probably the Oltcanus of Tirechan's list. He was 
only a priest. 8 But another account is given, about his having been that Olcan 
mentioned in the Tripartite Life of St. Patrick.9 The holy Apostle had a 
disciple Olcan, about whom he had a vision, while that disciple was walking 
along Traighe-eothuile, with Bronius and Macerca, 10 the sea-tides and tempest 
exposing them to great danger. From the Tripartite Life of St. Patrick we 
learn, that the spot, where St. Olcan received his Divine monition to estab- 
lish a monastery, was called Killmor uachtair Mhuaidhe. This event 
happened, while the Irish Apostle had been engaged making his progress 
through the province of Connaught. 11 The place, where St. Olcan's founda- 
tion had been commenced, is at present called Kilmore-Moy, a parish which 
extends into the barony of Tireragh, in the county of Sligo, and into the 
barony of Tyrawley, in the county of Mayo. It was also called Lia-na-monach, 
from the monks, who dwelt there, while we are told, that it likewise bore the 
name Cruimther Monach, or Olcan's church. In Tirechan's list of St. 
Patrick's disciples, there is an Olcan, as also an Oltcan. Others think, that this 
was apparently the holy man, called Volcan, by Jocelyn, 12 and regarding 
whom we find the following account. St. Patrick had a disciple, named 
Volchanus,^ a man of great virtue, but specially distinguished by most 
remarkable obedience. Being desirous that his virtue, known only to God, 
should be manifested to the world, the saint, for the edification and example 
of others, commanded Volchan to go and build a church, wheresoever God 
would vouchsafe to provide him a place. Without delay, taking an axe on 
his shoulders, this man went his way. Seeing the alacrity and cheerfulness of 
his obedience, St. Patrick said to him : " Do not despair, my most dear Vol- 
chan, of finding a place. Wheresoever thy hatchet shall fall, build in that 
place; for there thou shalt have increase of a great community." After 
Volchan had walked all day long, and had engaged in prayer, towards evening, 
the axe slipped from his shoulder. In that place, therefore, the obedient 
Volchan built a monastery, wherein himself and many others lived and died in 
great perfection. 14 The foregoing account of St. Volchanus building his church 
is incorrectly supposed, however, to have had reference to that time, when St. 

mitted feasts, p. 3. tory of Ireland," vol. i., chap, v., sect, xii., 

3 According to " Catalogus Actuum n. 120, p. 256. 

Sanctorum quse MS. habentur, ordine Men- 9 See Colgan's "Trias Thaumaturga," 

sium et Dierum." SeptimaVitaS.Patricii,lib.ii.,cap.xlii.,p. 135. 

4 See " Trias Thaumaturga," Quinta Ap- I0 See Colgan's "Trias Thaumaturga," 
pendix ad Acta S. Patricii, cap. xxiii., Septima Vita S. Patricii, lib. ii., cap. xlii., 
p. 267. p. 135. 

5 See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus ii., " See Miss Mary F. Cusack's "Life of St. 
Juliiiv. Among the pretermitted feasts, p. 3. Patrick, Apostle of Ireland," Irish Tripar- 

6 See Colgan's "Acta Sanctorum Hiber- tite Life, translated by William M. Hennessy, 
nioe," xx. Februarii, Vita S. Olcani seu M. R.I. A., part ii., p. 426. 

Bolcani, cap. ix., p. 377, and n. 24, p. 378. 12 See Colgan's Trias Thaumaturga," 

1 See Archdall's " Monasticon Hiberni- Sexta Vita S. Patricii, cap. cxli., p. 96. 

cum," p. 612. ,3 Thus is he called by Jocelyn. 

* See Dr. Lanigan's " Ecclesiastical His- l4 See ibid., Sexta Vita S. Patricii, cap. 


Patrick travelled through the northern parts of Ireland. Again, Volchanus is 
thought I5 to be the same as Olcan, Bishop of Annoy, 16 or Bolcan, 1 ? about 
whom so many other romantic incidents are related, by Jocelyn, 18 and, also, 
by the authors of the Tripartite Lives of St. Patrick. 1 ^ After a holy life, St. 
Olchan or Bolcan, renowned for his miracles as well as for his virtues, rested 
in the Lord, and he was buried at his place, now known as Kihnore, near the 
River Moy. His relics remain at Kilmore, that is, " the great cell," where 
his monastery stood. 20 In the Martyrology of Donegal 2I is entered Bolcan, 
of Cill Cuile, at this date. The Circle of the Seasons 2a registers, at the 4th 
of July, St. Bolcan, Abbot. 

Article II. — St. Finbarr or Fionubharr, Abbot of Inis Doimhle, 
County of Wexford. [Sixth Century.] This holy man must have 
flourished in the early ages of the Irish Church, and on the father's side he 
descended through a very illustrious line, from Feidhlimidh Rechtmar, or the 
Law-giver, King of Ireland. 1 From the latter, he was twelve generations 
in immediate succession. 2 This brings him one generation later than his 
illustrious relative St. Brigid,3 patroness of Ireland. He was son of Dalian, 
son to Liathan, son to Briun, son of Eoghan, son of Brechin, son of Artur 
Corb. 4 He was brother to the sons of Aedh, of Ath-cliath. In the " Feilire " 5 
of St. ^Engus, Findbarr of Inis Teimle is commemorated, on the 4th of July. 
There is a gloss, likewise, which states, that he belonged to the land of LJi 
Cennselaig, and that he lived among the Desi. Another gloss adds, that 
Inis Teimle has been derived from darkness, because such was the Isle, until 
the two sons of Aed of Ath Cliath, who were Findbarr and Barrfind, went 
thither. 6 In the Martyrology of Tallagh i at the 4th of July, we find entered 
the name of Finbarr, Abbot of Innse Domle. Marianus O'Gorman commemo- 
rates him, at this same date. The Rev. Alban Butler 8 makes him the founder 

cxli., p. 96. naomh Innsi Fail." 

J 5By Father John Colgan. 3 See her Life, in the Second Volume of 

16 See an account of him, in the Second this work, at February 1st, Art. i., chap. i. 
Volume of this work, at the 20th of Feb- * See Colgan 's "Trias Thaunr.Uurga," 
ruary, Art. ii. Appendix Quarta ad Acta S. Brigidce, cap. 

17 Colgan supplies his Acts, at the 20th of iii., p. 613. 

February. See "Acta Sanctorum Hiber- s i n the " Leabhar Breac" copy, belong- 

nise," xx. Februarii. Vita S. Olcani seu ing to the Royal Irish Academy, the follow- 

Bolcani, pp. 375 to 378. ing stanza, translated into English by 

18 See Colgan's "Trias Thaumaturga," Whitley Stokes, LL.D., may be found : — 
Sexta Vita S. Patricii, cap. lxxxvi., p. 85, and 

n. 94, p. 112, and cap. cxxxvii., p. 95. Also DAgon'OAr) mop TttAncAin 

nn. 143, 144, 145, pp. 114, 115, and n. 149, triAr\orelUMb r-eimte 

p. 115* Va cec mAj\cir\ HAin^A 

"'See ibid., Septima Vita S. Patricii, V 1,1 '°hA|A]\in , or , e Uennle. 
lib. ii., cap. cxxviii., p. 146. 

30 See Rev. Alban Butler's "Lives of the " Martin's good great ordination, you have 

Fathers, Martyrs and other principal Saints," not seen its like: with a hundred wonder- 

vol. vii., July iv. ful martyrs, Findbarr of Inis Teimle."— 

a ' Edited by Drs. Todd and Reeves, pp. "Transactions of the Royal Irish Aca- 

186, 187. demy," Irish Manuscript Series, vol. i., 

32 See at p. 186. part i. On the Calendar of Oengus, p. cix. 

Article ii. — « According to the 6 Then follows a statement, that Aed was 

" Genealogic Sanctology," chap, xiv., as son of Dallen, son to Liathain, son of Briun, 

quoted by Colgan in " Trias Thaumaturga," son to Eogan, son of Brece, son to Artchorp, 

Appendix Quarta ad Acta S. Brigidae, cap. son of Fiacha Suigte. Here, he and Brigit 

iii., p. 613. meet. See ibid., p. cxv. 

3 He belonged to the same race from 7 Edited by Rev. Dr. Kelly, p. xxviii. 

which St. Brighit is descended according to 8 See " Lives of the Fathers, Martyrs and 

the poem which begins, " Naoimhshenchus other principal Saints," vol. vii., July iv. 


of a famous monastery in the Isle of Crimlen, and remarks, that he is not to 
be confounded with St. Finbarr, the first bishop of Cork.? The Bollandists IO 
have noticed St. Finnbarr, Abbot of Inis-Doimhle, on the authority of Father 
O'Sheerin's Irish Manuscripts ; but, they seem incapable of distinguishing 
him from another St. Finnbarr, venerated on the 10th or 20th of September. 
He flourished probably some time during the sixth century. He was abbot 
in Inis Doimhle, between Ui Ceiunsealaigh and the Deisi. According to a 
learned Irish topographer, 11 Inis Doimhle would appear to be the place now 
called Inch, situated in the barony of Shelmaliere, and county of Wexford. 
There is a parish called Inch, 12 in the south-western extremity of Shelmalier 
West barony, in the county of Wexford.^ In the year 1840, some remains of 
the old church walls placed in this parish were visible, but they had been 
so entirely covered over with thorns and briars, that the length and breadth 
of the former building could not be measured. 1 * These ruins had an appear- 
ance of great antiquity, and the walls had been altogether built with very 
large stones. According to tradition, no interment had taken place there, 
since the middle of the last century. The present holy man is said to have 
founded a monastery, in the Isle of Drumlen, between Hy Kinsellagh and 
the Decies of Munster/s according to a Manuscript of John Windale. 16 Ac- 
cording to another statement, the Irish Damhly of the old Irish Manuscripts 
was no other than the Insula Sancta Clara, now called Cape Clear Island. 1 ? 
The Martyrology of Donegal, 18 at this same date, registers him as Fionn- 
bharr, son of Aedh. In the Irish Calendar *9 belonging to the Irish Ordnance 
Survey Records, there is an entry of St. Fionabar, at the 4th of July. 20 In 
Scotland he was venerated, on the same day. 21 The feast of this saint is 
entered likewise, in the " Circle of the Seasons/' 22 at the 4th of July. 

Article III. — Feast of St. Martin's Ordination. In the early Irish 
Church, as we find in the "Feilire" 1 of St. ^Engus, and on the 4U1 of July, 

9 Colgan's Manuscripts, at the 4th of July but written in the year 1S40, pp. 356, 357. 
are quoted. See ibid. I4 On the eastern bank of Owenduff River, 

10 See " Acta Sanctorum," tomus ii., in the townland of Kayle, and not far from 
Julii iv. Among the pretermitted saints, the old church, is Lady's Well. It was 
p . 4. concealed in the middle of a shrubbery, in 

Dr. O'Donovan. See his "Annals of 


the Four Masters," vol. i., n. (1)), p. 380. r 5 Bibl. MSS. Sowensisis, vol. i., p. 158. 

12 According to Mr. O'Donovan, the name Irish Records, vol. vi., p. 829. 

Inch is an Anglicizing of 1tiif or 1 nfe, which l6 Now preserved in the Library of the 

signifies an island, or the holme of a river. Royal Irish Academy. 

This same gentleman states, that he takes I7 See Mr. and Mrs. Hall's "Ireland : its 

Inch to be the \m\ "Oonfite of the Irish Scenery, Character," &c, vol. i., pp. 137, 

Calendars. These remarks of Mr. O'Dono- 138. 

van are included within a foregoing letter l8 Edited by Drs. Todd and Reeves, pp. 

of Mr. O'Keefe, at p. 356. In the Parish 186, 187. 

and Barony Name Book for the County of I9 Intituled "Common Place Book F," 

Wexford, Mr. O'Donovan also renders Inch and now preserved in the Royal Irish Aca- 

by 1nfe, a holm strath or island, at p. 50. demy. 

13 The parish of Inch is bounded on the 20 Thus : tl ponnAbViAn mac AoxAi mAC 
east and west, by divided portions of Clon- "DaHaim x>o rhliopeocho ponn -oeanbh- 
geen parish ; on the north, by Newbawn ; nacViAn no bnAcViAfv -oo cloitin mac <Vot)h 
and on the south-west, by Owenduff parish. <\c!ia cIiacVi. &b Infe "O 01m hie & leich 
It is situated about nine miles eastward of imchiol na CinnreAlAch. See p. 60. 
New Ross. See " Letters containing Infor- 21 The Kalendarium Drummondiense has : 
mation relative to the Antiquities of the " Et apud Iliberniam Natale Sancti Con- 
County Wexford, collected during the fessoris Finbarr." — Bishop F«rbes' " Kalen- 
Progress of the Ordnance Survey in 1840," dais of Scottish Saints," p. 17. 

vol. ii. Mr. O'Keefe's Letter, not dated, 3a See p. 186. 


was celebrated the feast of St. Martin's ordination. A comment explains, 
that this referred to his reception of the episcopate at Tours, in France. 2 The 
Bollandists3 refer to his festival, likewise, at this date ; while they style it the 
feast for the Translation of his Relics, relying on an entry in the old Epter- 
nac Martyrology. 4 Also in the old Martyrology of Corbie, there appears to 
have been a triple celebration — viz., of his episcopal Ordination, of a corpo- 
real Translation of his Relics, and of the Dedication of a church to him — and 
all singularly enough coinciding on the 4th of July. s In the Kalendar of 
Drummond, 6 this triple feast of his Translation, of his Ordination, and of the 
Dedication of his church is to be found, at this same date. The Translation 
alone is commemorated in the Kalendar of Hyrdmanistoun,? in the Calendar 
of Culenros, 8 and in the Kalendar of Arbuthnott.9 His feast of Translation 
is also entered, in that Kalendar belonging to the Breviary of Aberdeen. 10 

Article IV. — Reputed Feast of St. Siluenieus at Kilreule, in 
Scotland. In the Scottish Menology of Thomas Dempster, 1 there is notice 
of a Canon Silueneius or Silveneus, at Kilrule, on this day. He is said to 
have received St. Regulus,* when he brought the Relics of St. Andre\v,3 the 
Apostle. From Dempster, Ferrarius introduced Silveneus to his General 
Catalogue of Saints, and, it is stated, that he lived about the year 369. The 
Bollandists 4 have notices to this effect, at the 4th of July, but they seem to 
attach little importance to the statements of Dempster. 

Article V. — Reputed FeastJSt. Modwenna. In the Supplement to 
his Univeral Martyrology, as we are informed by the Bollandists, 1 Castellan 
has placed the feast of St. Modwenna, at the 4th of July. In the approved 
Kalendars, her festival has been assigned to the day following. 

Article VI. — Translation of the Relics of St. Ursula. In the 
Lubeck and Cologne edition — as the Bollandists 1 state — of Greven's addi- 
tions to the Martyrology of Usuard may be found the Translation of some 
Relics of St. Ursula, virgin and queen, 2 from the city of Cologne, to the 
monastery Tuiciense, on the banks of the Rhine, and at the 4th of July. 

Article hi.— 1 See "Transactions of Article iv.— x See Bishop Forbes' 

the Royal Irish Academy," Irish Manuscript " Kalendars of Scottish Saints," p. 204. 

Scries, vol i., part i. On the Calendar of 2 His feast has been referred to the 30th 

Oengus, p. cix. of March, and to the 17th of October. 

3 See ibid., p. cxv. His festival occurs, on the 30th of No- 

3 See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus ii., vember. 

Julii iv. Among the pretermitted feasts, p. 4. * See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus ii., 

* It is there entered: " Translatio S. Julii iv. Among the pretermitted feasts, p. 4. 

Martini in Turnis." Article v. — ' See "Acta Sanctorum," 

5 The Bollandists add, "etiaminhodierno tomus ii., Julii iv. Among the pretermitted 
Romano. Dempstero placuit scribere : Co- feasts, p. 4. 

Ionise, Martini Scotorum Patroni translatio. Article VI. — ' See " Acta Sanctorum," 

De eadem cgimus in observatione ad Usuar- tomus ii., Julii iv. Among the pretermitted 

dum, omnia remittentes ad diem natalem feasts, p. 4. 

xi. Novembris." 3 To this is added, another Translation of 

6 See Bishop l-'orbes' "Kalendars of Scot- St. Florentina or Floientia, Virgin and 
tish Saints,'' p. 17. Martyr, belonging to the company of the 

1 See ibid., p. 42. Eleven Thousand Virgins, but whose chief 

1 Scr ibid., p. 59. festival is more properly referable to the 2ist 

1 See ibid., p. 103. of October. 

10 See ibid., p. 118. Article VII.— ' This was an Irish 


Article VII.— Reputed Feast of St. Marianus, Confessor and 
Abbot, at Ratisbon. {Eleventh Century.'] At this date, July 4th, 
Camerarius places the festival of St. Marianus, Confessor and Abbot, in the 
celebrated Scottish Monastery x of Ratisbon in Germany.* He is said to 
have lived in the Caledonian province of Scotia, the chief city of which is 
called Dumcalidonia, or Dunkeld, and there to have presided over a com- 
munity of monks, and with a great reputation for sanctity. However, a more 
exact criticism has proved him to have been an Irishman from Donegal. 3 
There is a memoir of him and of his successors composed by an Irish monk 
of Ratisbon. * Dempster has an imperfect account of him at this same date,* 
which he notes as the Feast for his Translation. 

Article VIII. — Reputed Translation of St. Rumold's Relics. In 
the Codex of Usuard at Bruxelles and in the Florarius Sanctorum, the Bollan- 
dists * state, that the Translation of St. Rumold is set down, at the 4th of 
July. His Life has been pretty fully treated already, at the 1st of this 
month. 8 

jfiftft 2Bap of gulp, 





THERE can scarcely be a doubt, but that the biography of the present 
holy woman has been confused by different writers. It certainly 
requires a critical examination and correction, if we are to draw any authentic 
particulars, which serve to distinguish her individuality, place, and period. 
The form of name has been so varied, that a probability arises of more than 
one pious saint having lived; and the incidents related, in such Acts as 
remain to us, serve to show a parachronismus in their application to one and 
the same person. Again, it seems pretty certain, that her Acts had been 
written long after the period when she nourished, and which must account for 
much ignorance on the part of their writers, who were even incapable of 
separating well known annalistic facts of Irish and English history, or of 

Monastery, and founded for Irishmen. s Thus : "B Colonise Martini Scotorum 

a In the " Edinburgh Review " of January, patroni translatio. Adelbaud." — Menolo- 

1861, there is an interesting article on " The gium Scoticum. Bishop Forbes' " Kalen- 

Scottish Religious Houses abroad." dars of Scottish Saints," p. 204. 

3 See Bishop Forbes' " Kalendars of Article viii. — ' See "Acta Sancto- 
Scottish Saints," p. 391. rum," tomus ii., Julii iv. Among the pre- 

4 This is in the Bollandists' "Acta Sane- termitted saints, p. 2. 

torum, "tomus ii.,Februariiix. DeB.Mariano 2 See in the present volume of this work, 

Scoto, Abbate Ord. S. Benedicti, et B. Mur- Art. i. 

cherato Incluso, Ratisbonse in Bavaria, pp. Article I.— * Nothing more seems to be 

365 to 372. known regarding him ; but his name and the 



[July 5< 

referring these to periods which could not have been contemporaneous 
with any one living person. Intrinsically, too, they abound in fables or incre- 
dible narratives, calculated not only to puzzle, but likewise to displease and 
to disappoint, the studious readers of hagiology. 

Several Manuscript Lives of this holy woman are extant, and some of her 
Acts have been published. Among the latter, are her Life by Concubran x — 
an ancient writer 2 — and that by an anonymous writer 3 as found in a Sala- 
mancan Manuscript/ Galfridus Edys, otherwise known as Geoffrey, a monk 
of Burton, 5 prepared a Life of St. Modwenna. 6 Among the Clarendon 
Manuscripts 7 is contained a Life of St. Modwenna, Virgin. There is 
another, 8 written by Concubran.9 Among other records, we find extant a 
Tract intituled : S. Modvennae Vita, et Tractatus de Miraculis ejus. 10 This 
Manuscript, written in the thirteenth century, formerly belonged to the Abbey 
ofRevesby. An abridgment of Geoffrey of Burton exists. 11 In the Bodleian 
Library, Oxford, there is a Manuscript Life of this saint. 12 It was written in 
the fifteenth century.^ In a Lambeth Manuscript, 1 * there are Acts or 
notices of several saints out of the regular order at the end, and among these 
is a lengthy Life of St. Modvenna. 1 * In old French verse, the Life of St. 
Modwenna has been written, and at great length. 16 This poem : 7 contains 
about 10,360 lines. Among the Sloane Manuscripts, there is a paper folio 
Life of St. Monenna, 18 which was written in the seventeenth century. In some 
of her Acts, she is called indifferently Monynna and Darerca. 1 ^ John 
Capgrave, 90 at tertio Nonas Julii, also mentions St. Modwena, Virgin and 
Abbess. The English Martyrology and Henry Fitzsimon have Modwenna, 
Virgin, for the same feast-day. The anonymous Calendar published by 

intrinsic statements in the memoir sufficiently 

demonstrate that he was Imh. This Life 

n piinted by the Bollandists. 

2 He appears to have been the earliest 
known compiler of St. Modwenna's Life, 
and from it, as the ba^is, many other Lives 
were drawn. 

3 This has been printed in the " Acta 
Sanctorum " of the Bollandists, at the 6th 
July. torn, ii., p. 290. 

4 It begins with these words: "Virgo 
venerabilis nomine Darerca, cognomento 
Monynnna," &c. 

s Uc was at first prior of Winchester, and 
afterwards he was promoted to be abbot of 
Burton-upon-Trent, from A.D. 1114 to 1151. 
Annales Burton apud Fell, i., pp. 248, 249. 

6 There is a copy among the Cottonian 
Manuscripts. It is clashed, Cleopat. A ii., 
small vellum, 4to. This Life — Manuscript 
of the eleventh century — properly belongs to 
Conchubranus, whose name occurs at the 
end. There is likewise a S. Modvennoe 
Vita, per Galfridum Burtoniensem, described 
as MS. Mostyn Gloddaeth, p. 5. 

7 This is numbered 76. 

8 This is numbered 39, and it was written 
in the thirteenth century. 

' See "Catalogi Librorum Manuscripto- 
rum Anglic et UibernLw" 

is classed: MS. Bibl. Reg. 15, B. 
iv.. ff. 76, 78, veil. 4to. 

" Vita S. Modwenna: MS. Lansdowne, 
436, ft. I26,b-I3l b, veil, folio xiv. cent. 

12 It is noticed as Vita S. Modwenna;. 

13 Classed Tanner, 15, f. 423, veil, folio. 
x « Classed 99, 5, f. 187. 

13 This collection is intituled : " Catalo- 
gus Sanctorum in Anglia pausantium et 
oriundorum, quorum Depositionum diescon- 
sequenter annotantur, Progreditur juxta or- 
dinem Mensium adeoque incipiens ab 
Edwardo Confessore, 8 Kal. Januar. desinit 
in S. Thoma, Cant. 4to Kal. Januar." 

16 It is classed in the Bodleian Library, 
Oxford, Digby, 34, ff. 1-76, vell.Svo., dble. 
cols. The Manuscript belongs to the twelfth 

'7 It thus commences : — 

" Oez seignurs pur Deu nus pri, 
Cummunt li munz eit peri 
A la gloire dunt il chai, 
Par Jhesu Crist reverti." 

18 It is noted as Vita S. Monennrc, No. 
4788, ff. 1-32. 

19 Among the Burgundian Library Manu- 
scripts, at Bruxelles, there is a Vita S. 
Monymnse cogn. Darercae, at fol. 79 of 
vol. xxii. 

20 See "Nova Legenda Angliae," fol. 
cexxxiiii., cexxxv., cexxxvi., cexxxvii., 
cexxxviii., cexxxix., ccxl. 

31 However, this is probably a mistake of 
orthography by substituting an N for an M 
as the initial letters. 

22 See " Histories Cntholicac [berniae Com- 


O'Sullevan Beare has Nodwenna 21 entered, at the same date. 22 The Manu- 
script from which John Capgrave's Life of this holy woman 2 3 had been 
printed is extant among the Cottonian collections. 2 '* Besides, in the collec- 
tions of F. Maihew, 2 * some notices of her are to be met with. It appears 
Colgan's posthumous list 26 of Irish Saints notes St. Moduenna's Life as pre- 
pared for publication, at the 5th of July. The Acts of St. Modwenna, in two 
sections and twenty-six paragraphs, are to be found in the great Bollandist 
collection. 2 7 There Father John Pinius very critically examines the legendary 
biographies which had been written, and he shows how impossible it must be 
to reconcile them with an individual saint, who at one time is stated to have 
received the veil from St. Patrick, the Apostle of Ireland in the fifth cen- 
tury ; also, to have lived in the middle of the seventh century; and, again, 
to have flourished and built monasteries in England about the middle of the 
ninth century. He inclines to the opinion, that there must have been at least 
three Moninnas — if we are to attach any degree of credit to the specifications 
set forth in those Acts 28 which have come down to our times. There is a 
Vita S. Darercse seu Monynnse Virginis by some anonymous writer, 2 9 and it is 
supposed by Father John Pinius to have been written earlier than one attri- 
buted to Conchubran. Its narratives are briefer, written in a better style of 
composition, altogether more comformable to credibility, yet does it abound 
in anachronisms. Both agree, however, in many statements. The published 
Life of St. Modwenna,3° attributed to Conchubran 3 1 — who is thought to have 
written in the eleventh century — has probably been interpolated ;3 2 for besides 
various silly popular legends introduced, it is quite evident, that the names of 
many Irish places are misunderstood and falsely spelled, while it is not likely 
that any Irish scribe could have fallen into such obvious mistakes. The same 
Conchubran is said to have written, moreover, two alphabetical Hymns in 
praise of the same Moninna. However, Archbishop Ussher and Sir James 
Ware both maintain, that there were two distinct saints bearing this name; 
one of these was usually known as Darerca, who flourished in the time of St. 
Patrick, and who departed this life at Kilsleve of Kilsleve-Cuilin, in the 
county of Armagh, on the 3rd of July, A.D. 516 or 518 ; while the other is 
said to have flourished about the year 640. We are told, likewise, that Con- 
cubran confounds the actions of both. Some notices of St. Modwena are 
given by Bishop Challoner. 3 ^ St. Moduena is called a noble Irish Virgin, by 
Rev. Alban Butler, who has an account regarding her, for this day. 3* 

pendium," tomus i., lib. iv., cap. xi., xii., pp. published in the " Acta Sanctorum," at the 

50, 56. 6th of July. It is there divided into four 

23 It is intituled : Vita S. Modvennse. chapters, consisting of forty-five para- 

24 It is classed Tiber. E. i., ff. 199 b-204 b. graphs. 

2 5 See " Troprueorum Benedictinorum," 30 This has been taken from the Codex in 
tomus ii., pp. 909, 910. the Cottonian Library, and the original was 

26 See " Catalogus Actuum Sanctorum classed Cleopatra A. 2. It has been pub- 
quse MS. habentur, Ordine Mensium et lished the second in order by the Bollan- 
Dierum." dists, at the 6th of July, and it has been col- 

27 See " Acta Sanctorum," tomus ii., Julii lated with a Life of St. Monynna or Darerca. 
v. De S. Moduenna seu Monenna, Monynna Besides a Prologue, it is given in eight 
Monyma, una an pluribus, pp. 241 to 246. chapters, consisting of seventy-eight para- 

2S A transcript of the Manuscript Codex of graphs, 

this saint's Life, classed Cleopatra A. 2, and 31 He is supposed to have been a scholas- 

belonging to the Cottonian Library, appears tic of Gleanussen, who is related to have 

to have been sent by the learned William died there A.D. 1082. 

Dugdale in 1678, to Father Daniel Pape- 32 His work, according to Sir James Ware, 

broch. was written in Three Books. See "De Scrip- 

29 This has been taken from an Irish toribus Hibernke, " lib. i., cap. viii., p. 57. 

Manuscript, belonging to the Salamancan 33 See " Britannia Sancta," part ii., at 5th 

College of the Jesuits, and it is the one first of July, p. 14. 


It seems to us, no better means exist for solving the difficulties here pre- 
sented, than to suppose, that certain inventions have found the position of 
facts in the biographies accessible to us, unless we are to admit their appli- 
cation to three distinct Modwennas ; 35 however, only two of these appear to 
be traceable, with any great degree of probability ; therefore, our conjec- 
ture is, that the Irish Calendars have recognised a St. Modwenna, otherwise 
called Darerca, who lived contemporaneously with St. Patrick, the great 
Irish Apostle, and whose feast is ascribed to the 6th of July ; while the other is 
Modwenna, who went from Ireland to England, who flourished probably 
during the ninth century, and whose feast is generally referred to the 5th of 
July, by most of the Calendarists. Proceeding on this assumption, we shall next 
endeavour to deal conjecturally with her Acts, omitting what we deem to be 
only excrescences and fables in them. Her name is variedly written Mod- 
wen,3 6 Moninna, Moninne, Maudoena,Moedoena, Monenna, Monynna, Mony- 
ma, Moninia, Moduena, Mowena, Modovena, Moduenna, Modvenna, Mod- 
wena, Modewine and Modwenna. 37 According to all the received accounts, St. 
Modwenna was born in Ireland, 58 but, in what particular part of it, we have 
no correct means for ascertaining. According to her Acts, as written by 
Capgrave, her father was a king.39 She had first embraced a religious life in 
her own country. There she was illustrious for sanctity and miracles. She 
also trained many pious souls in the fear and love of God. She is said to 
have established a nunnery in Ireland at Celistline, and at other places. 4° 
She miraculously cured Alfred, the illustrious son of King Ethelwolf, from a 
grievous infirmity. He was the fourth son of the king, by his first wife Osburg, 
and he was born a.d. 849, the thirteenth of his father's reign. When only 
five years old, the young Prince Alfred was sent to Rome, where he was con- 
firmed by Pope Leo IV.* 1 Afterwards, during the successive reigns of his 
three elder brothers, Ethelbald,* 9 Ethelbert,* 3 and Ethelred,^ Prince Alfred 
had acquired such a reputation for wisdom, magnanimity and integrity, that 
he acted as viceroy under each of them, until he came to the throne a.d. 
872. The virtues, valour and abilities of King Alfred are matters of history 45 
so well known, that it is needless to state, his reign which lasted twenty-nine 

34 See " Lives of the Fathers, Martyrs names of St. Moninne, of Cill-Sleibhe- 
nn 1 other principal Saints," vol. vii., Culaind or Killesoy, in the County of 
July v. Armagh, according to William M. llen- 

35 The only corresponding names we find nessey, M.R.I.A. 

in the Irish Calendars are Mo-Inne, which 38 See Bishop Challenor's "Britannia 

may be the name of a female ; but, it has Sancta," part ii., p. 14. 

been rendered Moenind, Moeninninius or 39 Hut this author is mistaken, when he 

Moenennus, as recorded at the 21st of May, makes her a disciple of St. Patrick. The 

in the Fifth Volume of this work, Art. iv. ; Irish Apostle was dead long before her 

Moninne, Virgin, barely recorded at the 3rd time. 

of June, in the Sixth Volume of this work, 40 This account is to be found in Holing- 

Art. viii. ; the Moduena, Moedoena or Mau- shed's Chronicle " Manie monastries she 

doena, who seems to be confounded with builded both in England and Scotland, as at 

Etaoin, and both of whom are recorded in Sniveling, Edenbrough, and in Ireland at 

the Martyrology of Donegal, at this date, Celis'lineand elsewhere." 

July 5th; and the .Moninne. Virgin of Sliabh 4 ' He governed the Church from A.D. 847 

Cuillmn, who is placed, at the following 10855. See Sir Harris Nicolas' " Chrono- 

day. July 6th, in the same Martyrology. logy of History," p. 210. 

;6 In Holingshed's Chronicle. «■ He only reigned from A.D. 857, to the 

37 There is a note, regarding Moninna, 201 h December, a.d. 860. 

carried from column 3 to column 4, on the 4i He reigned from a.d. 860, to A.D. 

17th page of the Ten Folia of the " Book of 866. 

Leinster," among the Franciscan archives, 4 * 1 1 is reign, beginning A.D. 866, lasted to 

Merchants' quay, Dublin. On column 3, p. the 23rd of April, a.d. 872. 

17, there is also a short tract, on the various *> His biographer Asser has admirably 


years and six months was one of the most glorious in the Annals of England. He 
departed this life, on the 26th of October, a.d. 899 or 90 1,* 6 in the fifty-fust 
year of his age. However, a statement, 4 ? that Prince Alfred went into Ireland 
to serve King Conald, 48 and that he was there cured by St. Modwenna, is 
likely to be false, for our Annals do not give the name of a supreme King of 
Ireland so named during the time of Prince Alfred. 

Afterwards, it is stated, that she passed into England. St. Athea — said 
to have been her kinswoman — accompanied her. A foolish story is told 
of Modwenna and several holy virgins passing over to a castle called 
Dagann in Britain, in a miraculous manner, and that afterwards they visited 
the king there in his villa, called Streneshalen.49 Then, it is said, that the 
king was greatly rejoiced, and that besides entrusting his sister to them for 
her education, he gave that villa with lands and endowments. In the time of 
King Ethel wolf, 5° St. Modwena is said to have gone into England. His 
sister s 1 — others state his daughter — Edgith or Edith, he committed during 
her childhood to the care of this holy Irish virgin, Modewine,* 2 who in turn 
transferred her to Athea. From her, Edith is said to have learned the 
Psaltery, while St. Modwenna dwelt there for three months. 53 Afterwards, 
Edith founded the famous nunnery of Polesworth,* 4 where she lived, died and 
was honourably buried, so that from her the place was subsequently called 
St. Edith's of This was near the forest of Arden, in Warwick- 
shire. There, too, she collected around her a pious community that con- 
formed to her rule. 56 From King Ethelwolf, as we are informed, St. Mod- 
wenna obtained some land, for the purpose of building a monastery. The 
pious Modwena did not confine herself, however, to the erection of this 
foundation. She built another religious house at Trentshall,57 also called 
Strenshall. Some writers confound this place with the Streanshalch of St. 
Hilda ; but, the situation of this latter locality was in the northern part of 
England.' At Trenshale for some time Modwenna led a solitary life, which 
was passed in prayer, contemplation, and other religious exercises. 

pom trayed his character and acts. Ethelwolfe gave leave to build two abbies, 

46 See Lingard's "History of England," and also dalivered unto her his sister Edith 
vol. i., chap, iv., p. 187. to be a professed nun." 

47 In the Life by Conchubran. S3 After this, the Life by Conchubran adds 

48 King Congall or Conald II. reigned most unchronologically, that she and her 
towards the close of the seventh century, nuns returned with many gifts to Brigid's 
while King Congall III. was slain in the family, in Ireland, and that she remained 
twelfth year of his reign, a.d. 956, according there in the northern parts, until she and 
to our historians. See Thomas D'Arcy her virgins made a pilgrimage to Rome. 
McGee's " Popular History of Ireland," 54 In the time of Henry L, Robert Mar- 
book ii., chap, iv., p. 79. mion and Milicent, his wife, were founders 

49 In Conchubran's Life, this place is said and benefactors of a nunnery here, which 
to have been "juxta silvam, quae dicitur was dedicated to St. Mary and St. Edith. 
Arderne." It was placed under the Black Nuns, and at 

50 His reign over England commenced the time of suppression it was valued at 
A.D. 837. He reigned over twenty years, and ^"23 8s. 6d. See John Speed's " History of 
died on the 13th of January, a.d. 857. Great Britaine," book ix., chap. xxi. Cata- 

st She appears to have been much younger logue of the Religious Houses. Warwick- 

than her brother Ethelwolf. shire. 

52 The following is Holingshed's account ss See ibid.^ book vii., chap, xxxi., p. 

of this saint : "In this season one Modwen, 366. 

a virgin in Ireland, was greatly renowned in s6 That regular discipline she there estab- 

the world, unto whom King Ethelwolfe sent lished continued even until the days of King 

his son Alfred to be cured of a disease that Henry VIII. In this monastery, the royal 

was thought incurable ; but by her means virgin Editha was trained. Afterwards, she 

he recoverd health, and therefore, when her became its Abbess, and she was regarded as 

monastrie was destroyed in Ireland, Modwen a great saint, 

came over into England, unto whom King 57 Thus called by Holingshed. 



[July 5. 

Modwenna went into Scotland, to visit King Conagal her kinsman, s 8 
and this statement causes Father John Pinius to suspect, that there had been 
three distinct virgins bearing the name of Modwenna — one belonging to 
Ireland, one to England, and one to Scotland. 5 ? At least, it seems to us a 
very reasonable supposition, that while one holy virgin named Moduenna 
remained altogether in Ireland, the present Modwenna extended the benefit of 
her religious propaganda to England as also to Scotland. But, it is indeed a 
very difficult matter to arrange the order of narrative and of time, in reference to 
her stay in either country. We are told, that Ratheri, Cobo,Bollan and Choilli, 
with other chiefs, visited her at this time. 60 While in Scotland, no less than 
three churches did St. Modwenna build in Galloway; one of these is called 
Chilnecase, 61 another was on the summit of a mountain denominated Dundeue- 

Edinburgh Castle from the Grassmarket. 

nel, 6a while the third was at Dunbreten. She built a church in a castle, 
named Strivelin, or Sterling.^ She erected a church at Dunpeleder, 6 * and 
from that place she crossed the Alban Sea to visit St. Andrew's. 6 * After- 
wards, she went to Aleeth, where she built a church, named Lonfortin, near 
to Dundee, and near to a clear rivulet. There she dwelt for some time, and she 
greatly loved that place. 66 She erected another church, in Dunedin or Eden- 
burgh, 6 ? as we are informed, and this dedicated to St. Michael was built on 
the top of a mountain. There four holy virgins, named Athea, Ede, Osid 
and Lazar, lived with her for five years. We are told, these afterwards 

5 * According to Capgrave's account. 

59 See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus ii., Julii 
vi. De S. Darcrca sen Monynna Virg. In 
Hihernia, Scotia, vel Anglia, n. (e), p. 

60 See Bishop Forbes' " Kalendars of 
Scottish Saints," p. 407. 

61 This no doubt should be written Can- 
dida Casa, now Whithorn. 

61 In Laud on ia. 

6 ' One of the royal cities of Scotland, re- 
markable for its castle, placed on a precipi- 

tous rock. 

61 Also called Dunpelder. 

65 These several erections arc mentioned 
in the Life by Conchubran. See " Ussher's 
" Britannicarum Ecclesiarum Antiquitates," 
cap. xv., j). 369. 

1 Life by Conchubran adds: "in 
quo in finem vita suae, ut affirmant, Domino 
volente, emisit spiriturn." 

67 The beautiful capital of Scotland. The 
accompanying illustration was drawn by 
William F. Wakeman on the wood, en- 


set out with her on a journey to Rome, where they intended to visit the shrines 
of Saints Peter, Paul and Andrew. On the way, they came to the River Trent, 
which passed by a mountain, called Calvechif, in the Anglo-Saxon language. 
There, it is said, they built a church at the foot of a mountain, in Latin 
called Mons Calvus. This was dedicated to the Apostles, St. Peter and 
St. Paul. 68 

It has been stated, 6 ? that thrice this holy virgin visited Rome ; but, the 
indications for these visits are too vague and undefined to be very readily 
trusted. The first of these pilgrimages is said to have taken place after her 
return to Arderne — it is to be presumed from Scotland — and where she had 
been accompanied by her sisters Athea and Ite. Yet, this account seems to 
be strangely enough jumbled into a second visit from Andressea, and with a 
still greater number of companions. Again we are informed, that at the age 
of one hundred and ten years, Movenna undertook a third journey to Rome, 
when she returned to Scotland ; but this latter narrative seems to be a con- 
fused version of the two former journeys, which proves beyond doubt, that 
the whole of Conchubran's Life of St. Modwenna has been interpolated, and 
without judgment or discrimination on the part of the interpolator or interpo- 
lators. While making these three penitental pilgrimages to Rome, it is stated, 
likewise, that she went all the way barefoot, and clothed with a rough hair 
shirt. 70 It may be admitted, indeed, that in accordance with the usages of 
her age, she had visited Rome, at least on one occasion ; and probably, her 
desire to found or extend her various religious enterprises furnished a neces- 
sity for seeking an interview with the Sovereign Pontiff, who then presided 
in the chair of St. Peter. 

Returning into England, Modwenna chose for hei dwelling-place a little 
island, situated in the River Trent. At this time it was a desert. There she 
built a small oratory in honour of St. Andrew.? 1 This gave to that island the 
name of Andrcsey. In it, the pious Modwenna lived for seven years as a 
hermitess. Lazar and Athea also lived there with her. Afterwards, Mod- 
wenna visited Ireland, as we are told, and at this time paganism and crime 
were rife throughout all England. 72 The fame of St. Modwenna's miracles 
drew many to that place, which she had selected as the site for her nunnery. 
This undesired concurrence was the occasion, however, for her leaving it. 
She seems to have returned again to Lanfortin, where she had a miraculous 
intuition regarding her approaching end. Then she sent messengers to her 
religious, Athea, Osid and Ede, that they should come to her. They obeyed 
this summons, and remained with her for some days. Meanwhile, the anti- 
cipation of her death spread among the people, and her increasing infirmities 
began to fill them with profound grief. Among others, it is stated, that Congal, 
King of Scotia at the time, with certain magnates of his kingdom, visited the 
monastery. They are said to have requested her, through a Bishop Ronan, 
who was her brother, that she should yet remain among them for one year, 
and not leave them as orphans too soon, and they felt assured, that if she 
preferred such a petition to heaven, it would be granted. However, she 
declared, that her time had now come, and she then imparted her blessing to 
her distinguished visitors and to all the people. Already, although her death 
took place in Scotland, she had foretold, her body should be interred after her 

graved by Mrs. Millard. 71 See Cressy's " Church History of 

68 According to the Life of Modwenna, by England, under Saxon and Danish Mo- 

Conchubran. narchs," part iv., book xxviii., chap, ii., 

^ See Holingshed's " Chronicle." p. 744. 

70 See Bishop Forbes' u Kalendars of 73 This account, we may very well credit, 

Scottish Saint," p. 407. since the Danes had succeeded in effecting 


death, 73 at Andressy. To those who were present at her death-bed, she is 
said to have declared, that had their request been conveyed to her a few days 
before, it might possibly be granted; but it so happened, she had a vision of the 
two great Apostles of our Lord, who had come to her on that day with a 
message, that they were about to convey her soul into Heaven. She declared, 
that they had brought her a white shroud, beautifully ornamented with gold ; 
and that with such illustrious companions, it was well she should be intro- 
duced to the mansions of perpetual bliss. She then bequeathed certain relics, 
such as her girdle, a cloak of sheep-skin, and certain other articles which 
belonged to her, and she requested these, with her baculus, to be conveyed 
to another place. She stated, furthermore, that should those people who 
possessed them not engage in hostile incursions on the lands of others ; her 
relics should prove to be a shield of defence against any enemies, who might 
seek to invade or to devastate their territory. She was thus favoured in her last 
infirmity, with this consoling vision of the holy Apostles, St. Peter and St. 
Paul, before she parsed away to bliss, having declared, also, that her protection 
should be as generously afforded to all her devout clients after death, as during 
her lifetime. Those promises, and words spoken by the Bishop, assuaged 
the grief of the people present ; so that when he bestowed a benediction 
on them, and when they had assisted at Modwenna's holy obsequies, all pre- 
pared to start for their respective hoines.74 She is said to have attained the 
extraordinary age of one hundred and thirty years;" but, as the account of 
such great longevity likewise applies in a still greater degree to St. Monenna 
or Darerca, venerated at Slieve Cullin on the day following, it seems a matter 
of great difficulty to decide any point, even regarding its qualified credibility. 

She is said to have died on the 5th of July,? 6 and towards the close of the 
ninth century. It is related, that soon after her death, St. Modwenna appeared 
to one of her sisters, named Taunat or Tannat, and urged her to admonish 
the nuns, regarding the infraction of silence without doors, and which silence 
their rule enjoined. This message was conveyed to them, and after a pre- 
paration for eternity lasting for seven days, Tannat passed away to bliss with 
her revered mother and former superioress. Again, it is said, that after St. 
Modwenna's death, numbers of Hibernians, Scots and Angles came to the 
place where her remains lay ; they were about to engage in combat for 
possession of the holy virgin's body, until Columchille appeared to them, and 
proposed an expedient, whereby the tumult was appeased. But, indeed, this 
whole fable is so evidently concocted and so poorly invented, that intrinsic evi- 
dences of its legendary character are easily detected. Some time after her death, 
the blessedremains were translated from Andresey,to the church of that Abbey, 
where they were finally deposed. When the Abbey of Burton-upon-Trent 
was founded, a.d. 1004, the remains of St. Modwenna were solemnly removed 
thither. Matthew of Westminster 77 informs us, that in his day, St. Mod- 
wena's tomb was illustrated by frequent miracles. 

The feast of St. Moduenna was very religiously observed, and it is to be 
found noted, at the 5th of July, among the Scottish Entries in the Kalen- 
dar of David Camerarius.7 8 There is still extant a Hymn to St. Modwenna 
or Moinnea, among the Clarendon Manuscripts. 79 In England, this holy 

conquests throughout its various provinces. 77 See "Flores Historiarum," at a.d. 

73 See Bishop Challoner's " Britannia 1201. 

Sancta," part ii , pp. 14, 15. 78 Thus: "Sancta Moduenna Virgo in 

W Such is the narrative given in her Life Laudonia et Galouida Scotiseprouincijs cele- 

by Conchrubran. bris. " — Bishop Forbes' " Kalendars of Scot- 

75 According to Holingshed's " Chro- tish Saints," p. 238. 

nicle." 79 It is numbered 39. See " Catalogus 

76 See her Acts, by John Capgrave. Manuscriptorum Anglise et Hiberniae. 


woman was specially venerated. At Burton-on-Trent, the Protestant church 
is still named after her, while the site of her chapel is yet called St. Mod- 
wen's Orchard. According to English traditions, the virgin's religious estab- 
lishment in Ireland was a renowned one, towards the close of the ninth cen- 
tury. It is said to have been destroyed, and probably this was one of 
Ireland's holy fanes, that suffered desecration during the Danish reign of 
terror. The foundation of a Catholic school, which long served for Catholic 
religious worship, at Burton, has been, in our time, followed up, by the erec- 
tion of a handsome new church, dedicated to our St. Medwenna, and to the 
Blessed Virgin Mary. 80 

Some metrical Latin lines remain, 81 and which are intended to epitomize the 
chief incidents relating to this holy virgin. It should be desirable, indeed, that 
we had a more reliable biography of St. Modwenna, than any which has come 
within our cognizance. There can be no reasonable doubt, that she was 
greatly distinguished for her virtue and miracles, during that period in which 
she lived. The more then do we regret, that so many obscurities and con- 
fused traditions conceal from us her real Acts, which should give satisfaction 
and edification to the pious reader could they have been authoritatively 

Article II. — St. Etain, Edania or Etavin, Virgin, of Tuaim Noa, 
now Tumna, in Moylurg, County of Roscommon. We find only a few 
indications of this holy woman, and these throw little light on her period. 
A festival in honour of Etain, virgin, of Tuama noadh, appears in the Martyr- 
ology of Tallagh, 1 at the 5th of July. Her name is Eidin or HeMdin, 2 accord- 
ing to John 0'Donovan,3 and she is regarded as the patron saint of Tumna 
parish, 4 in the barony of Boyle, and county of Roscommon. However, the 
present holy virgin appears to have been more popularly known, under the 
designation of Etavin. In the Martyrology of Marianus O'Gorman, she is 
commemorated as the fair Edaina, of full and immaculate virginity, and 
belonging to Tuaim-Noa, in the territory of Magh-Luire, on the banks of the 
River Buill, now the Boyle. She is noted, likewise, as Edania or Edoena, 
Virgin, of Tuaim-Noadh, and her festival is entered by the Bollandists,s at 
this date. Her place is called Tuaim mnd 6 in the Annals of the Four 
Masters, at the year 1249,7 and this means " the tomb of the woman ;" while, 
according to Mr. O'Donovan, it seems to have been the name of that place 

80 This has been effected through the zeal- 3 See " Letters containing Information re- 
ous labours of Rev. Charles M'Cabe, an lative to the Antiquities of the County of 
Irish priest in charge of this mission. Roscommon, collected during the Progress 

81 These are as follows : — of the " Ordnance Survey in 1837," vol. i. 

Letter of John O'Donovan, dated Elphin, 

" Ortum Modvennse dat Hibernia, Sco- July 28th, 1837. 

tia finem, 4 It is described on the " Ordnance Sur- 

Anglia dat tumulum, dat Deus vey Townland Maps for the County of Ros- 

alta poli. common," sheets 4, 6, 7, 10, 1 1. 

Prima dedit vitam, sed mortem terra s See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus ii., Julii 

secunda, v. Among the pretermitted saints, p. 216. 

Et terram terrse tertia terra dedit. 6 In that part of the country, it is believed, 

Aufert Lamfortim, quam terra that the meaning of Toomnaa is UuAim An 

Conallea profert. iic, "thenoise of the ford," because it lies 

Felix Burtonia Virginis ossa tenet." near the Lower River Boyle. 

7 At this date, the death of a noble priest, 

Article 11.— * Edited by Rev. Dr. called Mulkieran O'Lenaghan of Tuaim mna, 

Kelly, p. xxviii. is recorded. 

a In Irish ex>AOin. 8 He wishes to signify, that Etavin who is 

6 4 


[July 5. 

before a church had ever been there. This virgin descended from the race 
of Brian, son of Eochaidh Muighmheadhoin, according to the O'Clerys' 
Calendar. She is thought by some, to have been thesame as Moduena, or 
Moedoena or Mandoena, whose Acts have been " recapitulated in the 
preceding article. This opinion is expressed by a writer, 8 who has inserted 
his observation within brackets, in some additions to the Martyrology 
of Donegal. However, it is probable, he has here inserted a mistaken entry .9 
This virgin is still vividly remembered at her church of Tumna, in the parish 

The Old Church of ffumna, County of Roscommon 

of that name, in the county of Roscommon. It is delightfully and romanti- 
cally situated on the southern margin of the Lower Lake on the Boyle River, 
and near where it enters the River Shannon, a little to the north of the pre- 
sent town of Carrick-on-Shannon. The church ruins 10 at this place, and also 
the grave of St. Eidin, are to be seen. Not far removed from that place, 
there are very beautiful ruins " of the former Cistercian Abbey, at Boyle. In 
the small Island of Ennismacreeny or Ennismacreey, in Lough Key, County 
Roscommon, are the ruins of an old church. A drawing made by Bigari, in 
the last century, has been elegantly engraved ; but, Dr. Ledwich's vagaries, 
in the letterpress description, are ridiculous in the extreme. 12 A holy well, 
called after St. Etain, was near the church called Kill-oscoban. To it, many 
were accustomed to resort, through motives of devotion, and to obtain spiritual 

also called Moduena, Moedoena and Man- 
doena — by prefixing the devotional mo or 
"my," to her name — is identical, as Rev. 
Dr. Todd states, in a note. 

9 "The mem. in the more recent hand 
should probably belong to the Moninne under 
the 6th of July," adds William M. Hennessy, 
in a manuscript note to his copy of the 
Donegal Martyrology. 

10 The accompanying illustration, taken 
by William F. Wakeman on the spot, has 

been transferred by him to the wood, en- 
graved by Mrs. Millard. 

11 Three views of these are engraved, and 
they were respectively drawn by Bigari, T. 
Cocking, and Lieutenant Daniel Grose. An 
additional engraving, representing a ground- 
plan and details, occupies another plate. See 
Grose's "Antiquities of Ireland," vol. i., 
pp.81, 82. 

12 See Grose's " Antiquities of Ireland," 
vol. i„ pp. 85, 86. 


favours, as also to be cured from bodily diseases.^ The grave of this pious 
woman is shown in the churchyard, not far from the River Shannon. 1 * A 
tradition exists, in the neighbourhood of Carrick-on-Shannon, that the chapel 
of Toomna had been built by the family of Lenaghan. The name is still extant 
in this parish. 1 * The name of this virgin also occurs in the Martyrology of 
Donegal,' 6 at the same date, as Etavin, of Tuaim Noa, in Magh Luirg, on 
the banks of the Bui 11. In the table added to this Martyrology, at the entry 
of this saint's name, the notification is given, that she was identical with the 
virgin Mdduena. 1 ' This, however, seems to be very doubtful. At the 5th 
•of July, St. Edana or Edaena, in Ireland, and a virgin, is recorded by Rev. 
Alban Butler. 18 At this date, too, in the Circle of the Seasons, x 9 this holy 
woman is entered, as St. Edana, Virgin, in Ireland. She is also recorded, by 
Bishop Forbes. 20 

Article III.— St. Fergus O'Huamaigh. In the Martyrology of 
Tallagh, 1 a festival is entered at the 5th of July, in honour of Fergusa ohua- 
maigh. The Bollandists, 2 at this same date, enter a Huamayus aliquis Fer- 
gussius, from the Manuscripts of Father Thomas O'Sheerin. They acknow- 
ledge, however, that such a name was not found on their own lists. The 
Martyrology of Donegal, 3 at the same date, records him as Ho Huimmigh,* 
i.e., Fergus or Ferghass, as found in a distinct line, but evidently referring to 
one and the same person. The foregoing words, within brackets, had been 
entered, 5 by the more recent hand. 6 _ 

Article IV.— St. Ultan. The name of Ultan occurs, in the Martyr- 
ology of Donegal, 1 as having been venerated, at the 5th of July. His age or 
place does not seem to be known. 

Article V. — St. Cillen. On the 5th of July, in the Martyrology of 
Donegal, 1 appears the name of Cillen. 2 Marianus O'Gorman is cited, as 
authority for the introduction of his name, at this date. The Bollandists 3 
also record Kilian, on this day, but they do not pretend to know who he was, 
if not identical with the Kilian of Wurtzburgh, who is venerated on the 8th 
of this month. 

13 This is stated on the authority of Father 2 See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus ii., 
Thomas O'Sheerin, who seems to think the Julii v. Among the pretermitted feasts, 
present holy virgin was not a different per- pp. 215, 216. 

son from St. Modwenna, whose feast also 3 Edited by Drs. Todd and Reeves, pp. 

occurs on this day. 186, 187. 

14 See Dr. O'Donovan's "Annals of the 4 A note by Dr. Todd says, "The Mart. 
Four Masters," vol. iii., n. (g), pp. 323, Taml." calls him correctly " Fergus O'Hua- 
324. maigh." 

»5 Ibid., n. (n), p. 332. 5 This the Rev. Dr. Todd tells us. 

16 Edited by Drs. Todd and Reeves, pp. 6 William M. Hennessy remarks, that the 
186, 187. writer did not possibly notice the Ver^i^rf 

17 See ibid. , pp. 406, 407, and pp. 450, immediately succeeding, in a note tolas copy 
45 l - of the Donegal Martyrology. 

18 See " Lives of the Fathers, Martyrs and Article iv. — s Edited by Drs. Todd and 
other principal Saints," vol. vii., July v. Reeves, pp. 186, 187. 

x 9 See p. 187. Article v.— 1 Edited by Drs. Todd 

10 See " Kalendars of Scottish Saints," and Reeve*, pp. 186, 187. 

P- 333- 3 A note by Dr. Todd says at Cillien's 

Article hi. — * Edited by Rev. Dr. name, that it has been added, by the more 

Kelly, p. xxviii. recent hand, from Marianus O'Gorman. 

Vol. VII.— No. 2. e 


Article VI. — St. Rumoldus. In Convseus' list, at the 5 tli of July, we 
have a festival-day assigned to St. Rumoldus, prince Archbishop of Dublin, 
and afterwards Apostle of Mechlin. 1 Already we have treated at some length, 
about this distinguished saint, at the 1st day of this month, and in the present 
volume. 3 

Article VII. — Feast of St. Agatha and of her Companions, 
Martyrs. In the early Irish Church, at the 5th of July, the martyrdom of 
the holy virgin St. Agatha and of her companions was commemorated, as we 
learn from the "Feilire" 1 of St. ^Engus. An Irish commentary appended 
states that she was in Lombardy and which — strange to say — is supposed by 
the writer of the gloss to have been in Gaul. 2 However, it seems more pro- 
bable, that she was one of those holy Martyrs, who suffered together at 
Rhegium, in Calabria, and whose Acts 3 are set down by the Bollandists,* at 
his date, in a commentary containing eighteen paragraphs. 

Article VIII. — Reputed Feast of St. Alea, or Athea. At the 
present date, the Bollandists x enter the name of a holy nun, Alea, remitted 
from the 23rd of May. Bucelin commemorates her as a saint. The Bollan- 
dists think she was Atea, who is mentioned in the Life of St. Modwenna, 
and regarding whom no special Acts have been written. 

Article IX. — Reputed Feast of St. Boniface, Bishop and Martyr. 
In a Calendar, not more particularly described by Bollandus, there was found 
an entry of Boniface, Bishop and Martyr, at the 5th of July. However, he 
is thought, to be the same as St. Boniface ■ of Mayence, 2 and Apostle of 
Germany. It was probably an error of placement — July having been sub- 
stituted for June. At the 5th of this month, the Acts of this illustrious 
Apostle of Germany have been already set forth, as it is the date usually 
given for his chief Festival. 

3 See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus ii., Series, vol. i., part i. On the Calendar of 

Julii v. Among the pretermitted saints, Oengus, p. cix. 

p. 216. 2 hee ibid., p. cxv. A Latin comment 

Article vi. — r See O'Sul'.evan Beare's is subjoined :" Agatus nomen ciuitatis in ilia 

" Historic Catholics Ibernise Compen- plebe et ab ilia nominata est." 

dium," tomus i., lib. iv., cap. x, p. 48. * These pre written in Greek, with a Latin 

■ >ee Art. i. Translation, in three paragraphs. 

Article vii. — x In the "Leabhar * See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus ii., 

Bre.ic" copy, is the following stanza, trans- Jul i v. I)e SS. Stephano, Primo Episcopo 

lated into English by Dr. Whitley Stokes : — Rhegiensi et sociis, Snera Episcopo, 

Agnete, Felicitate et Perpetua, pp. 217 to 

■Oonm4j\cir\ •AgAcliA 220. 

CotiAcleip CA111 comuL Article viii. — l See "Acta Sancto- 
Uo ip Crur-c [rro] rlemun rum," tomus ii., Julii v. Among the preter- 
mit! opr-ei^cc La oitkmi. mitted feasts, p. 215. 

Article ix. — ■ See his Life, in the 

"To the martyr Agatha, with her followers, a Sixth Volume of this work, at the 5th of 

fair assembly, Christ granted perfect peace, June, Art. i. 

great love of him with awe." — "Transactions 3 See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus ii., 

of the Royal Irish Academy," Irish Manuscript Julii v. Among the pretermitted saints, p. 214. 


£>tjrtl) 2Bap of 3ul2* 





BOTH the Irish and the Scotch have regarded with especial veneration 
this early Apostle, charged by the Sovereign Pontiff at Rome with the 
duty of announcing to them the message of Gospel truth. His mission less 
successful preceded that of St. Patrick to our Island ; but, even for several 
years before their appearance, other servants of Christ had heralded their 
approach. It is recorded, that at the period of- St. Patrick's arrival, as 
apostolic missionary in Ireland, four holy men specially mentioned had been 
engaged in this part of the Lord's vineyard. These missionaries were called 
Saints Declain, 1 Ibar, 2 Ailbe3 and Kieran. 4 All were natives of Ireland, while 
they were engaged in spreading the Gospel light, and in opening its great 
truths to the minds of their countrymen. St. Kieran has been styled the 
"first born of Ireland's Saints." Thus he was considered the proto-Saint of 
the Island, so far remote from the centre of Christendom, although the others 
are regarded as having been his contemporaries. An innumerable host of 
sanctified men and women our country afterwards gave to the Church. The 
fame and virtues of these holy persons are written in the pages of almost all 
Christian histories and records. Their memories are recorded, in writing, 
as well as remembered, in the grateful recollection of civilized Europe. 
Their names, moreover, are inscribed in the Book of Life; and, therefore, 
unfading they shall remain, within the heavenly Jerusalem. 

After all, we know very few authentic particulars, regarding the Acts of this 
illustrious missionary. His name is generally Latinized as Palladius, but by 
the Scots, he is often called Padie.s We find accounts of this glorious saint, 
bv St. Prosper of Aquitaine, 6 Venerable Bede,? Sigebert, Marianus Scotus, 
Matthew of Westminster, 8 Ado, Hermannus Contractus, Florence of Worces- 
ter, Matthaeus Florilegus, Freculphus Lexoviensis,9 Polydore Virgil, 10 Nen- 
nius the Briton, Probus Hibernus, Jocelyn, John of Teignmouth, and by many 
other early chroniclers. Furthermore, those who have treated the Acts of 

Article i.— Chapter 1.— * His feast s See Bishop Challenor's "Memorial of 

occurs at the 24th of July. British Piety," p. IOI. 

8 See an account of him, in the Fourth 6 In his Chronicle. 

Volume of this work, at April 23rd— the 7 See " Historia Ecclesiastica Gentis An- 

supposed date for his festival, Art. ii. glorum," lib. i. , cap. xiii. 

3 His festival is held, on the 1 2th of Sep- 8 In "Flores Historiarum," at A.D. 
tember. 433. 

4 See his Acts, at the 5th of March, in 9 In lib. v., cap. xxiii. 

the Third Volume of this work, Art. i. ,0 In "Historia Anglicana," lib. iii., p. 59. 


Pope St. Celestine I., such as Platina," Ciaconius,' 2 and other writers, inci- 
dentally relate the period and mission of St. Palladius. Since the time of the 
Reformation, various authors, as well Protestants as Catholics, allude to him, 
in connexion with the ecclesiastical history of these Islands. Among those 
may be enumerated Archbishop Ussher, 1 ^ Baronius, 1 * and many others. 
Father John Colgan x s has written a very learned disquisition on the mission 
of Palladius in Ireland, before the arrival ol St. Patrick, as a Christian mis- 
sionary. 16 The Life of St. Palladius has been treated by the Bollandist 
Father John Baptist Soller, S.J., in a historic sylloge, consisting of two sections 
and nineteen paragraphs. 1 ? Again, among the Scottish writers, John Major, 18 
Hector Boetius, 1 * John Lesley, 20 Thomas Dempster, 21 and Archbishop Spottis- 
woode, 22 have various notices of St. Palladius. Besides the foregoing, Dean 
S. Cressy, 2 3 Bishop Challenor, 2 * Rev. Alban Butler, 2 ^ Eev. Father Thomas 
Innes, 26 Rev. Dr. John Lanigan, 2 7 M'Lauchlan, 28 and Rev. Dr. J. F. S. 
Gordon, 2 9 record the few known particulars about Palladius, and that have 
come down to our time. 

Historians have not decided on the native country of. this illustrious mis- 
sionary and apostle ; but, there is a very concurrent agreement among writers, 
that he was a Grecian^ There are other authors, who think, that Palladius 
was probably a Gaul by birth, although perhaps of Hellenic extraction ; for, 
some of the southern Gallic cities had been peopled by Greek immigrants^' 
and he might have some relationship to their race. Moreover, some men of 
his name, and perhaps connected with his family, were already of repute and 
distinction in the Gallic church. 3 2 Some writers 33 have asserted, that this 
saint was a native of Britain. 34 About the year 360 to 363, one of the chief 
officers of Julian the Apostate, and a Christian, had been banished into Britain. 
It has been supposed probable, that he had been father of the future Deacon 
Palladius. This supposition might warrant a suggestion, that he was of 

11 In Gestis Sancti Ccelestini. 24 See "A Memorial of British Piety," 

12 In "Vitse et Res Gestae Pontificum p. 101. 

Romanorum et Romanae Ecclesiae Cardina- 2S See "Lives of the Fathers, Martyrs 

Hum." and other principal Saints," vol. vii., 

J 3 See " Britannicarum Ecclesiarum An- July vi. 

tiquitates," cap. xvi., pp. 417, to 425. 26 See his " Civil and Ecclesiastical His- 

14 In "Annales Ecclesiastici," at A.D. tory of Scotland." 
429, num. iv. 3 7 See " Ecclesiastical History of Ire- 
's In one place, Colgan intimates, he in- land," vol. i., chap, i., sect, iv., pp. 9 to 
tended to give the Acts of this saint at the 1 1, sect, xi., xv., xvi., pp.23 to 47. Also 
6th of June, but this is clearly a mistake for chap, iv., sect, xviii., pp, 198 to 202. 
the 6th of July. 28 In his " Early Scottish Church." 

16 See "Trias Thaumaturga," Quinta 29 See his " Scotichronicon," vol. i., pp. 

Appendix ad Acta S. Patricii, cap. xiv., 391041. 

pp. 245 to 250. 30 g ee t h e R ev# i) r- Gordon's " Scoti- 

'7 See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus ii., chronicon," vol. i., p. 39. Trithemius calls 

Julii v. De S. Palladio Epis. et Conf. him a Greek. 

Scotorum Apostolo Forduni in Scotia, pp. 3L John Bale and other writers adopt this 

286 to 290. statement. 

18 "De Gestis Scotorum," lib. ii., & Among these were Palladius Arch- 
cap, ii. bishop of Bourges, elected to that See in 

'9 In " Scotorum Hystoriae," lib. vii. a'.d. 377. Another of the same name filled 

20 In his Fourth Book, when treating that same See in a.d. 451. See Rev. Dr. 

about Eugenius II. Todd's " St. Patrick, Apostle of Ireland," 

91 See " Historia Ecclesiastica Gentis chap, i., pp. 278, 279. 

Scotorum," lib. xv., num. 998. 33 See Father Innes, " Civil and Ecclesi- 

82 In his History of the Church of Scot- astical History of Scotland," p. 52. 

land. 3» j n a W ork by William of Malmesbury, 

23 See "The Church History of Brit- called "De AntiquitateGlastoniensis Eccle- 

tany," book ix., chap, iii., pp. 172 to 174. siae," this is expressly stated. 


British birth. Another mistaken account makes him an Egyptian^ proba- 
bly originating in an assumption, that our Palladius was author of the Histo- 
ria Lausiaca; but, regarding this opinion, there is no sufficient evidence given. 3 6 
The Bollandist Father J. B. Soller maintains, that he was an Italian ; yet, 
this opinion is not very clearly sustained. 3 ? According to one account, Palla- 
dius hailed from Rome. Some suppose him to have been identical 
with Palladius, Bishop of Helenopolis, and who wrote the Life of St. John 
Chrysostom.s 8 

In reality, it is improbable at the present day, that we should be able 
to glean any authentic facts regarding his parentage or native country, while 
as little seems to be discoverable regarding his early training and education. 
Yet, Palladius is called an Archdeacon, in that Life of St. Patrick, contained in 
the Book of Armagh. 39 It is generally supposed, this dignity had been con- 
ferred on him in Rome. Also, St. Palladius is styled an Archdeacon,* or a 
High Deacon, in other Lives of St. Patrick. A curious account is given 
regarding a certain " Ballerus, a man from Rome," being at the head of a 
Welsh college at Cor Tewdws in Gower, when it had been plundered and 
sacked by Scotic raiders, and when they carried away Padrig Maenwyn, who 
was a teacher there, into captivity, which he endured in Ireland/ 1 It has 
been supposed probable, that Palladius had been in that school for a series 
of years, and that his residence there might account for a special mission he 
had from Rome, to watch the progress of heresy at its source in Britain, 
while he became acquainted with the spiritual needs of the British Church, 
and the destitute condition of some scattered -Christian communities in 
Ireland/ 2 This conjecture supposes, however, that Ballerus had been iden- 
tical with Palladius ; but, we think it rather more ingeniously conceived than 
well-founded on any reliable evidence. St. Prosper^ who seems to have had 
a very inaccurate historical and geographical knowledge of the British Islands, 
satisfies us, that Christianity had taken root in Britain, and that the peace ot 
the Church had been disturbed by a subsequent prevalence of the Pelagian 
heresy. In his Chronicle, 44 he relates, that Agricola, a Pelagian/s had cor- 
rupted about this time the churches of Britain, owing to the insinuation of his 
doctrine. Much obscurity prevails, however, in reference to the origin and acts 
of its author Pelagius. The holy Pope Celestine I. was greatly concerned in his 
endeavours to preserve the Roman province there* 6 in the Catholic Faith, 
while he was equally desirous to bring the Scots over to the Christian 

As Legate to Pope Celestine I., St. Germanus, the Bishop of Auxerre, 4 ? 
laboured among the Britons, who had been infected with the heresy of Pela- 

33 See the Breviary of Aberdeen. Propria Quarta Vita S. Patricii, cap. xxviii., p. 38 ; 

Sanctorum, ad vi. Julii, fol. xxiv. b. Quinta Vita S. Patricii, cap. xxiv., p. 48; 

30 See Fordun's " Scoti-Chronicon," also, Sexta Vita S. Patricii, cap. xxv., 

tomusi., lib. iii., cap. viii., p. 112. Edin- p. 70. 

burgh Edition, a.d. 1759. 41 gee Ree's "Essay on the Welsh 

37 See " Acta Sanctorum," tomus ii., Julii Saints," p. 128. 

v. De S. Palladio, Epis. et Conf. Scotorum 42 See Rev. John Francis Shearman's 

Apostolo Forduni in Scotia, sect, ii., num. 9, " Loca Patriciana," part xiii., pp. 402 to 

p. 288. > 405. 

38 This is an error, however, and it has 43 See St. Prosper's Book against the 
been refuted by Vossius and Ussher. Author of the Conferences, designated Liber 

39 In lib. i., cap. 7. See Rev. Father contra Collatorem, cap. xliv. 
Edmund Hogan's "Vita Sancti Patricii 44 At A.D. 429. 

Hibernorum Apostoli Auctore Muirchu 4S He was son of Severianus, a Pelagian 

Maccumachtheni et Tirechani Collectanea bishop. 

de S. Patricio, p. 25. 4<5 At this period, the Roman soldiers had 

40 See Colgan's "Trias Thaumaturga," deserted the southern parts of Great Britain ; 
Secunda Vita S. Patricii, cap. xxiv., p, 13 j but, some Roman colonists remained, and 


gius. But, previous to his mission, St. Palladius seems to have been deputed 
for the same purpose, and to stem the torrent of crime and of false doctrine 
that was then spreading. He is said to have written to the Sovereign Pontiff, 
and to have warned him, that many souls were there likely to perish. More- 
over, the Catholics of Great Britain had sent a deputation to the Bishops ot 
Gaul, and asking for missionaries, who should be able to defend the Faith 
against the assaults of heresy.-' 8 The very distinguished part taken by Palla- 
dius, in the effort to eradicate those dangerous errors and vices, proves, that 
he had been delegated to assist in a work of great importance to religion/' 
although we fail to find the exact place where he laboured, or under whose 
particular direction. This holy missionary appears, however, to have been 
specially interested in the spiritual condition of the Britons, even before he 
had been chosen to preach the Gospel in the countries adjoining. We read, 
that St. Palladius was highly instrumental, in procuring the deliverance of the 
British churches from being infected with the Pelagian heresy. After his deliver- 
ance of the Britons from heresy, we may infer, very reasonably, that he was 
selected and ordained Bishop, by Pope Celestine, for the conversion of the 
Scottish or Irish nation. As St. Prosper expresses it, he was the first Bishop 
among those Scots, to whom he was sent. 50 Several of the Scotch writers main- 
tain, that he was thus destined for Scotland ; but some, who believed in Christ, 
were found among his subject people. This remark could not have generally 
applied to the Albanian Scots, at that particular period. However, in refer- 
ence to St. Palladius, much misconception and mis-statement have prevailed. 
His mission was blessed with such success, in the conversion of unbelievers, 
that we are told, Palladius made the Island of the Scots Christian. 51 His 
virtues and abilities appear to have determined the illustrious Pontiff, St. 
Celestine I., to select him for a great missionary enterprise, and to consecrate 
him as bishop. This saint is said to have flourished, in the time of Theodo- 
sius and Valentinian, when his appointment had been confirmed. 52 We have 
it on record, that the first missionary delegated by Pope Celestine I. 53 for 
the conversion of Ireland was Palladius. His selection for that office pre- 
ceded the more successful career of the great St. Patrick ;5* but, Palladius was 
not destined to be the future Apostle of our Island. 55 Pope Celestine 
bestowed some relics of St. Peter and St. Paul on him, as also the Books of 
the Old and New Testament, before he set out for Ireland. In the second 
book of a work, 56 published by Bishop Von Carl Johann Greith of St. Gall, 
we are favoured with an account of the early vestiges of Christianity in Ireland. 

many of these were Christians. 5X Now whether this refers to England, 

*7 His festival is kept, on the 31st of Ireland or Scotland, the account must be rc- 

July. ccived only in a restricted sense. The Irish 

4<s See Les Petits Bollandistes, " Vies des and the Scotch have long disputed the ques- 

Saints,"tumeix.,xxxi e JourdeJuillet,p. 136. tion,as towhieh nation St. Palladius had been 

* y Archbishop Spottisuoode states, that first sent, but doubtless, it was to Ireland. 

he was sent to Scotland, chiefly to resist the s-i See in Breviario Cammiconim Regula- 

Pelagian heresy, which then began to rium Divi Augustini, when treating about 

spread in the Scottish church. See his St. Patrick. 

"History of the Church of Scotland." S3 In the Irish Tripartite Life of St. 

s° "PraeteieaCcelestinus, quumS. Patricii Patrick, he is called the Airchinnech in 

prsedicatione Christianam fidem suscepisset Rome, and the forty-second man from St. 

Scotia et Hibernia, quae, ut modo hsereticu- Peter. See Miss Cusack's "Life of St. 

rum, fuit ohm Sanctorum insula, dedit Sco- Patrick." The Tripartite, translated by W. 

tis primum Episcopum Palladium Diaco- M. Hennessy, p. 377. 

num ; quo hortatore S. Germanum miserat 54 The reader is referred to what has been 

in Iliberniam." — Berti's " Historia Ec- already stated, in the Life of St. Patrick, in 

clesiasticasive Dissertationes Ecclesiasticae," the Third Volume of this work at the 17th 

tomus iii., ssec. v., Dissertatio iv., cap. i., day of March. Art. i., chap. vi. 

p. 174. Bassani, 1769, folio Ed. ss See Colgan's "Trias Thaumaturga, " 


He dwells particularly on the mission of St. Palladius to our Island. He shows 
by sufficient evidence, that Palladius was a deacon of the Roman Church, 
and that he was sent by Pope St. Celestine to this country. Although this 
mission had not been very successful, yet the bishop admits, that other 
Christians had been there scattered and isolated. 57 A learned Protestant 
authority = s also sustains this view of the case. A denial of his Roman mission 
is opposed to tradition and authoritative documents. Palladius is said to have 
been accompanied by twelve men, to instruct the Gaeidhel, 50 and in the same 
way as Barnabas went from Peter to instruct the Romans. He was then sent to 
preach the Gospel to the "Scots, believing in Christ," 60 as narrated by a trust- 
worthy historian. From these remarks, we might infer, that there must have 
been many professors of the Gospel in Ireland at this early time. The latter 
people, according to the Roman style of considering those living without the 
limits of their Empire, are styled barbarians; yet, this description seems 
greatly exaggerated, so far as it relates to Ireland. The date for the arrival 
of Palladius varies, according to the statement of different authors ; but, it is 
most generally and correctly assigned to a.d. 431. In the Annals of Multifer- 
nan, it is incorrectly stated, that in 423, 61 the year in which Augustine died, St. 
Palladius was sent to the Scots, or Irish. 02 It is noted, by Prosper, that St. 
Paliadius was sent over the sea on his mission, while Bassus and Antiochus 
were consuls, which was in the year 43 1. 63 Marianus Scotus has a notice of 
St. Palladius' mission to Ireland. 6 + However, we are informed by Matthew of 
Paris, 6 s that Palladius was ordained by Pope Celestine and sent as their first 
bishop, a.d. 433, to the Scots, believing in Christ. This is also the chronology 
assigned, for his mission, by Matthew of Westminster. 66 

The usual course of travel from the Continent of Europe to Ireland in 
the fifth century was through England. According to one account, Palladius 
and his Roman companions landed in the northern part of Ireland, where 
they were fiercely opposed by the pagan inhabitants. 6 ? This statement is con- 
tradictory, however, to that of most authorities on the subject; for, it is gene- 
rally held, that his vessel touched the eastern shore, in the first instance. 
When he landed in Scotia, he came to that part of Leinster, where Nathi, son 
of Garchon, was ruler. 68 Another account has it, that the holy missionary 
landed at Inbher Dea, 6 ° in the territory of Leinster. Palladius had a partial 

Tertia Vita S. Patricii, cap. xxvi., p. 23. tos, id est, ad Hibernicos. "—" Annates de 

5 6 Intituled, "Geschichte der altirischen Monte Fernandi," .Edited by Dr. Aquilla 

Kircheandihrer verbindungmitRom, Gallien Smith, p. 3. Published by the Irish Archaeo- 

und Alemannian (von 430-630)," also Einlei- logical Society in 1842. 

tung in die Geschichte des Stifts St. Gallien. ** See Father Papebroke's observations in 

s? The inconclusive objections, which Dr. " Acta Sanctorum," tomus ii., Junii xii. 

Todd urges against the Roman Mission of De Sancto Ternano, Pictorum in Britannia 

Palladius, are fully refuted by Bishop Episcopo. IUorum simul et Scotorum, limi- 

Greith. tes, Apostoli, dicecesis, num. 4, p. 534. 

s 8 Mr. George Grub, in his impartial and 64 According to him Indictione xv. 

critical' 'Ecclesiastical History of Scotland," 6 = See "Chronica Majora," edited by 

declines even to take account of Dr. Todd's Henry Richards Luard, M.A., vol. i., p. 

objections. See " The Chronicle," vol. i., 181. 

No. 37, p. 879. 66 In "Flores Historiarum," at a.d. 

59 '-For to the Comorb of Peter belongs ccccxxxiii., p. 148. 

the instruction of Europe," is added in the 67 See Richard Stanihurst's tract, "De 

translation of the Tripartite. See Miss Mary Vita S. Patricii, Hibernise Apostoli," lib. i., 

F. Cusack's " Life of St. Patrick," p. 377. p. 40. 

60 See St. Prosper, in his Chronicon. 68 See Colgan's "Trias Thaumaturga," 

61 The two latter figures probably are only Secunda Vita S. Patricii, cap. xxiv., p. 13. 
a transposition, for what should make the 6 ' Some consider this to be the mouth of 
date 432. the Vartry river ; but, such a supposition is 

62 The statement runs : ' l mittitur ad Scol- by no means removed from the pale of con- 


success in his first trials, having baptized some in the name of the Most Holy 
Trinity. 7° He is said to have founded three adjoining churches, viz. : Cill- 
fine, in which he left his books, a casket with the relics of Paul and Peter,* 1 
and the tablets in which he used to write ;? 2 Thech-na-Roman ; as also 
Domhnach-Airte, or Domnach Ardec, in which repose theremains of Sylvester" 
and Solonius,? 4 who are regarded as having been his disciples. Those chuches 
are supposed to have been situated within the present county of Wicklow ; 
but the exact modern denomination and identification of each church have 
given rise to some divergency of opinion. A learned writer,75 and one well 
acquainted with the localities named, has advanced good reason for supposing 
Teach na Roman to be identical with Tigroney;? 6 Domnach Arda he main- 
tains to be represented by Donard ;?? while, Cell Fine he considers, to be the 
present old church site of Killeen Cormac,? 8 about three miles west of Dun- 
lavin, in the townland of Colbinstown, and in the parish ot Davidstown, 
county of Kildare.^ We are of opinion, however, that Christianity had not 
been propagated on the western slopes of the Wicklow Mountains, until after 
the arrival of St. Patrick. 

According to a local tradition, still held by the people, Palladius is 
said to have landed at Ennisboheen, 80 in the county of Wicklow, and at the 
mouth of that little river, which is about three miles south from Wicklow town. 
Some authorities have the shore of the county of Wexford as the spot ; but, 
as this landing took place many centuries before either Wexford or Wicklow 8l 
became shire-divisions, we may readily conceive, how easy it might be to 
confuse popular traditions, as referring to Irish territories, the boundaries of 
which are now only known from historic records. 82 The country about that 
quarter was anciently called Crioch Cualan, and afterwards it was named 
Hy-Garchan, after the father of Nathi, who ruled there when Palladius landed. 
Here he is said to have built the church of Kilnne 8 ^ or " the Church of 

troversy. On this subject, the Very Rev. ? 8 See "Journal of the Royal Historical 
Richard Galvin, former P.P., Rathdrum, and Archaeological Association of Ireland," 
has written a very forcible and researched vol. ii., Fourth Series, July, 1873, No. 15. 
communication, which will be found in See a valuable paper, intituled " Loca Patri- 
"The Journal of the Royal Historical and ciana," pp. 486 to 498. 
Archaeological Association of Ireland," 79 See a paper, by the Rev. John Francis 
vol. i., Fourth Series, No. 8, October, 1S71, Shearman, in the "Irish Ecclesiastical Re- 
pp. 576, 577. cord," for June, 1868. 

7° See Colgan's "Trias Thaumaturga," 8o It is Anglicised into Ennisboyne by the 

Secunda Vita S. Patricii, cap. xxiv., p. 13. country people of the neighbourhood. It is 

i* Jocelyn states, that he brought these, called after St. Boethan, who lived there in 

with the relics of many other Martyrs, from the seventh century, and whose feast was 

Rome. commemorated on the 22nd of May. 

7 a These we are told were held in great 8l Wicklow County was only formed into 
veneration by the people, and they werecalled a shire, so late as 1605-1606, according to 
in the Scottish language Pall-ere or Palla- the Patent Rolls of 3rd of James I. 
dere. L'tinized onus Pailadii, or " the bur- Si The writer is indebted to the Very Rev. 
den of Palladius ;" because this seemed to Michael Moloney, P.P., the respected P.P. 
be the case or shrine, in which the relics of Kilbride and Barndarrig, for se\eral re- 
were kept. marks in the text, and conveyed in a letter, 

73 The feast of Sylvester has been placed dated Kilbride, Barndang, 12th March, 

by Colgan, at the 10th of March. At that 1886. His excelknt knowledge of Irish 

date, likewise, some notices of him may be ecclesiastical antiquities has been the result 

found, in theThirdVolumeof this work, Art. i. of a lile-long study, and with nearly all the 

7* See Miss M. F. Cusack's Tripartite Life local traditions ol this part of Wicklow 

of St. Patrick, part i., pp. 377, 378. County he is most familiar. 

75 Rev. John Francis Shearman. 8 ^ Con of the Hundred Battles having been 

7* In the parish of Castlemacadam, county assassinated at Tara, and his own brother 

of Wicklow. taking part in that deed, the time for retri- 

77 Near Dunlavin, in the west of the bution arrived, when the son of Con having 

county of Wicklow. attained his majority banished his uncle and 


the Tribes." 8 4 This seems to be affirmed, by the various Lives of St. Patrick 
extant ; but, the fourth Life states, that the church Teach na Roman, or the 
House of the Romans, had been built by the disciples of St. Palladius, and 
that the third church, called Dominica Arda, had been tended by the com- 
panions of Palladius, Silvester and Solinus, whose relics had been afterwards 
conveyed to Knnisboethen, where they were held in great honour. 85 A fair 
inference to be drawn from all those incidental statements is, that the three 
Palladian churches, as they have been styled, were not severally far removed, 
and probably they were within the same territory of Hy-Garchon. However, 
at the present day, it seems impracticable clearly to identify these various 
sites, especially as the original churches were built of wood, 86 according to 
Jocelyn's statement. 



Notwithstanding his high commission to evangelize the people, St. 
Palladius remained not long in Ireland. 1 To St. Patrick, and not to him, 
had Providence assigned the grand measure of a successful mission. No 
sooner had Palladius begun to announce the Godhead and the Gospel of 
Christ, 2 than the enemy of man cast obstacles -in his way. Nathi, son of 
Garchon, a chief in that part of Wicklow, opposed his progress. It is stated, 
that he baptized a few persons at Inbher-Dea,3 where he erected a monas- 
tery, called in the Irish language Coall-mor — rightly rendered Kill Mor. 4 
An ancient tradition states, however, that Palladius suffered martyrdom 
among the Scots, 5 and owing to the various obscurities besetting his Acts, 
to many writers this seems to be a supposition sufficiently probable. One 
account 6 has it, that he was not allowed to land in Ireland at all, as tempests 
and signs from God prevented him. 1 However, the prevailing opinion 
appears to be, that the rude and inhospitable people where he landed did 
not readily receive his doctrine, and therefore he willed not to remain in a 

his followers, who came to Crioch Cualan, " Life of St. Patrick, Apostle of Ireland," 

of which they took possession. Afterwards Irish Tripartite Life, translated by William 

they were called 'tribes or Strangers by the M . Hennessy, M.R.I.A., part i., pp. 377, 

natives who lived there. 378, and n. 5. 

84 This is called Ecclesia Finte, in the 4 See Ussher's " Britannicarum Ecclesia- 
Fourth Life. The meaning is the same, rum Antiquitates," cap. xvi., p. 424. 
Kill-fine, Kill finte or Kill-fin-tech being s Such is the account given by Tirechan, 
rendered in Latin cedes Fine, as we find in Sir William Betham's " Irish 

85 See Colgan's "Trias Thaumaturga," Antiquarian Researches." In reference to 
Quarta Vita S. Patiicii, cap. xxviii., p. 38, him, we read: "qui martyrium passus est 

.and nn. 17, 18, 19, 20, p. 49. apud Scotos, ut tradunt sancti antiqui." — 

86 See ibid., Sexia Vita S. Patricii, cap. Appendix xxxvi. 

xxv., p. 70. 6 That of Mark the Anchorite, who 

Chapter ii. — r The Annals of Inisfallen flourished in the ninth century, 

state, at A.D. 431, that he remained one 7 In Edward Gunn's edition of the " His- 

year. toria Britonum " by Nennius, the following 

2 The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle places the observation occurs : " sed per quasdam 
mission of Palladius — called also Patricks — tempestates et signa ilium Deus prohibuit, 
to the Scots, in the year 430. See edition quia nemo potest quicquam accipere in terra 
of Benjamin Thorpe, vol. i., p. 19, and nisi fuerit datum desuper, et ille Palladius 
vol. ii., p. 11. rediens de Hibernia ad Britanniam ibi de- 

3 Held to be the mouth of the present functus est in terra Pictorum." 

Vartry River. See Miss Mary F. Cusack's 8 Such is the account, in Muirchu's an- 


country strange to him. His resolve was formed, to return with the first tide 
which served, and to seek the Pope who had sent him. 8 

We are informed, that the newly arrived missionary was expelled from the 
country .9 Sofar as we can judge, however, twoor more of hiscompanionsappear 
to have been left behind him in Hy-G-irchon. 10 These were his disciples, who 
are named Augustine, 11 Benedict," Sylvester, 1 * and Solonius. 1 * With them 
he left some books, as also the relics of saints. '5 Here we have to admire the 
inscrutable ways of Divine Providence, who so willed it, that the mission of 
Palladius should prove comparatively barren of results, while within a short 
time after his leaving Ireland, St. Patrick was destined to arrive, and to 
preach the Gospel among the natives, with most successful and consoling 
results. 16 

According to the account of Jocelyn, 17 finding the Irish nation obstinately 
bent against receiving the doctrines of truth, Palladius departed from Ireland. 
Intending to return back to Rome, it is said, that he died on the way, 
but in Britain, and on Pictish land. After Palladius had left Ireland, he passed 
into Scotland a.d. 431, l8 as is generally credited. An opinion has been 
advanced, that he landed there in the north-west, and that he continued his 
course by land, until he arrived at Fordun, where he fell sick. '9 He went to 
the kingdom of the Picts. There it is stated, that he preached Christ with 
considerable success. 20 Some of the Scottish historians 2I pretend, that he 
had a message from Pope St. Celestine I. to arrive about a.d. 429, at 
Fordun, 22 and that there he was most hospitably entertained by Eugenius, 
King of the Scots, and that during many years he spent among these latter 
people in Britain, Palladius ordained archbishops and bishops, as also sent 
missionaries to the Orkney Islands. 2 * Again, it is related, that Dongard, 
successor of Eugenius, was a patron of his followers. It is only necessary 
to observe, that Fordun was then comprised within the country of the Picts f* 

cient Life of St. Patrick. See Sir William p. 49; Quinta Vita S. Patricii, lib. i., cap. 

Beiham's " Irish Antiquarian Researches," xxiv., xw., pp. 48, 49, andnn. 26, 27, p. 63; 

Appendix i. Sexta Vita S. Patricii, cap. xxv., p. 70. 

9 Such is the account given of Pledius — Also, Septima Vita S. Patricii, pars, i , cap. 
another form of Palladius' name — in "The xxviii., xxix., p. 123, and nn. 20, 21,22, 
Irish Version of the Historia Britcnum of p. 171. 

Nennius," edited with a Translation and l6 See D. Petrus Lombardus, " De 

Notes by Rev. Dr. James Henthorn Todd, Regno Hibernise, Sanctorum Insulae, Com- 

and by the Hon. Algernon Herbert, pp. mentarius," cap. xiii., pp. 61 to 63. Very 

106, 107. Rev. Dr. Moran's Edition. 

10 For several learned and ingenious re- f See Colyan's "Trias Thaumaturga," 
marks in reference to this district and to the Sexta Vita S. Patricii, cap. xxv., p. 70. 
Palladian churches, said to have been l8 See Ussher's " Britannicarum Ecclesia- 
founded within it, the reader may consult rum Anliquitates," cap. xvi., pp. 418, 
the Rev. John Francis Shearman's " Loca 424. 

Patriciana," No. iii., pp. 25 to 37. *» See Rev. Dr. Lanigan's "Ecclesiastical 

11 The name of this missionary is not to History of Ireland/' vol. i., chap, i., sect, 
be found in the Irish Calendars. xvi., n. 149, p. 45. 

,a There is no mention oi his name, in the 20 See Bishop Challoner's " Britannia 

Irish Calendars. Sancta," part ii., July vL 

13 At the iodi of March, a St. Sylvester is 8I Among these may be classed John 

to be found in the Martyrology of Tallagh. Fordun and Hector Boece. 

See some account of him, at that date, in " According to John Fordun, Palladius 

the Third Volume of this work, Art. i. arrived with a great companyin the eleventh 

' 4 A feast has been assigned to Solonius, year of King Eugenius' reign. 

inMarr, by Dempster, and also by Ferrarius, a3 See Ussher's " Britannicarum Ecclesia- 

who follows him. rum Antiquitates," cap. xv., pp. 351 to 

' s S<.e Colgan's " Trias Thaumaturga," 353. 

Secunda Vita S. Patricii, cap. xxiv., p. 13, 3 * See on this subject, the remarks of 

and nn. 32, 33, 34, p. 18 ; Quarta Vita S. Chalmers, in his learned work " Caledonia," 

Patricii, cap. xxviii., p. 38, andnn. 16 to 21, vol. i., bookii., chap. vi. 


nor was there any Scottish kingdom whatever in North Britain, during the 
fifth century. 2 s It was only, about the year 839, that Kenneth Mac Alpin 
established the Scottish denomination over the Picts, and that the whole of 
Alban was regarded as the United Kingdom of Scotland. 

If Palladius escaped with his life from Ireland, and arrived amongthe Britons 
or Picts; it is thought to be most probable, that Galloway was the place 
where he landed and died, 26 sickness having seized him in the country of the 
Cruiihne. 2 ? One account 28 has it, that when Palladius was forced to leave 
Ireland, he was obliged to go round the coast of Ireland towards the north. 
Then, he was driven by a great tempest, until he reached the extreme part of 
the Modhjiid, towards the south, where he founded the church of Fordoun 
and Pledi, 2 9 called after him. According to the Scottish traditions,3° St. 
Palladius arrived in Scotland, during the reign of Eugene^ 1 and he long 
ministered at the church of Fordoun. ^ This is now a midland parish, in 
the county of Kincardine, where the kirk is romantically situated upon the 
eastern slope of the Hill of Strathfinla, overhanging the mountain stream of 
the Luther. ?3 Near the mansion-house of Fordoun are distinct vestiges of a 
Roman encampment, with the pretorium. 3 * 

Among other mistakes in reference to this saint, he has been accredited 
with literary composition ; but, this is chiefly relying on the statement of John 
Bale, 35 who is charged by Ussher, not only with giving credence to what 
other writers have laid down on such matters, but even with conjecturing 
what might probably have been written by those, who are included in his class 
of authors. 36 Palladius is stated to have been the author of "Vita Sancti 
Joannis Chrysostomi," in one book ;37 but this^should make him identical 
with a Bishop of Helenopolis similarly named, while the supposition is con- 
tradicted by Vossius and Ussher, who expose that error.3 8 

The particulars of St. Palladius' labours in North Britain are but imper- 
fectly known. The Scottish historians generally call St. Servanus 39 his dis- 
ciple. Him, they say, Palladius made a Bishop, and sent to preach in the 
Isles of Orkney. Moreover, it is stated, that St. Ternan 4 ° had been Bishop 
of the Picts. 4 r But, these two saints could not have been Bishops, in the 
time of St. Palladius.* 2 A suspicion seems to have prevailed, that St. Ternan 

2 s Only in the year 504 did the Scots emi- 33 See Rev. Dr. J. F. S. Gordon's " Sco- 

grate from Ireland under Loarn, who was tichronicon," vol. i., pp. 39, 40. 

succeeded by his brother Fergus. 34 See " Imperial Gazetteer of Scotland," 

i6 See William F. Skene's "Celtic vol i., p. 665. 

Scotland: a History of Ancient Alban," 35 See " Scriptorum Illustrium Majoris 

vol. ii., book ii., chap, i., p. 28. Britannia, quam nunc Angliam et Scotiam 

=7 See Miss Mary F. Cusack's " Life of St. vocant, Catalogus," Cent, xiv., Num. vi. 

Patrick, Apostle of Ireland," Irish Tri par- 3<5 See " Britannicarum Ecclesiarum Anti- 

tite Life, translated by William M. Hen- quitates," cap. xvi., p. 423. 

nessy, M.R.I.A., part i., p. 378. ' 37 See John of Trittenheim's "Catalogus 

28 The Scholion, on the Irish metrical Scriptorum Ecclesiasticorum," fol. xxxiii. a. 
Life of St. Patrick, by his disciple, St. 38 See Rev. Dr. J. F. S. Gordon's " Sco- 
Fiech. See Colgan's "Trias Thauma- tichronicon," vol. i., p. 39. 

turga," Prima Vita S. Patricii, n. 13m, 39 The feast of St. Servan or Serf is 

p. 5. usually assigned to the 1st day of July, where 

29 The local name was Paldy, a contrac- in the present volume, some notices of him 
tion of Palladius. are to be found, Art. ii. 

30 As stated by John of Fordoun, John 4 ° See account of him, at the 12th of June 
Major, Hector Boece and John Lesley. — the day for his feast — in the Sixth Volume 

31 Son to Fergus II. of this work, Art. ii. 

32 One of the oldest and most authentic 4I He appears to have been identical 
histories of Scotland, and called the " Sco- with the Irish St. Torannon, or Torranan, 
tichronicon," was written by John styled of venerated on the same day. 

Fordoun, who was incumbent of this parish 42 According to Ussher's chronology, 

in 1377. 43 See Venerable Bede's " Historia Eccle- 


was the same as St. Torannan, and that the latter had been identical with St. 
Palladius, who is said to have been buried in Liconium, probably the old 
name of that place afterwards called Banchory-Ternan. The probable solu- 
tion is, that Ternan or Terrananus was really a disciple of St. Palladius, and 
that he brought the apostolic missionary's relics either from Ireland or from 
Galloway to his native district, in the territory of the southern Picts, who had 
been converted^ perhaps not long before, by St. Ninian" of Candida 
Casa, and, as the founder of the church of Fordun in honour of St. Palladius, 
he had become to some extent identified with his patron. 45 But, although 
Terrenanus might possibly have been a disciple to the reputed Apostle of the 
Picts, yet Servanus has no well founded claim to be regarded as possessing 
the same character.* 6 In a Life of St. Kentigern, it is stated, that he was 
received and educated at Culross by Servanus. Besides, in the Life of St. 
Servanus which has has been preserved, there is no mention made either of 
Palladius or of Kentigern ; moreover, the former was a contemporary with 
Adamnan,47 while he founded the church of Culross in the reign of Brude,* 8 
King of the Picts. 

From all we can learn or infer regarding him, the mission of Palladius 
does not appear to have been extended or greatly prolonged in Scotland. 
One account has it,*9 that Augustine and Benedict had been in Britain with 
him, after his departure from Ireland. 50 We are not to accept as serious his- 
tory those statements made 51 , that this early Scottish bishop had been sent to 
Scotland, chiefly to resist the Pelagian heresy, which began to spread in the 
Scottish church. At Fordun in the Mearns — and said to have been situated 
In the plain of Girgin 52 — Palladius is thought to have departed this life ; 
while some accounts have it, that he was there crowned with martyrdom. 
Most writers are agreed, that the Scottish Apostle died at Fordun, where a chapel 
dedicated to him is now shown within the graveyard. It is locally believed, 
that this chapel had been erected at the time of St. Palladius' death. This is 
a building of very inconsiderable dimensions. The original church is said 
to have sunk, when another was built on its top. A curious Piscina is to be 
seen within the chapel," and it is cut out of a single stone, measuring 2 feet, 
by 18 inches, the arch being 18 inches high, by 11 broad. Having assumed, 
that the great Irish Apostle had been born at Kilpatrick, in Scotland, Harris 
tells us, that Palladius died among St. Patrick's relations.54 This however is 
quite a gratuitous supposition. Assuming that St. Patrick had been born of 
Christian parents, and in a Roman province in the south of Scotland ; it is not 
likely, that he could have had relatives at the more northern Fordun, and in 
the land of the pagan Picts. 55 The death of Palladius has been recorded at 
a.d. 431, by Archbishop Ussher, 50 Walter Harris 5 ? and other writers. Where 
it is set down at this last date, a.d. 431, a difficulty must exist in assigning 

siastica Gentis Anglorum," lib. i. Quinta Vita S. Patricii, lib. i., cap. xxv., pp. 

44 His feast was kept, on the 16th of 48, 49. 

September. s ' By Archbishop Spottiswoode and 

<s See William F. Skene's " Celtic Scot- others, 

land : a History of Ancient Alban," vol. ii., $* The Irish form of this name was Magh 

book ii., chap, i., p. 30. Gherginn. 

46 For want of sufficiently matured reflec- 53 In Rev. Dr. J. F. S. Gordon's " Sco- 

tion, however, we have placed him as a dis tichronicon," an engraving of it is intro- 

ciple of St. Palladius, at the 1st clay of July, duced. See vol. i., p. 40. 

in the present volume. See Art. ii. 54 See Harris' Ware, vol. i., "Archbishops 

4 ? He died, on the 23rd of September, of Armagh," p. II. 

A.D. 704. ss See Rev. Dr. Lanigan's "Ecclesiastical 

48 He reigned, from A.D. 697 to 706. History of Ireland," vol. i., chap, iv., sect. 

49 That of Probus. xviii., n. 151, p. 200. 

J° See Colgan's "Trias Thaumaturga," 5<s See " Britannicarum Ecclesiarum And- 

July 6.] 



St. Patrick's mission among the Irish to the early part of 432. According to 
Rev. Dr. Lanigan,* 8 it should be incorrect to assign the death of Palladius to 
a.d. 431, which is supposed to have been that in which he left Rome, for his 
Irish mission. It would seem, however, to have taken place, not earlier than 
a.d. 432 ; and, most probably, according to some, c 9 it ought to be placed at 
some later year. The mission of Palladius to the Scots believing in Christ 
has been deferred to a.d. 433, by Matthew of Westminster, 60 and by Matthew 
of Paris f l in adopting which date, it may be assumed, his death should be 
referred to a later year. About the year 450 is another period, to which it 
has been assigned f 2 but, it is not probable, that Palladius lived on to the 
year last-mentioned. 6 3 

To the 27th of January, 64 a.d. 432, some writers have ascribed the death 
of Palladius. 6 s The English Martyrology and Ferrarius notice a festival for 
him, at that date ; and which is the one, said to have found most favour with 
Irish Calendarists. 66 Yet, his chief feast was held on this day, the 6th of 
July, according to the Breviary of Aberdeen and several of the Scottish 
Calendars, such as in those of Arbuthnott, 6 ? the Aberdeen Kalendar, 68 and 
Martyrology, e 9 Adam King's Kalendar,7° Thomas Dempster's Menologium 
Scoticum,? 1 Camerarius,? 2 as also in the Scottish Kalendar of 1637.73 At this 
date, most writers of saints' Acts, have noticed the chief incidents of his life. 
Among these may be quoted, Dean Cressy,74 Bishop Challenor,75 Rev. Alban 
Butler, 7 6 Rev. Dr. LanigatV 7 Rev. P. J. Carew,7 8 Rev. M. J. Brenan, O.S.F.,79 
R. Chambers, 80 and Les Petits Bollandistes. 81 Other festivals have been named 
for his death — viz.: December 15th, 82 as also the 25th 8 3 — by the English 

quitates," Index Chronologicus, p. 516. 

57 This is the year in which he died, ac- 
cording to Harris' Ware, vol. i., "Arch- 
bishops of Armagh," p. 10. 

58 See " Ecclesiastical History of Ire- 
land," vol. i., chap, i., sect, xvi., p. 39, and 
n. 149, pp. 44, 45 ; also chap, iv., sect, 
xviii., p. 198, and nn. 151, 153, pp. 200 to 

59 Among these is Tillemont, Le Sieur Le 
Nain, who discusses this matter in "Me- 
moirs pour servir a l'Histoire Ecclesiastique," 
tome xvi., p. 784. 

60 See "Flores Historiarum," p. 148. 

61 See " Chronica Majora," edited by 
Henry Richards Luard, M.A., vol. i., 
p. 181. 

62 See Rev. Alban Butler's " Lives of the 
Fathers, Martyrs and other principal Saints, " 
vol. vii., July vi. 

63 Yet, this statement is followed in R. 
Chambers' " Book of Days," vol. ii., July 6, 
p. 25. 

6 * At this date, in the First Volume 
of this work is a notice of that feast, at 
Art. ix. 

65 See Rev. Dr. Lanigan's "Ecclesiastical 
History of Ireland," vol. i., chap, i., sect, 
xvi., n. 149, p. 45. 

66 See the Bollandists' "Acta Sanctorum," 
tomu'3 ii., Julii vi. De S. Palladio, Epis. et 
Conf. Scotorum Apostolo, sect, i., num. 4, 
p. 287. 

67 Thus, at ii. Non. " S. Paladei Scotorum 
Apostoli et Episcopi." — Bishop Forbes' 
" Kalendars of Scottish Saints," p. 102. 

63 Thus, at Pridie Non. " Palladii Epis- 
copi Confessoris Apostoli Scotorum." — 
Ibid., p. 118. 

6 9 Thus : « Pridie N. Julii. In Scotia 
Sancti Palladii Scotorum Apostoli," &c. — 
Ibid., 133. 

70 Thus : " S. Padie or Palladius apostile 
of Scotland send be Pape ccelestine ye first 
vnder Eugenius 2. 423." — Ibid., p. 156. 

71 Thus : " In Mernia Palladii Diaconi 
S. R. E. Cardinalis Scotorum Apostoli a S. 
Ccelestino papa missi, ut Scotos, diu antea 
in Christum credentes, a Pelngiana peste in 
Anglia grassante, tutaretur. K. B. B. T." — 
Ibid., p. 205. 

72 Thus : " 6 Die. Sanctus Palladius 
Episcopus et Scotorum velut Apostolus mis- 
sus a Ccelestino Romano Pontifice in Sco- 
tiam." — Ibid., p. 238. 

73 Thus : "6 I e I Prid. No. | Palladius." 
— Ibid., p. 253. 

74 See "Church History of Brittany," 
book ix., chap, iii., pp. 172 to 174. 

75 See "A Memorial of British Piety," 
p. 101. 

76 See " Lives of the Fathers, Martyrs and 
other principal Saints," vol. vii., July vi. 

77 See "Ecclesiastical History of Ire- 
land," vol. i., chap, i., sects, xv., xvi., pp. 
33 to 47- 

78 See " Ecclesiastical History of Ire- 
land," chap, ii., pp. 30 to 35. 

" See " Ecclesiastical History of Ire- 
land," chap, i., pp. 5 to 7. 

80 See "Book of Days," vol. ii., July 6, 
p. 25. 


Calendars and by some writers. At none of the foregoing days, however, is 
the name of Palladius to be found in the Roman Martyrology, and it is 
omitted, likewise, from our best known Irish Calendars. Again, we are 
informed, that St. Patrick soon heard of the Scottish missionary's death, 8 * 
although then living at Auxerre, in Burgundy. This was through the instru- 
mentality of Augustine, Benedict and some others, who had left Ireland with 
Palladius. 8 * This news they brought while St. Patrick was in Euboria. As 
to his having got that news at Auxerre, it is not worth controverting, unless 
indeed, one could say that Eboria and Auxerre were the same place. 86 St. 
Patrick could not have got the account confirming the death of Palladius until 
about a month after its occurrence; accordingly, his preparations for going to 
Rome, the journey thither, and his proceedings there, must all be comprised 
within the time which elapsed, between the middle of January and the latter 
end of March. 8 7 Being certified, regarding Palladius' death, the Pope 
alluded to appointed St. Patrick to succeed him, in that charge of preaching 
the Gospel to the Irish nation. 

During the early Christian ages in Scotland, pilgrimages were made to 
Fordoun, in order to obtain spiritual and temporal favours, through the inter- 
cession of St. Palladius. The feast of the saint, on the 6th of July, appears 
to have been held at Fordoun with great solemnity. This probably gave 
rise to the Padie 88 Fair, which is still commemorated in that neighbourhood, 
and on the same day. 8 ? Within the chapel of St. Palladius, the bones of 
that saint are said to be deposited,9° and in a niche, towards the east end of 
the building. King Kenneth III. of Scotland was killed a.d. 995, 9I in that 
neighbourhood^ 2 while he was passing to or from the shrine of St. Palladius, 
to which, among other shrines, he went, in order to perform penance for the 
part he had in the assassination of Dufifus,93 which happened at Dnnsinoen.94 
We are informed, by Hector Boethius,95 that St. Palladius' relics were kept 
at Fordun, in his days. It is stated, moreover, that those remains had been 
enshrined by William Schevez, Archbishop of St. Andrew's, a.d. 1494. They 
were deposited in a silver shrine, set with diamonds. It is thought, also, that 
to this period the oldest part of St. Palladius' chapel at Fordoun belongs. 
According to tradition, that rich shrine was afterwards stolen, by the sacrile- 

81 See "Vies des Saints," tome viii., pose, that this Tope could not attend to the 

vi* Jour de Juillet. business of consulting St. Patrick until near 

8i See Harris' Ware, vol. i., " Archbishops to the very day of his death, 

of Armagh," p. io. Also, O'Flaherty's 88 This is the Scottish abbreviation for the 

" Ogygia Vindicated," chap. xvi. name of Palladius. 

8 -> Hoh in the year 431, according to Rev. 8 ' See Bishop Forbes' u Kalendars of 

Dr. Lankan, in his " Ecclesiastical History Scottish Saints," p. 429. 

of Ireland," vol. i., chap, i., sect, xvi., n. 149, »° According to A. Jervise's interesting 

p.45. paper, No. III. Notices of the localities of 

84 See Harris' Ware, vol. i., "Arch- the Sculpture 1 Stone Monuments at St. 
bishops of Armagh," p. 11. Vigeans, Incbbrayoch, Pitmuies, and Men- 

85 See Colgan's "Tiias Thaumaturga," muir in Angus, and of Fordoun in the 
Quinta Vita S. Tatricii, lib. i., cap. xxv., M earns. 

p. 48. »» See William F. Skene's " Celtic Scot- 

86 Independently of a great difference in land : a History of Ancient Alban," vol. i., 
the names, this should be in direct opposition book i., chap, vii., p. 380. 

to Probus and to other writers. For these 9 * The Fordoun Stone is said to have been 

often mention Auxerre, under its own name raised as a memorial of his death. This 

of Antissiodorum. See Rev. Dr. Lanigan's occurred through the stratagem of Finella, 

" Ecclesiastical History of Ireland," vol. i., wife to the Thane of the Mearns. 

chap, iv., sect, xviii., p. 198, and n. 151, »* See "Proceedings of the Society of 

p. 200. Antiquaries of Scotland," vol. ii., pp. 464, 

8 ? Pope Celestine I. died, on the 6th of 465. 

April, a.d. 432. Now, we are not to sup- »♦ See William F. Skene's " Chronicles of 


gious Knight of Pitarron, from which time it is said, that the family fortunes 
of the Wisharts began to decline." 6 In the year 1886, a colossal statue of St. 
Palladius, first Bishop of the Scots, was placed upon a pedestal prepared for 
it, fully thirty feet from the ground, outside the south transept of an ornate 
new church at Drumtochty, near Fordoun.97 There tradition says the saint 
in question lived and died, in the middle of the fifth century.9 8 

The world worships success, and often for no better reason do men become 
distinguished in it ; but the true heroes of Christianity love to encounter 
adversities, when knowing they engage on the field of duty, and that the 
Almighty proves his faithful servants here, only to crown them hereafter. We 
should learn, however, to disregard human estimates, which mistake temporal 
fortune for a real good, while life eternal is the true reward for the close of a 
virtuous career. 







To spend a life in vanity and exterior adornment of the person is the 
occupation of many young and accomplished ladies. We are told of an 
instance, 1 when a certain noble woman, who although living near the church 
used to put the clergy and humble people out of patience, while they waited 
her idleness in dressing. While looking in her glass one such Sunday, she 
suddenly saw in the reflection a demon behind her so ugly and staring, that 
she was almost frightened out of her wits. Afterwards, she thanked God for 
having given her such a lesson, while it corrected her passion for dress, and 
made her punctual in attending Divine service. 2 The religious habit requires 
not such loss of time to arrange, and the religious life is ever active to antici- 
pate the hours for praying to God. Far different are the desires and pursuits 

the Picts and Scots," pp. 175, 289. ss This figure of Palladius stands nine feet 

95 SeeHistoriaeScotorum,' lib. vii.,fol. 128. in height, representing a bearded and some- 

96 See Rev. Dr. J. F. S. Gordon's " Scoti- what rugged-looking, low-mitred bishop; 
chronicon," vol. i., p. 40. who, with a flowing cope thrown over his 

57 This statue was the gift of James S. broad shoulders, grasps his ornamental ham- 

Gammell, Esq., of Drumtochty Castle, Kin- mered copper crozier in his left hand, as he 

cardineshire. It is sculptured from a block raises his right in the act of giving the apos- 

of brown Portland stone, and it is boldly tolic blessing. The statue is the work of 

modelled to suit the position it stands in. Mr. Harry Hems, of Exeter. See " The 

The stone the sacred edifice is built of is Irish Builder" of December 1st, 1886, 

raised near Brechin, and this warm-coloured vol. xxviii., No. 647, p. 324. 

material harmonizes and yet contrasts ad- Article II. — Chapter i.— l In Le 

mirably with the somewhat cold grey tone of Livre du Chevalier de la Tour Landry, this 

the sculptured statue, story is told. 


of the votaries of pleasure and fashion, from those pure aspirations and self- 
denying practices, which draw pious recluses from worldly vanities and 
deceits to the desert; where, with hearts fixed on the delights of heaven, all 
was not solitude in their beloved retreats. 

As in the case of the present holy woman, such instances of self-sacrifice 
are numerous, even from the earliest periods of our national church. Some 
confusion seems to have arisen, however, when the present St. Darerca has 
been confounded with the religious sister of our great Apostle St. Patrick, 
and who was similarly named. Again, as we have seen at the preceding day, 
under her alias name of Moninna, she has been confounded with a St. Mod- 
wen or Modwenna, who is supposed to have flourished in the ninth century. 
Having there made an effort, to discriminate between these latter persons ; 
we are obliged to depend much on conjecture, as to those particulars, 
occurring in the Acts already mentioned, some of them referring very possibly 
to the present saint. As may be seen in the sequel, however, we are obliged to 
admit chronological and other difficulties of statement, while endeavouring 
to investigate her period and career. The few reflected traditions or lights 
we have from independent sources rather serve to dazzle and perplex than to 
elucidate her history. We know, however, that a saint called Moninnehad been 
venerated on the 6th of July, and that her place was in the northern parts of 
Ireland. This is stated, in the Feilire of St. ^Engus.3 Some commentaries 
annexed * — although containing traditional information — are hardly to be 
regarded as altogether authentic. Colgan intended and also promised s the 
publication of Acts, illustrating the biography of St. Darerca, or Moninna, 6 
at the 6th of July. i The Bollandists have published two different Acts of 
St. Darerca or Monynna, virgin, at the 6th of July. 8 One of these is taken 
from an Irish Manuscript, belonging to the Jesuit College at Salamanca,9 
but its author's name has not been discovered. Its date is unknown, yet it 
is thought to be of some considerable antiquity. This is followed by a less 
reliable Life, 10 attributed to Conchubran, 11 as already stated, at the preceding 
date. There, too, we have endeavoured to deal with both, in trying to dis- 
criminate between the Monenna, venerated on the 5th of this month, and 
the Monenna, whose feast has been set down, for the present day. Both l * 

* See Alexander Vance's Romantic Epis- 6 Where her name occurs on the list, 

odes of Chivalrie and Mediaeval France, pp. published by Charles MacDonnell, Esq., as 

292, 293. " S. Darercaequae et Moninna, 6 Jul." 

3 In the "Leabhar Breac " copy, the 7 See " Catalogus Actuum Sanctorum quae 

following stanza occurs at this date, and MS. habentur, ordine Mensium et Dierum." 

it has been translated by Whitley Stokes, 8 See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus ii., 

LL. D. : — Julii vi. De S. Darerca seu Monynna Virg. in 

Hibernia, Scotia, vel Anglia, pp. 200 to 312. 

monnroe m Cflebi 9 The Bollandists have published this, in 

Cuibrro bacAin Aige four cnapters, containing forty-five para- 

Sabaip buAit> geb gUvme graphs. 

Siuur* Tttuine m-Aipe. ,0 Evidently, it has been interpolated from 

some original, and by an ignorant scribe. 
" Moninne of the mountain of Cuilenn " Taken from a Codex, belonging to the 
(Slieve Guliion) was a fair pillar : she gained Cottonian Library, and classed as Cleopatra 
a bright victory of purity : (she was) a sister A. 2. This is preceded by a Prologue of the 
of great Mary (the virgin)." — "Transactions author, and it has been arranged in eight 
of the Royal Irish Academy," Irish Manu- chapters, comprising seventy-eight para- 
script Series, vol. i., parti. On the Calen- graphs, 
dar of Oengus, p. cix. " In the following notes; we shall quote 

4 See ibid., p. cxvi. them as the Salamancan or First Life of St. 

5 See "Trias Thaumaturga," Quinta Ap- Modwenna, and as Conchubran's or the 
pendix ad Acta S. Patricii, cap. xxiii., Second Life of St. Modwenna. 

p. 270. ,3 See " Lives of the Fathers, Martyrs and 


have been edited, by Father John Pinius, S.J., who has added notes, and a 
previous commentary in four paragraphs. At this date, the name of St. 
Moninna, virgin, appears in Rev. Alban Butler's work. '3 Some notices of 
this saint are offered, by Rev. Dr. Lanigan, 1 * but with the doubts inseparable 
from a judicious consideration of those accounts, which have come down to 
our times. There is allusion, likewise, to Sainte Darerque, also called 
Monynne, virgin, in Les Petits Bollandistes.'S There is a very interesting 
account of this pious virgin — who is called Modwenna or Moyenna in the 
Scottish Calendars — given in the valuable work of Bishop Forbes ; l6 but, he 
is of opinion, that we have only enough of evidence to obtain a very clear 
impression regarding a remarkable Irish saint, who becomes as it were a con- 
necting link between the three great wonder-workers of Ireland, and the 
circumstances of whose life may be harmonized to suit one individual. 

This saint is not to be confounded with the sister or supposed sister of 
St. Patrick, x 7 and whose feast was held on the 22nd of March. 18 As both 
were named Darerca, and as both are supposed to have flourished in the fifth 
century, it is not difficult to account for such confusion, especially as so many 
extravagant statements have been made regarding them. However, the cir- 
cumstance of the present holy person being regarded as a virgin, and the 
other having been a matron, ought to afford grounds sufficient for distinguish- 
ing them. About the progeny of St. Darerca, who is called the sister of St. 
Patrick, ancient accounts differ, and various controversies have arisen ; for, 
some writers assign certain sons to Darerca, while other biographers state, 
they were the children of Liemania, another sister. A few of our ancient 
genealogists say, that Lupita had been a mother, while other authors con- 
sider her to have remained a virgin. Richella — also called Cinne-noem or 
holy Cinne — is said to have been of royal parentage, receiving the name 
Ricinne or Richinne (royal Cinne), and hence the name lapsed into Richella. 
She is related to have had a number of sons, who became bishops, priests or 
deacons.^ According to some accounts, Darerca was married twice ; her 
first husband being Conis, a Briton, while her second is named Restitutio, a 
Lombard. Yet, in some Irish accounts, he is styled Hua-baird, or "son of 
a bard f and, hence, it is thought, through some mistake, Lombard must 
have been substituted. 20 Darerca is said to have died a.d. 517," or 518. 23 
Yet, it is not easy to believe, that a sister of St. Patrick could have survived 
to this period,^ when we recollect, that the Irish Apostle is supposed to have 

other principal Saints," vol. vii., July vi. Druimdubhain, in the county of Tyrone. 

14 See " Ecclesiastical History of Ireland," Her Acts are given by Colgan, at the 1st of 
vol. iii., chap, xvii., sect, ix., pp. 38, 39, February. 

and nn. 113 to 119, pp. 40 to 42. 20 But the name Restitutus seems a still 

15 See "Vies des Saints," tome viii., more singular one to have been imposed on 
vie Tour de Juillet, p. 65. the son ot an Irish bard. See Dr. Lanigan's 

I<r See "Kalendars of Scottish Saints," "Ecclesiastical History of Ireland," vol. i. ; 

p. 4°4- chap, iii., sect, xviii., p. 126. 

** See Archbishop Ussher's " Britannica- 2I The "Annals of the Four Masters" 

rum Ecclesiarum Antiquitates," cap. xvii., state, that Darerca of Cill-Sleibhe-Cuilinn 

pp. 429, 430. died on the 6th of July, a.d. 517. See Dr. 

18 See some notices of her, in the Third O'Donovan's Edition, vol. i., pp. 168, 169. 
Volume of this work, at that date, Art. ii. She is said to have lived nine score, or 180 

19 Yet, strange to say, among these sons years. 

we find persons, who lived at very different " Quies Darercse, quae Moninne nominata 

periods, and who were Irish, both on the est." — Ussher's " Bntannicarum Ecclesia- 

father's and mother's side ; such as Kieran, rum Antiquitates," cap. xvii., p. 826. 

Brendan, Maccarthen, Columb, Loam, a 3 TJssher has a suspicion, that Darerca of 

Lurach, with others. Cinne is said to have Slieve Cullen may be the same as that one 

flourished about a.d. 480, in the nunnery of reported to have been St. Patrick's sister. 


passed his prime of life in a.d. 432. Moreover, Darerca 2 4 is thought to have 
been confounded with Liemania, and some effort has been made to account for 
her bearing this double name. 25 Lupita and Tigrida, her sisters, are said to 
have wove and prepared linen cloth for religious uses. 26 While manifesting 
the high esteem entertained for Ussher's erudition as a historian,"* Colgan 
assumes to correct him for confounding Darerca, St. Patrick's relation, with 
St. Monenna or Modwenna of Kill-slebhe. 

The pedigree of St. Darerca or Moninne is drawn by twelve generations 28 
from Fiache Araidhe, King of Ulster, who flourished, in the year 236, 2 9 and 
who reigned ten years in Emania. He had a son Cas, father of Fedlimid, 
father of Imchadh, father of Ross, father of Lugaidh, father of Crunn Badhraoi, 
father of Eochaidh, father of Conall, father of Lughaidh, father of Lilcan, father 
of Mochta, who was the father of Darerca or Monynne. She sprung from 
the race of Irial, son to Conall Cearnach, according to one authority. Her 
father is said to have been a good man, named Motteus 3° or Maugtheus.3 1 
While one 32 of her ancient Lives — and that apparently the most reliable — 
makes him a person of no particular distinction ; another 33 states, that he 
was a prince over that territory surrounding Armagh. The name of her father 
is more generally written Mocteus34 or Her mother is called 
Coman,3 6 the noble daughter of a king named Dalbranaith, who ruled over 
all the territory from Duvelin to Regunleth.37 This pious couple lived at 
the time, when St. Patrick had been sent by Pope St. Celestine I. to preach in 
the northern parts of Ireland. 3 8 Hence, we may infer, that their daughter 
Monynna had been born in the earlier part of the filth century. For when 
the Irish Apostle visited their part of the country, where he was hospitably 
received, several of the inhabitants flocked to hear his preaching, and these 
became converts. Among others, who desired baptism at his hands, was the 
present saint, then only a child. It seems likely, that her parents became 
Christians, also, for we are informed, that they bestowed a religious care on 
their daughter. She is said to have been born in the plain of Coba — also known 
as Magh Cobha39— and in the reign of Conaille.«° That district surrounding 

See ibid., Index Chronologicus, A.D., proper names written, that it is difficult to 

Dxvm., p. 526. Colgan has laboured to divine their just interpretation, 

distinguish them. See "Acta Sancto- 32 The Salamancan or First Life of St. 

rum Hiberniae," xxii. Martii, Vita S. Modwenna, cap. i., num. 1 

Darercae, pp. 7 16 to 719, with notes. Colgan 33 That attributed to Conchubran, 

assigns the 22nd of March for her festival. He 34 In the scholion, appended to the day for 

reserves the6th of July, for the other Darerca. her feast in the " Leabhar Breac" copy of 

24 Marianus O'Gorman at the 22nd of the " Feilire" of St. -^ngus, her pedigree is 
March calls her a virgin. See Colgan'l thus made out from an Irish source : 
"Acta Sanctorum Hibernian," p. 719. Moninne daughter of Mochta, son of Lilach, 

25 See ibid., p. 718. son of Lugaid, son of Rossa, son of Imchad, 

26 " Sanctae Lupita, Tigrida et Crumtheris son of Fedlimid, son of Cas, son of Fiacha 
textrices et sacrorum linteorum erant confec- Araide, son ot Oengus Goibniu. See 
trices." — " Trias Thaumaturga," Vita Tri- — " Transactions of tht Royal Irish, Aca- 
partita, lib. hi., cap. xcviii., p. 167. demy," Irish Manuscript Series, vol. i., 

*7 See "Acta Sanctorum Hibernice," xxii. port i. On the Calendar of Oengus. By 

Martii, Vita S. Darerca?, n. 7, p. 719. Whitley Stokes, LL.D., p. cxvi. 

28 See Bishop Forbes' "Kalendars of Scot- 3S She is made the daughter an Irish 

tish Saints," p. 405. King Naugthei — evidently a mistake for 

^ See Rev. Dr. O'Conor's " Rerum Hi- Mochthei — by Choman, in Capgrave's Life 

bernicarum Scriptores," tomus ii., Tiger- of this saint. 

nachi Annales. 3<5 According to the Life by Conchubran, 

3° According to the Salamancan Life. cap. i., num. 3. 

31 So is he named in the Life by Conchu- 3 ? To this is added by Conchubran : " Nam 

bran, who adds "regentem Oveahhulue et et ilia in finem, optimam vitam duxit per 

totamterram in circuitu Hardmachaa Luue quindecim annos." 

usque ad Uulester, prosapise cognationis Hi? 38 This is generally supposed to have been 

leth," &c. So incorrectly are the foregoing in the year 432. 

July 6.] 



the Hill of Forhart, in the county of Louth, is alluded to, as having been the 
place in which she was born. The present holy woman is said to have been first 
known by the name of Darerca, 41 if we are to credit the accounts of some old 
Irish rhymers. 42 Contrary to the statement contained in the Martyrology of 
Tallagh, the Annals of the Four Masters *3 declare, however, that the first name 
of this St. Darerca was Moninne. According to an Irish comment on the 
Leabhar Breac copy of the Feilire of ^Engus, Sarbile 44 was a name this holy 
virgin bore, and a legendary story ^ is told to account for the change of her 
name to Moninne. Another version of this story likewise prevails.* 6 

It is stated, in one of her Lives, that by the imposition of hands, the Irish 
Apostle administered confirmation on her. He had an interior admonition, 
likewise, that his new convert was destined to lead a holy life, and he 
bestowed a special benediction. St. Modwenna having thus been converted 
through the preaching of St. Patrick, also received the veil*? at his hands.* 8 
She is thus classed among his disciples. *9 Early in life, she took the vow of 
chastity. She was veiled near the pool of Briugis, which is said to mean 
abundance. This appears to have become a place of pilgrimage, in after 
time. The Irish Apostle admonished his convert, to persevere in her angelic 
state of life, and to associate with herself other pious women, who were to learn 
the fear and worship of God under her direction, and thus learn to accomplish 
his work in the religious state. Then, to the charge of a holy priest, residing near 
her parents' residence, was she committed, in order that she might learn the 
Psalms. Under his teaching, she remained for some time. Being a person 

3 9 The Ui Ethach Cobha lived in the 
southern parts of the county of Down. 

40 Known likewise as Conaille Muir- 

41 See Rev. Dr. Kelly's "Martyrology of 
Tallagh," p. xxviii. 

42 Some of their stanzas are to be found as 
scholia to the Leabhar Breac copy of the 
"Feilire" of St. ^Engus, and they are thus 
translated into English, by Dr. Whitley 
Stokes, LL.D. :— 

" Nine score years together 

According to rule without warmth, 

Without folly, without crime, without 

Was the age of Moninde, 

(The name) 'Mo-ninde' was given to 

To the holy virgin, pious, with splen- 

'Mo-nanna ' (was) her gracious name 

Which the maidens used to say. 

Or from this the name was said 

Of the nun for her appellation 

From Nine the poet (the better 

Who besought her for her prayer 

I will tell it out to you 

Her own name usually, 

1 Darerca ' for a time adhered to her 

Till she got the agnomen, 

Nine score." 

— " Transactions of the Royal Irish Aca- 
demy," Irish Manuscript Series, vol. i., part i. 

On the Calendar of Oengus., p. cxvi. 

43 See Dr. O'Donovan's Edition, vol. i., 
pp. 168, 169. 

44 However, in the Life of St. Moduenna, 
attributed to Conchubran, this name is given 
to one of her disciples, who is also called 

45 This Irish comment is thus translated 
into English by Dr. Whitley Stokes : — "Mo- 
ninne, etc., i.e., Moninne of Slieve Gullion, 
and Sarbile was her name previously. Or 
Darerca was her name at first. But a cer- 
tain dumb poet fasted with her, and the first 
thing he said [after being miraculously cured 
of his dumbness] was minnin. Hence the 
nun was called Mo-ninde, and the poet him- 
self Nine Ecis." — "Transactions of the 
Royal Irish Academy," Irish Manuscript 
Series, vol. i., part i. On the Calendar of 
Oengus, p. cxvi. 

46 Thus are we told : " 'Moninne,' i.e., 
1 My-nindach ' the nuns used to call her, and 
of Ui Echach of Ulster was she.' " Again, 
it is said, " Monine quasi Mo-nanna," was 
the name given by her nuns, apparently one 
expressing affection. 

47 See Matthsei Parisiensis Monachi Sancti 
Albani, " Chronica Majora," edited by 
Henry Richards Luard, M.A., vol. i., 
p. 181. 

48 Colgan classes St. Moninnea or Darerca, 
Abbess of Kill-slebhe, among the virgins 
veiled by St. Patrick. 

49 See "Trias Thaumaturga," Quinta 
Appendix ad Acta S. Patricii, cap. xxiii., 
p. 270. 


of sound understanding and of retentive memory, she readily imbibed the 
precepts of religion and practised its injunctions. She associated with 
herself eight virgins and one widow. The widow had a baby son, named 
Luger, who was adopted by Darerca. Afterwards, he became a bishop, and 
he was otherwise distinguished. 50 It is said, as in her nation, no house 
had yet been founded for religious women, that the saint lived for some 
time with her parents. However, finding social intercourse with them and 
her relatives to be a cause for distraction and a weakening of the religious 
spirit, she resolved on leaving them, and on seeking a home, whence the 
ways and conversation of worldlings should be rigorously excluded. 

About this time, St. Ibar is stated to have lived in the Western Isles of 
Ireland, and thither she repaired with her nuns. They remained for a long 
time under his discipline. At length, the holy Bishop went to the southern 
part of Ireland, where he took up a permanent residence. His religious 
daughters again followed him. At the Island of Beg Ere or Little Ireland, in 
Wexford Harbour, St. Darerca and her nuns were under the guidance of St. 
Ibar. Hearing of her extraordinary virtues, they visited St. Brigid, 51 in Lein- 
ster. Under her rule, and partaking of her hospitality, they remained for 
some time. St. Darerca was appointed portress to the hospital, and while 
in this situation, her humility and charity were approved by all. The Almighty 
even bestowed on her the gift of healing infirm and possessed persons. She 
was regarded as such a benefactress to the poor, that numbers sought relief 
from her, and they returned loaded with her bounties. When some of the 
sisters complained, that she gave too lavishly, reserving little for their con- 
ventual wants, she returned for answer, that if they had firm faith in Christ, 
and obtained food and clothing, it should be sufficient for them, and that if 
yielding to the temptations of the devil they desired riches, they should not 
fail to be devoured by avaricious cares. Besides, she urged, that as the poor 
were suffering members of Christ's mystical body, He would be sure to com- 
pensate the nuns for any temporal loss, and to reward their labours in the 
blessed cause of charity. Having spoken thus, when St. Darerca went to 
seek rest, on her bed were found twelve beautiful dresses ; so that believing 
they were a gift from Heaven, she went to St. Brigid, and then told her, 
that the Almighty had bestowed them to supply her necessities. The latter 
holy Abbess replied : " Those garments sent by the Lord to your sisters 
divide among them as you will, because they are more in need of such arti- 
cles than are our sisters." A certain pauper, having denied that those 
garments were a gift from Heaven, fell dead very suddenly, but he was soon 
restored to life again, through the prayers of St. Darerca. 

Afterwards, it is said, this holy woman and her company of virgins sought 
St. Ibar, and placed themselves under his protection. They now settled in 
Ard-Conais,* 2 where their congregation greatly increased. Several pious 
virgins and widows resorted thither, while some of these belonged to regal and 
noble families. Both by word and example, Darerca trained them in a good 
rule of living. At one time, the wells and cisterns there were dried up, during 
an unusually warm summer, and her religious complained about their wanting 
water. Moved by their entreaties, the servant of Christ offered her prayers, 
when a fountain was miraculously produced. This spring thenceforward 
afforded an inexhaustible supply, not only to her nuns, but to all the people 
living in their neighbourhood. So great had become the reputation of St. 

5° Luger built a church in Ruscach, in the 5t See her Life in the Second Volume of 

plain of Cuailgne, now known as Rooskey, this work, at the 1st of February, Art. i. 
near Carlingford. & Its location has not been ascertained. 


Moninna, that numbers of both sexes came to receive her blessing, and to 
ask spiritual favours through her intercession. She was even gifted with the 
spirit of prophecy. When, on a certain occasion, St. Ibar recommended a 
girl living in her neighbourhood to be consigned to her care, and to be 
trained according to her rule ; the holy virgin, having an intuition of what 
should happen, said : " This pupil child shall prove to be the cause, why we 
must desert our cell, on a future occasion." The event corresponded with 
this prediction ; for, when that girl became an adult, she was filled with an 
invidious feeling towards Darerca, and this spirit she communicated to her 
relations. The meek superioress then called her sisters together and said : 
" Lo ! what the Almighty revealed to us regarding this girl is now clearly 
manifested. If while I live, you have to endure such opposition, when I am 
dead, how shall you be able to live here ? Let us then yield to the envious, 
and let us leave to them all we possess, except our habits, and the Lord shall 
provide another place for us, and where we can dwell. "A legend is related, 
about St. Darerca's leaving that place with fifty of her nuns. On coming to 
a river which was usually fordable, a great flood suddenly took place, so that 
they were unable to pass. This was owing to the fault of one among the 
sisters, who had taken a certain article from Ard Conis, contrary to the order 
given by her superioress. This she was ordered to restore, and afterwards 
the company of religious were enabled to ford that river. 

Again, they visited St. Brigid and remained with her for some days, which 
were spent in pious colloquies. They asked her blessing on taking leave, 
and Brigid said : " May the Almighty God preserve you along the way on 
which you travel, and grant that you reach the desired habitation. ,, At their 
departure, St. Brigid presented St. Darerca with a silver vessel, called Escra,53 
in the Irish language, and one which the chiefs of Ireland were accustomed 
to use when drinking. However, Darerca did not wish to receive anything 
but a blessing from the venerable Abbess, and on leaving with her sisters, 
she deposited the measure in a secret place, where it was afterwards found by 
the nuns of St. Brigid. Presenting it to their superioress, she said : u What 
we have given for God's sake, we ought not again receive." Then, St. 
Brigid ordered that it should be cast into the adjoining River Lyfi, now 
known as the Liffey. In a miraculous manner, as the legend relates, 5 * it was 
restored to St. Darerca. 



Afterwards, the virgin of Christ went to the northern parts of Ireland, and 
there she found her relations, in the plain of Murthenne. The people of that 

53 The Irish word Of c]\a means " a water cant Caput littoris, a quodam viro sancto 
bucket." Probably, however, it was a Mether, Herbe Pontifice, Darercae fratre, traditur 
manufactured in an artistic manner. fuisse repertum. Quod vas ipse sanctae 

54 Thus: "Vasitaqueprojectuminflumen, Darercae, cujus monasterium prope praedic- 
quod in mare versus orientem influit, contra turn stagnum fuit situm, donare distulit, 
consuetum cursum naturae, divina operante sanctae vero Darercse monasterium a monas- 
potentia, in ora stagni, quod Hibernici vo- terio sanctae Brigidae quatuor diebus distat. 


district — said to have been greatly addicted to magian practices — had been 
brought to a knowledge of the true religion, through the ministry of St. 
Patrick. Here, she is related to have lived a very retired life. She especially 
avoided the society of men, and in order that she might not be seen by them, 
often under the shade of night, she set forth to visit infirm persons and to 
exercise other works of charity. Always she wore a veil when abroad. 
Several extraordinary miracles are attributed to her, but they are mostly of a 
legendary character. According to the writers of her Lives, 1 St. Darerca and 
her companions 2 lived at Fochard, near Dundalk, and in the present county 
of Louth. It is intimated, furthermore, that she was the first to establish 
there a religious house. One hundred and fifty sisters are said to have lived 
with her. Nor does she seem to have continued long in that place; for, find- 
ing some of the neighbouring people to be of dissolute morals, and addicted 
to the singing of improper songs, she told her sisters, that they should seek 
out a less frequented locality. She then asked her brother Roman 3 to search 
for a more suitable spot, and it is said to have been revealed by the Almighty 
Himself. However, before St. Darerca left the mountain of Facartha, now 
the Hill of Faughart, she selected one of her nuns, named Orbile, to dwell 
there, and to guard her establishment. 

For the sake of greater quiet, Darerca sought a desert place, near the Moun- 
tain ofCulinn, to which she removed. Here, the nuns found a swineherd 
belonging to the King of Orior, and whose name was Macloithe. Nor would 
he suffer such a numerous company to settle in that place, without first learn- 
ing the pleasure of the king. For seven whole days were they obliged to 
wait in great privation for that rustic's return. He obtained permission from his 
master, however, that they might remain there, and so fix their abode. Mean- 
time, the swine had strayed in different directions during his absence. The holy 
virgin Modwenna told him to be of good cheer, and that his charge should be 
safely restored to him. Her promise was redeemed that very same hour. 
When the swineherd found all the animals together, he selected one of them 
to present as an offering to St. Modwenna and her sisters. They told him, 
however, that they were accustomed to live on roots and herbs, tasting no 
flesh meat. In this remote situation, where a range of desolate mountains is 
to be seen at the present day, St. Darerca resolved on founding her church and 
monastery/ Itwassituatedatthefootof SliabhCuillinns or SlieveGullion. Her 
church of Cill-tsleibhe is now known as Killevy 6 or Killeavy, a very old building, 
in a parish bearing the same name. It lies near the present town of Newry. 
That magnificent mountain Gullion 7 attains an altitude of 1,893 ^ eet over tne 
sea-level, and it is composed chiefly of green-stone. There are many natural 
obstacles to its rugged sides and summits being reclaimed ; and from base to 
summit, the ascent is fully two miles. 8 Several antiquities, evidently referring 

Chapter ii. — • That taken from the brated Cuchullain had been fostered. 

Salamancan Manuscript, as also that attri- 6 This is a very extensive mountain parish, 

buted to Conchubran. having 3,583a. ir. 33p. in the barony of 

2 Among these are said to have been Lower Orior, and 24,590a. 3r. in the barony 
Brigid, Athea and Orbile. of Upper Orior, in the county of Armagh. 

3 We do not find, that he has any other re- ' Allusion is thus made to it in a poem in- 
cord in history. tituled "Diarmid's Chase :" — 

4 According to Archdall, this happened 

about the year 630. See "Monasticon Hi- " Slieve Gullien's lofty brow 

bernicum," p. 34. Rose proudly o'er the vale below." 

s This mount tin took its name from Cui- 

lean, an artificer, who lived there in the — Miss Stewart's " Mirror of the Heart ; or 

reign of Conchobhar Mac Nessa, King of Lays of Loyalty, Patriotism, Chivalry and 

Ulster, and by whom it is stated the cele- Devotion," p. 41. 

July 6.] 



to a remote period, are to be found in this picturesque and deserted region. 
Among these, the artificial and subterranean chamber at Aughnaclough has 
often excited the curiosity of visitors. 9 On the summit of Slieve Gullion, 
there is a very large cairn, supposed to have been an ancient sepulchral 
monument. Near it is a pool, called the Loch, about 60 yards in diameter. 
These objects form the subject of an Irish poem IO ascribed to Ossian, and 
in which Fionn mac Cumhall and his heroes conspicuously figure." 

View of Slieve Gullion, from Aughnaclough. 

The church of St. Modwenna was constructed of dressed planks, according 
to the fashion of Scottish people, 12 as Conchubran remarks.^ Through mis- 
take, some Acts of St. Modwenna state, that she erected her nunnery at Cel- 
liscline; 14 however, this is only a mistake for Kill-sleve-Cuillin, or " the cell 
of Mount Cuillin." It would seem, that this nunnery existed so early as the 
sixth century. T s 

The following story seems to synchronise our saint with another holy 
virgin, who is supposed to have flourished, in the fifth and sixth centuries. 

8 See "The Parliamentary Gazetteer of 
Ireland," vol. iii., p. 253. 

9 The accompanying illustration of the 
opening to Aughnaclough chamber, with a 
distant view of Slieve Gullion, was drawn by 
William F. Wakeman on the wood, en- 
graved by Mrs. Millard. 

10 Called Iaoi na SeAlzjA or The Chase. 
It has been elegantly translated into English 
verse, by Miss Brooke, in her " Reliques of 
Irish Poetry." 

11 See Lewis' " Topographical Dictionary 
of Ireland," vol. ii., p. 146. 

12 Thus, Columbanus, an Irishman, built 
at Bobbio an oratory, " ex lignis ad magi- 
tudinem corporis sui." St. Bernard refer- 
ring to the church erected by Malachi at 
Bangor, says, " oratorium intra paucos dies 

consummatum est de lignis quidem levigatis, 
sed apte firmiterque contextum opus Scoti- 

13 It was constructed as he states, " tabulis 
dedolatis, juxta morem Scoticarum gentium, 
eo quod macerias Scoti non solent facere, nee 
factas habere." Second Life of St. Mod- 
wenna, chap, viii., num. 74, p. 311. 

14 Dean Cressy falls into a great error when 
he states, that St. Modwenna's nunnery was 
so called from the multitude of cells in it. 
See " Church History of Brittany," book 
xxviii., chap, ii., num. 8, p. 744. 

'3 See Rev. Dr. Lanigan's "Ecclesiastical 
History of Ireland," vol. iii., chap, xvii., 
sect, ix., p. 38, and nn. 116, 1 18, pp. 40 
to 42. 

16 Her Acts are recorded at the 1st of 


In the Arts of St. Fanchea, 16 the name of St. Darercha or Moninna is intro- 
duced. While St. Fanchea passed over the sea to visit her brother St. 
Endeus, the holy virgin Darercha was engaged in prayer beside a church and 
before a cross. This happened, while she dwelt in the nunnery, and at a 
place denominated Belsleibhe, 1 ? which means " the mountain gorges, '' accord- 
ing to Colgan.* 8 He says it is more usually called Kill-sleibhe "the moun- 
tain cell. 1 ^ While thus engaged at prayer, St. Darerca had a miraculous 
vision regarding a brazen vessel, recovered from the sea, into which Fanchea 
had cast it. ao 

In her Acts, it is stated, that St. Darerca exacted from her sisters such a 
rigorous course of fasting, that on a certain occasion they were brought 
almost to a condition of starvation, when a holy and compassionate man 
entreated her to relieve their necessities. This she effected, and in a miracu- 
lous manner. She raised also a dead novice to life through her prayers. 
Various other miracles are recounted in her Lives, but it is unnecessary to 
specify them, as many may be relegated to the class of fables. In the Life 
of this holy woman and which is quoted by Colgan, 21 three pious virgins, who 
seem to have had a special relation with her, are named. These were 
Brignata or Brecnata, 22 Damnoda, 2 3 and Derlasre. 24 The first of these is 
said to have been sent from her monastery to that of Rosnat, in the Island of 
Britain, where she was commissioned to learn the rules there practised. Like 
a true daughter of obedience, she hastened thither, and remained for some 
time in the hospice, reading the Psalms and other pious books. Having 
accomplished the object of her mission, Brignat returned to Slieve Cullin, 
after a prosperous journey. It is stated, in St. Darerca's Acts, that the Angels 
of God were accustomed to visit her and to hold frequent conferences with 
her. However, on a certain night, when the sisters were going forth to recite 
Matins, Darerca missed the accustomed angelic visitation, and she had a 
revelation, that some one among her companions must have committed a 
grievous sin. She invited all the sisters to examine their consciences. One of 
the widows acknowledged, that contrary to her rule, she had not asked per- 
mission from the Abbess to retain a pair of shoes, which she wore to protect 
her from the cold, and which she had received from a man of bad morals. 
Darerca suggested, that these should be thrown into a neighbouring lake, 
where they might not more be found, and she charged Brignat with this com- 
mission. The angelic messengers afterwards appeared, and the saint gave 
thanks to God, that the community devotions were not further interrupted 
through any similar cause. The foregoing narrative is followed by another, that 
when the sisters returned to their dormitory to have a little rest before daylight, 
the virgin Brigid 2 5 went alone to the chamber, where the Abbess prayed, 
and where she held colloquy with the Angels. When she approched that, two swans of a snow-white colour seemed to fly away from it. This 
vision terrified the sister, and she fell on the ground. She soon arose, how- 
January, in the First Volume of ihis work, illustrate a custom prevalent at a time, 
Art. i. whin the original Acts were written, of 

x ? Probably a mistake in writing for Kill- brazen ves>Hs having been u>e<l in Ireland 
Sleibhe. bo:h for drinking and for washing pur- 

18 See " Acta Sanctorum Hibernioe," poses. 

i. Januarii, Vita S. Fancheaj, cap. ix., p. 2. 2I See "Trias Thaumaturga," Quinta Ap- 

19 He remarks, that it is a parish church pendix ad Acta S. Patricii, cap. xxiii., 
belonging to Armagh diocese, at the passes p. 270. 

of Cuillen Mountain, in Ulster. See ibid., " At chapter xiv., xvi. 

n. 19, p. 4. 23 At chapter xviii., xix. 

30 The story which follows is too improba- "* At chapter xxi. 

ble to deserve further notice; but, it serves to 25 Whether she was a different person or 


ever, and tremblingly knocking at her superior's door, she revealed what had 
occurred. Darerca told her, to sign her eyes with a sign of the cross, lest she 
might have had a demoniac vision, as sometimes happened to saints in the 
desert. However, on being told the particulars, Darerca said : " Now do I 
truly know, that the Almighty, who reveals many things in favour of the 
human race, hath enriched thee with his grace, and it is time thou shouldst 
profit by it, in seeking thy birth-place. Soon shalt thou want those eyes, 
which have seen the Angels, yet better ones shall be given thee, and which 
may enable thee mentally to see God. But, until I depart this life, reveal 
thy vision to no person. " The servant of Christ observed the instructions of 
her holy superioress, and obeying her command, she went to her natal place, 
which was one day's journey removed from Darerca's monastery. There she 
found a place, suitable for the erection of a nunnery, and so long as she lived, 
Brigid was deprived of corporal vision. 

An old tradition has it, that Darerca through her custom of mortification 
never ate a sufficiency, 26 and that she never took a dinner; while this habit of 
living is dated from the time . she wore a girdle 2 ? about her body — a phrase 
equivalent to the modern one of taking the veil. 28 It is certain, however, 
that St. Moninna practised great austerities, and that she was most abstemious 
as regarded food. 2 9 We are told, that in the coarseness of her garments, she 
might be regarded as a true daughter of Elias and of St. John the Baptist, 
while her sisters nobly emulated her example in this species of heavenly war- 
fare. As a light placed on its candlestick, so did she dissipate the darkness 
of those northern parts. Her vigils and prayers were incessant. She was 
never a moment idle, and she laboured with her own hands. She wrought 
many miracles, and she was always victorious over the assaults of Satan. Her 
chastity was so admirable, that she had applied to her the term "a sister of 
Mary," as the highest eulogy; for, that she was a virgin even as Mary is remarked 
by a scholiast on the " Feilire" of St. ^Engus. 30 Her humility was very great, 
while she endeavoured to conceal her good actions and virtues from the know- 
ledge of men. The fame of her great merits spread notwithstanding over all 
parts of Ireland. Noble matrons were especially anxious to visit her, to 
prostrate themselves at her feet, to seek her counsel, and to gain the favour 
of her prayers. Besides, the number of virgins in her community increased 
day by day, and they came not only from her neighbourhood, but even from 
distant places. 

As we have already stated, on the preceding day, a St. Modwenna, also 
called Monenna, 31 went to England, and she founded no less than seven 

not from Brignat may be questioned. 29 This is expressed in an old Irish rami, 

26 This Cuimin of Connor states, in the thus translated into English by Dr. Whitley 
poem which begins, CAyvAr- pAcr\Aic puipc Stokes : — 

ITIaca, which is thus translated into English : 

" Patrick of Ard Madia's city loved." — Rev. " She took a girdle on her body, 

Dr. Kelly's "Calendar of Irish Saints," pp. It is according to knowledge of her 

162, 163. This is also quoted, in a note sue- that I hear 

ceeding, and taken from the scholia on the She ate not her fill or food. 

Feilire of St. ^Engus. Moninne of Slieve Gullion." 

27 The monastic girdle is frequently men- 
tioned in the Lives of the Irish Saints, as in — "Transactions of the Royal Irish Aca- 
those of St. Brigid at February 1st ; in those demy," Irish Manuscript Series, vol. i., 
of St. Colman, at February 3rd, in those of part i. On the Calendar of Oengus p. cxvi. 
St. Mochta, at August 9th, and in those of 3 ° See " Transactions of the Royal Irish 
St. Mobhi, at October 12th. Academy," Irish Manuscript Series, vol. i., 

28 See the " Martyrology of Donegal," part i. On the Calendar of Oengus. By 
edited by Rev. Drs. Todd and Reeves, pp. Whitley Stokes, LL.D., p. cxvi. 

186 to 189, and note by Dr. Reeves I, at 3I See the Acts of St. Modwen, Monynna, 

p. 188. Moninia, Monenna, Moduenna, Modwenna, 


churches in Scotland.* 2 One of these was known as Chilnacase, in Galloway ; 
another was on the summit of the mountain of Dundevenal, in Laudonia ; a 
third stood on the mountain of Dunbreten ; the fourth at the Castle of Stri- 
ve.lin; the fifth was at Dun Eden, now Edinburgh; a sixth was on the moun- 
tain of Dunpelder; while the seventh was built at Lamfortin, near Dundee.33 
We think, however, she must be distinguished from the present saint ; 
yet, it must be observed, that all the narratives and legends, in which her 
ascertainable Acts abound, appear to have reference only to Moninne of 
Sliabh Cuillin. The latter does not appear, however, to have left Ireland for any 
more distant country, and she seems to have lived about two centuries earlier. 
Wherefore, we deem it quite unnecessary to introduce here, those incidents 
which have been recorded in the previous Life, and which have been set 
down at the day immediately preceding. 

As mentioned in the Acts of St. Farannan,34 this St. Moninnia 3S of Cui- 
linn Mountain assisted in the synod held at Easdra, after St. Columba 3 6 had 
built the church of Druim Cliabh,37 in Cairbre. The exact period, when this 
took place, has been contested ; some think it had been before the great 
Apostle of the Picts and Scots left Ireland for Scotland about a.d. 563, while 
others suppose it happened, after the great Convention held at Druim Ceat, 
about a.d. 590.3 8 The latter seems to us more probable ; while, if we allow 
the synod of Easdra to have been held late in the sixth century, and if we 
admit Moninnia to have been veiled by St. Patrick, she must then have 
attained an extreme old age. As we have distinguished the St. Modwenna of 
the previous day 39 from the present holy woman, and as it is generally 
believed she died in Scotland, and had been finally buried .in England; so 
we have every reason to suppose, that St. Modwenna of the present date de- 
parted this life, in her establishment, at Slieve Cuillinn. This is very dis- 
tinctly laid down, in the most authentic of her biographies, where it is stated, 
that when her death approached, King Eugene, 40 with his chiefs and a great 
multitude, moved through sorrow for her anticipated departure, came to her 
place, and he besought a bishop named Herbeus* 1 to entreat her for their con- 

Monyma, Modovenna, Mowena, Mod- and Apostle of Caledonia, Art. i., chap, 

venna, or Nodwenna, Virgin, at the 5th of and chap, xv., at the 9th of June, in the Sixth 

July, in the present volume, Art. i. Volume of this work. 

3 " This Ussher shows from Conchubranus, 39 See at the 5th of July, Art. i., in the 

and she is said to have been identical with present volume. 

Monenna of Kill-sieve. He writes : " Ea *° He is called Rex Eugenius, Conay, who 

Ecclesia in Armachano Comitatu sita Kil- then ruled over the provinces of Marceyne, 

sieve nomen adhuc retinet, et mons ille vici- of Cunilgoe and of Coba. It is quite evident 

nus Sleu-gullen; a quo morunne o fl-iab there are errors of spelling in those proper 

CuilieAn appellationem apud Hibernosnos- names; but, the localities may be conjec- 

tros Virgo ipsa est consecuta." — "Britanni- tured as having been at or adjoining Slieve 

carum Ecclesiarum Antiquitates," cap. xv., Cuillin. We confess ourselves at a loss to 

p. 368. identify Marceyne ; however, Cuailgne, now 

3 3 There she is said to have died. See Cooly, a mountainous district in the north of 

ibid., p. 369. Louth County seems to have stood for the 

3* See his Life, in the Second Volume of second mis-spelled denomination, while it 

this work, at February 15th, Art. ii. may be that Ui-Eathach Cobha, the neigh- 

3S Her feast according to Colgan falls on bouring people in the present baronies of 

the 6th of July. Iveagh, County Down, represents Coba. 

3 5 See his Life, in the Sixth Volume of this For their descent and ancient history, see 

work, at June 9th, Art. i. Rev. Dr. Reeves' "Ecclesiastical Antiqui- 

37 See Colgan's " Acta Sanctorum Hiber- ties of Down, Connor and Dromore," Appen- 
nise," xv. Februarii, Vita S. Farannani dix, HII, pp. 348 to 352. 

Confessoris, cap. vii., p. 337, and n. 18, *« It is easy to see, that as the Modwenna 

p. 339. at July 5th had been visited by a Bishop 

3 8 See the account contained in the Life of Ronan, under similar circumstances, and as 
St. Columkille or Columba, Abbot of Iona, the narrative of her death-bed scenes very 


solation to remain one year more among them. However, she refused that 
request, preferring rather with Saints Peter and Paul — who had favoured 
her with a vision — to go at once into Heaven. 

The day for St. Darerca's or Moninne's death is usually set down as the 
6th of July. The Martyrology of Tallagh * 2 registers at this day, Moninni 
Sleibhi Culennquae et Darerca prius dicta est. She is also mentioned in the 
Calendar of Cashel,^3 in the Martyrology of Marianus O'Gorman, 44 and in that 
ofMuguire. 45 The Carthusian Martyrology ,« 6 as also Greven's additions to 
it, and lather Henry Fitzsimon, record Nonninia, virgin, at the 6th of July, w 
In the anonymous Calendar published by O'Sullevan Beare, at the same 
date, we find Noninna. In the posthumous Manuscript of Father O'Sheerin,* 8 
she is setdown,however,as''Moninna de Sliabh-Cuillium.quse et Darerca prius 
dicta."49 At the same date, in the Martyrology of Donegal, s° her name 
appears as Moninne, virgin, of Sliabh Cuillinn. In his Universal Martyr- 
ology, Castellan enters the name of St. Darerca in Ireland. Among the 
Scottish Calendars, we find the name of St. Moninne set down at the 6th ot 
July, as in the Kalendar of Drummond. 51 Like nearly every other matter 
regarding her doubtful, we must call into question the extremely long term 
of her lite, said to have reached one hundred and eighty years.s 2 Nine score 
years was her age, according to old Irish traditions ;53 but, it seems most pro- 
bable, her life was not extended to that extraordinary period. 

This idea of longevity appears to have arisen, from the attempt to syn- 
chronise various statements, that have crept into her Acts, or that had been 
spread abroad, in reference to her supposed relationship with other saints, or 
with persons of historic celebrity, and mentioned in connexion with her. The 
time assigned for her departure, by the 0'Clerys,54 is 517, in the fourteenth 
year of the monarch Muircheartach's reign. Some seem inclined to believe, 
that this was rather the date for the death of Darerca, otherwise called 
Monenna, the sister of St. Patrick. ss The Annals of Ulster place her death, 
at a.d. 518, the year in which they state St. Coluimcille was born.s 6 The 
same date has been assigned for her death by other writers. 57 However, if 
we are to credit the statements contained in her Acts, and in those of other 

closely resembles the incidents briefly alluded p. 17. 

to in the text, that it becomes next to im- 52 This is stated, in an old Irish poem, 

possible adequately to apportion it among quoted by the scholiast on the " Leabhar 

two different saints. Breac " copy of the "Feilire" of St. <Engus, 

4 * Edited by Rev. Dr. Kelly, p. xxviii. at the 6th of July. See "Transactions of 

43 Thus: " S. Moninna, virgo Sliabh the Royal Irish Academy," Irish Manuscript 
Culium, quae prius Darerca, et Sarbilia Series, vol. i., part i. On the Calendar of 
dicta est." ' Oengus. By Whitley Stokes, LL.D., p. 

44 Thus : "Monina, munda sanctimonialis, cxvi. 

virgo Sieve, sive montis Cuilium." S3 As in this quatrain has been asserted : — 

4 = The latter gives Darerca the name of 

Sarbilia. " Nine score years together, according 

46 In it it, she is noted thus : In Hibernia to rule, 

Nonninae Virginis. According to rule without fear, 

4 ? See O'Sullevan Beare's " Historic Without folly, without misdeed, with- 

Catholicae Iberniae Compendium," tomus i., out danger, 

lib. iv., cap. xi., xii., pp. 50, 56. Was the age of Moninne." 

48 These were lent to the Bollandists for 

their inspection. — "Martyrology of Donegal," edited by 

49 /Engus is cited, for this entry in the Rev. Drs. Todd and Reeves, pp. 186, 187. 
text. S4 See, also, Archdall's " Monasticon Hi- 

50 Edited by Drs. Todd and Reeves, pp. bernicum," p. 34. 

186 to 189. 55 See Dr. O'Donovan's "Annals of the 

51 Thus: "Pridie Nonas Apud Hiber- Four Masters," vol. i., pp. 168, 169. 

niam Sancte Virginis Moninne." — Bishop 56 See Rev. Dr. O'Conor's "Rerum Hiber- 

Forbes' " Kalendars of Scottish Saints," nicarum Scriptores," tomus iv., Annales 



[July 6. 

saints, we should rather refer her death to the close of the sixth century. 
Other accounts place her death at a much later period, but as we have already 
seen, these refer to another holy woman, bearing the same name, and who 
lived probably in the eighth century. 

Long after her death, the name of St. Darerca or Moninne and venera- 
tion for her virtues survived, especially in that northern part of Ireland, with 
which she was chiefly connected. Some ruins of a church, which was dedi- 
cated to this saint, and near which stood a round tower, are still to be seen at 
Killevy or Killeavy, in the county of Armagh. A well, sacred to St. Darerca, 
was also near her nunnery.s 8 Before the death of St. Darerca, she is said to 
have appointed Bia 59 as Abbess to succeed her. 6 ° Afterwards followed one 
named Diu. 61 The third in order is stated to have been Derlasre, 62 who pre- 
sided over the nunnery forty years. 6 3 In the year 654, the death of Coinceen 
of Cill-Sleibhe is recorded, in our Annals. 6 '* In subsequent times, Cill-Sleibhe 
is likely to have suffered at the hands of the Danish invaders, for we learn, that 
a priest of this place, named Duibhlitir, was martyred by the foreigners of 
Carlingford Lough, a. d. Q2i. 6 s During the middle ages, a female community, 
presided over by an Abbess of Kilsleve, had possessions, at this place. 66 

Ultonienses, p. 12. 

57 See in the "Circle of the Seasons," 
p. 188. 

s8 A miracle relating to it, and referring 
to a Bishop of venerable life called Fibartus, 
and having the surname of Firnianus, has 
been attributed to the intercession of St. 
Darerca. This is stated to have occurred, 
while Derlasre was superioress, and it is told 
in the Salamancan Life, chap, iv., num. 45, 
p. 296. This is more fully related in the 
Second Life, where the Bishop is named 
Fuibar, and having the surname of Vinuia- 
mus ; while the miracle is attributed to his 
merits and to those of Movenna. See chap, 
viii., num. 77, 78, pp. 311, 312. 

59 In the Second Life, she is called the 
daughter of Ailella, cap. viii., num. 74, 
p. 311. 

60 According to the First Life, cap. iv., 
num. 41, p. 296. 

61 We have it thus entered in the First Life, 
" deinde in Diu," but we suspect an error 
has been here admitted. In the Second Life, 
she is designated as the Third Abbess, 
and called " Dognidui, filise Mothai, filii 

62 We do not find any saint bearing this 
name recorded in our Calendars ; but during 
her incumbency, the following miracle is re- 
corded, and it is attributed tothemeritsof St. 
Darerca. While, according to the custom 
of the Hibernian nation, the nuns had been 
engaged in erecting with planed planks a 
church near the monastery at Ben — not at 
Banchor as the Bollandists guess, but at 
Slieve Cuillinn, the word Benn being often 
used by the Irish for Slieve — they desired 
it should be of elegant workmanship. How- 
ever, they wanted a suitable kind of beam to 
join two of the walls, at the summit of the 
building, and which may be regarded as a 
wall-plate or a projection near the roof. The 

workmen, after a diligent search through the 
forest, at last found a tree, which was suita- 
ble for their purpose, but it was in a place 
very difficult for access or removal. The tree 
notwithstanding was cut down, but it could 
not be moved. Knowing this state of the 
affair, Derlasre betook herself to prayer, 
and besought her patroness to obtain their 
great desire, which was to erect a church in 
the name of Darerca herself. On the day 
following, without the aid of man or beast, 
the beam required was found where wanted, 
and near the nunnery. Then, the carpenters, 
impelled through curiosity, went to that 
place where the tree grew, but they were not 
able to discover there a single trace of broken 
branches. This proved, that what could not 
be accomplished through human effort, is 
easily done through Divine agency ; and it 
was believed, that the Angels bore that tree 
through the air, from that rough and elevated 
ground on which it formerly grew. 

6 3 The Second Life calls her " Diclaisre, 
filia Daisrami, filii Buissidi," cap. viii., num. 

74. P- 3»- 

6 * See Dr. O'Donovan's "Annals of the 
Four Masters," vol. i., pp. 266, 267. 

65 See ibid., vol. ii., pp. 608, 609. 

66 At the residence of the Abbess here, on 
the iotli of November, a.d. 1477, a case of 
disputed right was negotiated between 
Edmund Connesburgh, an Englishman 
chosen as Archbishop of Armagh, and Octa- 
vianus del Palacio, the Pope's Nuncio in 
Ireland. See the Very Rev. Dean Reeves' 
paper, intituled " Octavianus del Palacio, 
Archbishop of Armagh," in "Journal of the 
Royal Historical and Archaeological Associa- 
tion of Ireland," vol. iii., Fourth Series, 
January, 1875, No. 21, pp. 344. 345- 

67 See Bishop Forbes' "Kalendars of 
Scottish Saints, pp. 396, 406. 

68 In 1243, according to " Registrum 


In Scotland, the church of Scoonie was dedicated to a St. Memme 6 7 — who 
may have been the same as Modwenna — by David de Bernham, on the fourth 
of the June Kalends. 68 In the parish of Kilmannan, county of Wexford, there 
is a well, and in popular remembrance dedicated to a St. Mannan, whiLe 
there a patron was held on the 6th of July. 6 9 Could this name be a corrup- 
tion of St. Moninne? The feast of St. Mannan — held on this day — is cer- 
tified, also, by a local resident. 7° There is a legend, likewise, which states, 
that St. Munnu of Taghmon visited this St. Mannan, and that a bell? 1 fell 
from Heaven, at the time, on a spot, where a rock — locally called " the bell 
stone " — projects over the surface of a field. 

The present holy virgin gave the greatest edification during a long life, 
which was spent in the service of God, and in the practice of most rigorous 
penance. She was exact in the performance of every virtue. Why will the 
hardened sinner blush to confess those sins he committed, when a pious and 
tender woman can relish mortifications without repining? He refuses to pay 
a just penalty for the commission of evil, while he did not blush to stain his 
own soul. This saint was pure, and yet she practised penance. She was 
always generous in those self-sacrifices, which the Almighty rewards, most 
abundantly; and her memory remains, to remind sinners of the many trans- 
gressions for which they have not sufficiently atoned, although constantly 
warned about the danger of delay. 

Article III. — St. Mac Earc, Bishop of Donoughmore. [Fifth 
Century.'] This holy man was the son of Bronach, 1 and he is said to have been 
brother to other celebrated saints. His original name does not seem to be 
known ; but, we may probably infer the name of his father, from the patrony- 
mic Mac Earc, or " the son of Earc," bestowed on him. In that Tract attri- 
buted to St. JEngus, and intituled " De Matribus Sanctorum Hibernise," 2 
the present St. Mac Earc is said incorrectly to have been the brother of St. 
Mochae, 3 of Aendrum ; of Comraire of Uisneach ; of Manchan of Liath- 

Prioratus S. Andree," p. 348. eppuic meic ej\cA o TJorrmAch mop mulgi 

69 See "Letters containing Information re- Coda. Ocuf "OAirmACAn flebe OecViAo. 

lative to the Antiquities of the County Ocur- jTu-pr-A cnaibcec 111 pAnonA in 5aI- 

of Wexford, collected during the Progress of Via." The foregoing has been thus trans- 

the Ordnance Survey in 1840," vol. ii. John lated into English : — " Bronach, daughter of 

O'Donovan's letter, pp. 74 to 77. Milcon, with whom Patrick was in bondage, 

7° Mr. Michael Browne, of Bridgetown, was the mother of Mochae of Aendrum, or 
county of Wexford, in a letter to the writer, of Aendrum of Loch Cuan ; and of Corn- 
dated from that place, December 18th, raire of Uisneach [now Knockusneach, in the 
1872. parish of Conrath, County Westmeath], in 

71 This bell is said to have been in the Meath ; and of Manchan of Liath Manchan 

possession of the Harveys of Mount Plea- [now Lemanaghan], in Dealbhna Beathra 

sant, in the earlier part of this century. [the barony of Garrycastle, King's County] ; 

Article hi. — x There is a holy virgin of and of Colman Muilinn of Daire Chaechain 

this name, venerated at the 2nd of April, and in Dalriada : and of Bishop Mac Ere of 

who is noticed, in the Fourth Volume of Domnach-mor of Moy-Coba ; and of Dam- 

this work, at that date, Art. i. It seems natan of Slieve Bethad [Slieve Beagh, in 

clear, therefore, that she could not have been Tyrone, near its junction with Fermanagh 

mother to the present saint. and Monaghan] : and of Fursa, the pious, in 

2 The pedigree of our saint, on the Parona [Peronne], in Gaul." See Rev. Dr. 

mother'ssideisthusgiven : — "OnonACinjion Reeves' " Ecclesiastical Antiquities of Down, 

milcon co tn-bAepAcj\Aic 1 n-'OAijvi mACAip Connor and Dromore," Appendix F, pp. 189, 

tnochAe n<Ven*oj\omA o ii-<\en'ojvomA tocA 190. 

CuAn. Ocuf Com^Aipe o UifneAch mroi. 3 See his Acts at the 23rd of June, in the 

Ocuf tttAnc'riAii o LiAuh tYlAncViAm 1 n- Sixth Volume of the present work, Art. i. 
"OeAibnA beAc^A. Ocur- ColmAn muilint> * See Ecclesiastical Antiquities of Down, 

o "OAine ChAechAin 1 tTOAt THaua. Ocup Connor and Dromore, "Appendix LL., p. 379. 


Manchan ; of Colman of Muilinn Daire Chaechain ; of Damhnatan of 
Slieve Bethad ; and of Fursey in Perrone. The present Mac Earc is likely 
to have been born in the beginning of the fifth century. He is called Bishop 
of Domnachmor, in old Irish Calendars, and his festival occurs, on the 6th 
day of July/ The territory of IVlagh Cobha or " Campus Coba," as it is 
Latinized, embraced a considerable portion of Iveagh, extending from the 
parish of Donaghmore to that of Dromore. It was cleared of a wood, in a.m. 
2756, during the reign of Irial the prophet. 5 Saran was chief of this district, 
in the time of St. Patrick, and he was the fourth in descent from Eochaidh 
Cobha, who gave denomination to that territory. 6 Donoughmore of Moy- 
Coba 7 was the former name of his place. It is now simply called Donagh- 
more parish, 8 in the county of Down. As anciently designated, Domnachmore 
church of Moy-Coba,9 or Donaghmore according to its modern name, is 
stated to have been founded by our saint, about the middle of the fifth cen- 
tury. Several lords or chiefs IO formerly ruled over Magh Cobha, according 
to our Irish Annals, and the territory is also mentioned in these, 11 as the 
scene of various exploits. The church over which our saint presided is 
situated in the south-east corner of Upper Iveagh barony, 12 and within Dro- 
more diocese. The site of Donoghmore ancient church was about sixty feet 
south, from where the modern Protestant church now stands ; and, an ancient 
stone cross,^ about seven feet in height, remains as a memorial of olden 
times. During the middle ages, hereditary Herenachs I4 ruled over the manor 
of Donaghmore, and their family name appears frequently in old Registers of 
the ecclesiastical appointments. 15 During the last two centuries, the tempo- 
ralities were usurped by different occupants. 16 It is said, that beneath a 
remarkable old cross in the churchyard, there is an entrance to an artificial 
cave, which extends to a considerable distance, the sides being formed of 
loose stones, and covered with large flat stones. Near the centre, there is a 

5 See Rev. Dr. Jeoffry Keating's "History Rev. William Reeves' " Ecclesiastical Anti- 
of Ireland," vol. i., p. 318. quities of Down, Connor and Dromore," 

6 See John O'Donovan's LeAbhArv ha n. (m), p. 112. 

5-Cea|\c, or the " Book of Rights," n. (h), I2 See " Parliamentary Gazetteer of Ire- 

pp. 165, 166. land," vol. ii., p. 28. 

1 This territory was so called from Eoch- ' 3 It is probable, Tullynacross townland, 

aidh Cobha, who was ancestor of the tribe which was the glebe, derived its name from 

denominated Ui Eathach Cobha, who were this Cross. 

seated in the baronies of Upper and Lower I4 The O'Mac Kerell were herenachs, 

Iveagh, in the present county of Down. under the Archbishops of Armagh, in the 

See Roderick O'Flaherty's " Ogygia," pars. fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, 

iii., cap. lxxviii., pp. 371, 372. IS Thus at A.D. 1408, John O'Mccrela was 

8 This parish, in Upper Iveagh Barony, presented by the Primate to the parish church 
is described, on the "Ordnance Survey of Donnachmore. — Reg. Flem., fol. 19. A.D. 
Townland Maps for the County of Down," 1440, John O'McKerrell, rector of Donagh- 
sheets 33,40,41,46. more died, and Gelacius O'McKerrell was 

9 According to the Irish of Rev. Jeoffry appointed in his stead.— Reg. Swayne, lib. 
Keating, this denomination is written, niAJ ii., p. 90. A.D. 1487, John O'MaKrell, 
Cobai 1 ii-4oib-e4C4c, " Moy-Coba in rector of Dompnachmor — Reg. Oct., fol. 
Iveagh." 288. A.D. 1534, Donald Omakrell, vicar 

10 At the years 683, 732, 734, 771, 796, of Donaghmore, died, and Peter Omakrell 
879, 965, the " Annals the of Four Masters " succeeded him. — Reg. Crom. p. 755. 

have notices of them. See Dr. O'Donovan's ,6 Thus, in 1622, Sir Edward Trevor held the 

edition, vols. i. and ii. twelve towns and the rectory, which consti- 

" Thus, at the years 1102, 1103, 1104, tutcd the manor of Donaghmore, under the 

1 109, 11 13, and 1 128, notices occur. In 1 188, See of Armagh. Until of late, the same had 

the English are said to have had a castle been held in the form of nine townlands, 

there. In 1252, the castle of Moy Coba was containing 2,045 acres, under the Protestant 

erected by the son of Maurice Fitzgerald. In Primate of Armagh. See Rev. William 

1253, it was destroyed by Brian O'Neill. See Reeves' "Ecclesiastical Antiquities of Down, 


cross or transept, forming two distinct chambers. 1 ? As was generally the 
case with churches, anciently the seats of bishops, the adjacent lands became 
episcopal property. 18 Although the living is a vicarage in the diocese of 
Dromore, the Primate of Armagh became rector and patron, part of the tithes 
being payable to him, and a part to the incumbent. 1 ' For some cause, which 
is not known, lands here situated were annexed to the See of Armagh, and 
not to that of Dromore. 20 The celebrated Dowagh or Danes' Cast passes 
through the western extremity of this parish. 21 

Article IV. — The Three Daughters of Maine, St. Dermor or Der- 
moria, St. Etne or Ethnea, and St. Cumana, of Airiudh Bainne. At the 
6th of July, in the Martyrologies of Tallagh, 1 of Marianus O'Gorman and of 
Maguire, a festival is entered in honour of TriingenaMoine, or the three daugh- 
ters of Maine in AiriudBoinne. Hewasdynastoveraplacecalled Tullach Maine. 
These three daughters are named Dermor, Etne and Cumman. 2 The Bollan- 
dists^ merely enter their names at this date, and acknowledge their obligations 
to Father Thomas O'Sheerin, who extracted his notice from the Martyrology of 
Marianus O'Gorman.* It would appear, from the Sanctilogium Genealogicum, 
that they — at least two of them — are to be regarded as daughters to Cormac, 
son of Ailill, and they were descendants from Cathair Mor, King of Ireland. 5 
However this may be, there is much uncertainty, regarding the time when 
these holy women flourished, and that exact place with which they had been 
connected. It is said, that while the Apostle St. Patrick 6 was in the northern 
parts of Ireland, he came to a place called Tulach Maine. Over this was a 
chief, named Manius, to whom he preached the truths of Christianity. To 
the chief and his wife, St. Patrick gave his blessing. She conceived and gave 
birth to twin daughters. These were baptized by the Irish Apostle. During 
the period of this mission, as we are told, Patrick did not enter the country 
about Armagh ; but, he went into the region of the Crimthann,? in which he 

Connor and Dromore," n. (m), p. 112. See Rev. William Reeves' "Ecclesiastical 

'7 This cave is about 3 feet wide, 5 feet Antiquities of Down, Connor and Dromore," 

high, and 62 feet long. At the cross, it is Appendix, E. E., pp. 316, 318. 
nearly 30 feet broad. See Lewis' " Topo- 2I See Lewis' " Topographical Dictionary 

graphical Dictionary of Ireland," vol. i., of Ireland," vol. i., p. 468. 
p. 468. Article iv. — l Edited by Rev. Dr. 

18 This property is described in the Ulster Kelly, p. xxviii. 

Visitation of 1622, as the " Mannor of 2 See Colgan's "Trias Thaumaturga," 

Donaghmore, contayning 12 townes and one Septima Vita S. Patricii, lib. iii., cap. ii., p. 

Rectorie." The same were lately held, 149, and nn. 8, 9, p. 184. 

under the See of Armagh, and are known 3 See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus ii., 

by these names: — Annaghbane, Ardkeeragh, Julii vi. Among the pretermitted saints, 

Aughnacaven, Buskhill,Cargabane, Donagh- p. 250. 

more, or Tullynacross, Ringclare, Ringolish, 4 The Latin extract runs thus : " Tres 

Ringbane, Tullymurry. See the Rev. filias Manii de Airiodh-boinne, Dermora, 

William Reeves' "Ecclesiastical Antiquities Ethnea, et Cumana. Festivitas laudatarum 

of Down, Connor and Dromore," Appendix Manii filiarum." 

E. E., pp. 306, 307. 5 A note by Dr. Todd says at Cumman's 

19 See "Parliamentary Gazetteer of Ire- name: "Ethne and Cumman were both 
land," vol. ii., p. 28. virgins, and sisters, daughters of Cormac, 

20 Among those tables of procurations, re- son of Ailill, of the race of Cathair Mor, 
lating to parishes in the Diocese of Dro- King of Ireland. Sanct. Gen., B. of 
moire, and which were payable to the Lecan." 

Primate in his Provincial Visitations, as 6 See his Life in the Third Volume of this 

found in Primate Dowdall's Registry, Dom- work, at the 17th of March, Art. i., chap, 

naghmore church was assessed at 3 marks, xvi. 

in the year 1422. At A.D. 1546, we find the 1 This was in the southern part of Orgialla, 

Rector of Donnaghmore rated for 5 marks, and it is now known, as the barony of Slane, 

and the vicar of the same place for 3 marks. in Meath. 


erected many churches. 8 The children we speak of — but whose names are 
not recorded — afterwards became religious, and they received the veil, like- 
wise, at his hands. There is a St. Ethnea, and her six sisters, mentioned in 
our Calendars. She had seven holy brothers, and all of these are classed as 
bishops. She was the daughter of Muredoc, son to Fortchern, son of Dicull, 
son to Crimthann, son of Armedac, son of Senach, son to Aid Loga, son of 
Oscuon, son to Mienac, son of Lugad, son to Imchad, son of Fidchur, son 
to Eochod, sonofEnnius Monchaoin, son of Ross, surnamed Rig-foda, son 
of Fiach Suidghe, the founder of the Decies family.9 With her uncle on the 
father's side, St. Colman, the son of Fortchern — as may be traced in the fore- 
going genealogy — this virgin St. Ethnea was venerated at a place called Kill- 
Iain, 10 now probably known as Killeen. The mother of St. Columkille bore 
the name of Ethnea, and Colgan hazards a conjecture," that she may have 
been one of the three female saints thus called in our Calendars, at the 26th I2 
of February, or at the 29th of March, or at the 6th of July. But, as all are 
denominated virgins, this is not a probable surmise, independent of their 
recorded descent. If we are to credit Colgan's statement, St. Ethnea and St. 
Cumania were sisters to St. Dermoria, also venerated on this day. '3 How- 
ever, in this case, the latter holy virgin must have been the daughter of 
Manius in Airedh-banne. Then, according to the same calculation — as she 
is classed among the virgins veiled by St. Patrick — she must have flourished 
in the fifth century. 

Article V. — Reputed Feast of St. Dermor, Daughter of Maine. 
A previous entry in the Martyrology of Donegal * disassociates Dermor, 
daughter of Maine, of Airiudh Bainne, from these virgins and sisters last- 
named, who are said to have been daughters to Cormac, son of Ailill. But her 
name is set down separately, at the same 6th of July, as are also the con- 
joined names of Ethne and Cumman. 

Article VI. — Three Daughters of Erni or Enuch Dirmaigh. 
We find inserted in the Martyrology of Tallagh, 1 at this date, Tri ingena 
Erni oc Enuch Dirmaighi. This same entry was communicated to the Bol- 
landists, by Father Thomas O'Sheerin, and it is set down by them, at the 6th 
of July. 2 

Article VII.— St. Fedchonniad, or Fedhchu, of Uamadh Fubi. 
The simple entry of Fedchonniad is met with in the Martyrology of Tallagh, 1 
at the 6th of July. The Bollandists * acknowledge their indebtedness to 
Father Thomas O'Sheerin, for furnishing the name of Fedchno of Magh or 

8 See Colgan's "Trias Thaumaturga," '3 See "Trias Thaumaturga," Quinta 
Septima Vita S. Patricii, pars, iii., cap. ii., Appendix ad Acta S. Patricii, cap. xxiii., p. 
p. 149, and nn. 8, 9, p. 184. 270. By mistake, however, the feast is 

9 The " Menologic Genealogy," cap. xvi., printed the 6th of June, instead of the 6th 
and Selbach, cap. xv. of July. 

10 See Colgan's "Acta Sanctorum Hiber- Article v. — ' Edited by Drs. Todd and 
niae," xv. Januarii, Appendix ad Acta S. Reeves, pp. 188, 189. 

Itae, cap. ii., p. 73. Article vi. — ■ Edited by Rev. Dr. 

11 See "Trias Thaumaturga," Quarta Ap- Kelly, p. xxviii. 

pendix ad Acta S. Columbae, cap. i., 2 See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus ii., 

p. 477« Julii vi. Among the pretermitted saints, 

12 The printer has inserted 23rd— a mis- p. 250. 

take. Article vii.— ' Edited by Rev. Dr. 


Campus Fuibh — eulogised by Marianus 0'Gorman3 — at this date. At the 
same day, in the Martyrology of Donegal,* the name Fedhchu, of Uamadh 
Fubi, is mentioned as having been venerated. 

Article VIII. — Reputed Festival of a St. Fuidbech. Another 
entry of Fuidbech is seen in the Martyrology of Tallagh, 1 for this day. We 
incline to the opinion, that it must have been owing to the oversight or igno- 
rance of some copyist, and we can hardly doubt, but that he is the same per- 
son as the Saint Fedhchu, whose name occurs, in the more recent Calendar. 

Article IX. — St. Flann Mac Cellach, Bishop of Rechrann. 
{Eighth Century .] In a Calendar, compiled by the Rev. William Reeves, we find 
entered at the 6th of July, St. Flann, the son of Kellech, son to Cronnmael, 
Bishop of Rechrann. But, whether this place was in the east of Bregia, 
county of Dublin, or in the county of Antrim, as said by Dr. Reeves, 1 Dr. 
O'Donovan hesitates to decide. In our Annals, the death of St. Flann is set 
down, as occurring, in the year 734. 2 

Article X. — Reputed Feast of a St. Golinia, or Golina, Virgin. 
The Bollandists state, 1 that the feast of St. Golinia is to be found in the Irish 
Calendars, at the 6th of July ; but, they suspect there is some corruption of 
the entry, and they desire further enlightenment regarding her. Florarius 2 
and Henry Fitzsimon3 enter St. Golina, virgin, at this same date/ The same 
name, written Colinia, occurs at the 6th of July, in the anonymous Calendar, 
published by O'Sullevan Beare. 5 

Article XI. — Reputed Festival of St. Silvester, Companion of 
St. Palladius, in Marr, Scotland. The Bollandists, 1 having found in 
Dempster and Ferrarius a festival of St. Sylvester mentioned at the nth of 
June, 2 referred to this date, when they were about to treat of St. Palladius. 
But nothing had been found to warrant any special notice; at least, we are 
not furnished with any particulars, which might enable us to understand, if 
any such feast should have place in the Calendar, for the introduction seems 
to have been on the sole authority of Dempster, who may be regarded in the 
double capacity of inventive saint-maker and of unscrupulous saint-stealer. 

Kelly, p. xxviii. (z), ibid, 

2 See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus ii., Article x.— 1 See "Acta Sanctorum," 
Julii vi. Among the pretermitted saints, tomus ii., Julii vi. Among the pretermitted 
p. 250. feasts, p. 249. 

3 Thus : "heros nostra; gentis de Autro 2 Thus: "In Hibernia, Golinise virginis." 
Fube." We suspect the reading should be 3 In " Catalogus aliquorum Sanctorum 
" Antro Fube." Hibernian" 

* Edited by Drs. Todd and Reeves, pp. * See O'Sullevan Beare's " Historic 

188, 189. Cathoiicce Ibernire Compendium," tomus i., 

Article viii. — ' Edited by Rev. Dr. lib. iv., cap. xii., p.54. 

Kelly, p. xxviii. 5 See ibid., cap. xi., p. 50. 

Article ix.— » See "Ecclesiastical Article xi.— 1 See " Acta Sanctorum," 

Antiquities of Down, Connor and Dromore," tomus ii., Julii vi. Among the pretermitted 

Appendix T, p. 249, and Appendix LL, feasts, p. 249. 

p. 379. 2 See the Sixth Volume of this work, at 

2 See Dr. O'Donovan's " Annals of the that date, for a slight reference to him, 

Four Masters," vol. i., pp. 336, 337, and n. Art. iv. 



^ffaentb 2Bap of 3ulp, 




SAINTLY biography, says an eminent trench writer, is one of the most 
naif recitals of the middle ages; it inspirited the weak and it terrified 
the powerful j it furnished a great bridle to curb society, and to preserve it 
from the violence of war. The legends or myths of Christianity were even 
in harmony with social usages ; while through them, holy places were held 
sacred from the fierce intrusion of armed men. There the peaceful were pro- 
tected, and their weakness was respected ; under the vivid impressions of Faith, 
morality had been observed, even through the stories of astounding miracles. 1 
The special contemporary, friend and companion, who knew the character 
of St. Maelruan so well, has set forth his fair renown, at this date, in the cele- 
brated " Feilire." 2 This must have been one of the earliest commemorations 
of the present holy man. The Bollandists 3 have only very briefly recorded 
the name of Moelruanus Episcopus, at the 7th of July. There are notices 
of him, likewise, in the work of Rev. Dr. Lanigan.* From all we can learn 
regarding him, Maelruain belonged to the race of Eochaidh, son to Muiread- 
hach, who sprung from the seed of Heremon.s The father of St. Maelruan 
is called Colman. Broicseach was the name of his mother. 6 We are not 
informed about the place of his birth. This latter event occurred, most pro- 
bably about the beginning of the eighth century. It is greatly to be regretted, 
that we have so few personal records of a saint, who was so very remarkable 
in his time, and whose life had such a marked influence on the revival of reli- 
gion and literature in the early Irish Church. We do not know where he had 

Article i. — Chapter i. — ' See Cape- Irish Manuscript Series, vol. i. On the 

Ague's "Charlemagne," tome i., chap, ii., Calendar of Oengus. p. cix. 

p. 39. 3 See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus ii., 

2 Thus we find the stanza, taken from the Julii vii. Among the pretermitted feasts, 

" Leabliar Breac" copy, with the English p. 452. 

translation of Whitley Stokes, LL.D. :— 4 See "Ecclesiastical History of Ireland," 

vol. Hi., chap. xx„ sect, vi., p. 232, and on. 

LAmoppluAgA-o tigniAp 46, 47, pp. 233, 234. 

pApmern cpom coe-oen S One hundred and eighty-one Irish kings 

moelpu<Mii A-opech pichco are said to have reigned from the lime of 

5piAn An nvopi ^oe-oel. Ihremon to Roderick. See Ciraldi Cam- 

brensis Opera, vol. v. Edited by James F. 

"With a great beautiful host, Parmenius' Dimock, M.A., " Topographia Ilibernica," 

heavy troop, Moelruain ran to heaven, Dist. in., cap. xlv., p. iSS. 

splendid sun of the isle of the Gael." — • According to a note, in the I.eabhar 

"Transactions of the Royal Irish Academy," Brcac copy of the Calendar of St. yEngus. 


been educated, although it seems to be a fact well established, that he had 
been well grounded in a religious and literary training, before he thought of 
establishing his own very celebrated school. He must have resolved on leading 
a religious life, when young, and he wns probably advanced to holy orders, 
when he was of an age to assume their obligations. Our writers, who allude 
to him, call him a bishop ; but, it does not seem likely, that he attained to that 
distinction, at least, until he had first been in charge of his celebrated monas- 
tic institute, for which he had framed special Rules. However, there seems 
to be no very ancient authority or evidence, which might warrant us in sup- 
posing, that he had attained to the episcopal rank. 

A pious and an illustrious King of Leinster, named Donnchadh or Don- 
och, who flourished in the beginning of the eighth century, is said to have 
bestowed the site of Tamlacht on St. Maelraan.? But, as he only ruled over 
the province for one year, and perished in battle towards the close of a.d. 
727, this seems too early a date for the religious foundation. From Dun- 
chadh, 8 the region around Tamlacht was subsequently called Ui-Dunchada.9 
This is known to have comprised that portion of the present county of 
Dublin, through which the River Dodder flows. 10 It is more generally 
believed, however, that Cellach, son of Dunchadh, 11 King of Leinster, 12 gave 
Tamlacht to St. Mae 1 main. Its earliest name was derived from the first 
recorded pestilence, 13 or Tam/i, which destroyed Parthalon's colony, and which 
is referred by the Four Masters to a.m. 2820, according to the long chronology of 
the Septuagint. The entry by those annalists is, "Nine Thousand of Parthalon's 
people died in one week on Sean-Mhagh-Ealta-Edair T * — namely, five thou- 
sand men and four thousand women."** Whence it was named Tamlacht Muin- 
tire Parthaloin ; while, after the lapse of ages, this place was called Tallagh,near 
Dublin. 10 The tumuli of these early colonists, who died from that sudden 

7 See Professor Eugene O'Curry's " Lee- for Tallacht or Tamlaght. 

tures on the Manuscript Materials of Ancient M This destruction of the colony of Par- 

Iiish History," Lect. xvii., p. 364. thalon, which is said to have occurred in 

8 He had a son Faelan, father of Bran, "the old plain of the valley of the flocks," 
father to Murchadhach, father of Faelan, stretching between Ben Edair, now known as 
father to Lorcan, father of Dunchadh, from Howth, and Tallaght, and on which-the city 
whom descended the families of Mac Gilla- of Dublin now stands, is thus mentioned in the 
mocholmog, of O'Byrne, and of O'Toole, so "Book of Invasions," contained in the 
famous in the history of Leinster. " Book of Leinster." " In Sean-Magh-Etair 

9 This territory Dunchadh was awarded Parthalon became extinct in a thousand men 
to him as an inheritance. and four thousand women, of one week's 

10 See "The Topographical Poems of mortality," or " Tamh" This translation is 
John O'Dubhagain and Giolla na Naomh by Professor Eugene O'Curry. This is the 
O'iluidhrin," edited by John O'Donovan, oldest manuscript account of that pestilence 
LL.D., pp. xiii., xiv., and nn. 58, 59, and that we now possess. 

p. liv., n. 438. '5 Likewise, in an ancient bardic poem, in 

11 He was the son of Murchadh, son to the ''Book of Leinster, it is said : " Partha- 
Bran Mut, or the Silent, belonging to the Ui Ion's people, to the number of nine thou- 
Dunlaing. sand, died of Tamh in one week." 

12 He fell in the battle of Almhaor Allen, ,6 In the "Chronicon Scotorum MSS.," 
in Kildare, by the sword of his brother as translated by Mr. O'Curry, the following 
Faelan, ancestor of the Ui Faelan, or the entry occurs : " In one thousand five hun- 
O'Byrnes. tired and four (400 according to Eochaidh 

13 In a " Report of the Census Commis- O'Flinn) from Parthalon's arrival in Ireland 
sioners of Ireland for the year 1 85 1," part v., till the first mortality ( Duiiie-bhadh, i.e., 
vol. i., we find a most valuable annalistic human mortality) that came in Ireland after 
reference to diseases and pestilences, in this the Deluge ; that is, the death by pestilence 
country, from the earliest times to the pre- (Tamh) of Parthalon's people, which hap- 
sent. In this able report, which does so pened on Monday, in the calends of May, 
much credit to the learning and research of and continued till the Sunday following. It 
Sir William Robert Wilde, we find various was from that mortality ( ' Dnine-bhadh) of 
accounts, which serve to furnish a derivation Parthalon's people the name of the (7 aim- 



[July 7. 

epidemic, can still be seen upon the hills in its vicinity. This is the first 
recorded pestilence in Ireland. The Irish word Tamk means an epidemic 
pestilence; and the term Tamhleadit — the plague monument 1 ? — which fre- 
quently enters into topographical names in Ireland, signifies a place where a 
number of persons cut off by pestilence were interred together. 18 

At present, this is the well-known village "9 and parish, in the barony of 
Uppercross, and in the county of Dublin. It lies on the western slope of the 
mountains, which form so beautiful an outline, as seen from the metropolis of 


igh, County of Dul 

Ireland. It lies about five miles from the city. The village is beautifully 
situated, in a fine open country. 20 This place is said to have been called 
Tavellagh or Taulagh-Maelruny, from having been founded and afterwards 
dedicated to the present saint. 21 

Amid the prevailing laxity of monastic discipline, here St. Maelruain 
gathered around him a fraternity, for whom he ordained certain rules of 
stricter observance. These consisted partly of precepts for conventual and 
sacerdotal guidance ; but, they were especially distinguished, by the principles 
laid down, and by the regulations prescribed for religious worship and the 
exercise of devotion. 22 It is very likely, that a very numerous community 
was formed, and the members placed themselves under his guidance, as 
Abbot and founder of a new order. A list of the u unity-folk of Maelruain 
of Tallagh" — viz., the contemporaries with whom he had contracted an inti- 

leachta (the death or mortality place) of the 
men of Ireland is derived." 

17 See the version of Sanar* Cho]\niAic, or 
Cormac's " Glossary, '' translated and anno- 
tated by the late John O'Donovan, LL.D. 
Edited with Notes and Indices, by Whitley 
Stokes, LL.D., p. 160. 

18 See Dr. O'Donovan's "Annals of the 
Four Masters, "vol. i., pp. 8, 9, andn. (c), ibid, 

19 The accompanying illustration, drawn 
on the spot by William F. Wakeman, and 
by him transferred to the wood, has been 

engraved by Mrs. Millard. 

Lewis' " Topographical Dictionary 
of Ii eland," vol. ii., pp. 587, 588. 

■' See John D' Alton S " History of the 
County of Dublin," p. 761. 

'• llie Culdees of the British 
Islands, as they appear in History : with an 
Appendix of Evidences." By William 
Reeves, D.D., &c, part ii., sect, ii., p. 7. 
Dublin, 1864, 4I0. This remarkably re- 
searched and learned Treatise seems to ex- 
haust all that can be known regarding the 


mate union — is to be found, in the detached ten folia, 2 * belonging to the 
Book of Leinster. 24 A stanza 2 * on the same page,' 6 and enumerating these 
men, is attributed to Cormac Mac Cuillanain. 

Few personal anecdotes, regarding this holy Abbot Maelruain have been pre- 
served. A commentator on the " Feilire " of St. yEngus, at this date, has an 
account of a certain thief, who stole the only cow, belonging to the Ostiarius of 
Mailruain of Tallaght. The latter 2 ? was urgent on his patron saint to avenge the 
theft ; but, Maelruain advised the door-keeper to bide his time, and that the 
devil should inflict on the thief still greater evil, while his punishment in hell 
should be the heavier, 28 because the transgressor was permitted to commit 
more bad actions the longer he continued in this life. There is extant a 
romantic Irish poem, entitled u Legendary Story of St. Maelruan, first bishop 
of Tallagh." 2 ? From the character of the heading, we may well suppose, it is 
not a genuine account of any incident in his career. 

It is stated, that St. Maelruan there founded a church, in honour of God 
and of St. Michael the Archangel, in the year 769.3° This, likewise, is the 
date given for the first erection of Tamlacht-Mailruain, in the u Annals of the 
Four Masters."* 1 This church of Tamlacht was founded, about twenty-four 
years after the institution by Chrodegang of the order of Canons in his church 
of Metz, and to whom the title of Fratres Dominici had been given. It was 
subsequently changed to that of Canonici. They were an intermediate class, 
between monks and secular priests. They adopted to a great extent the dis- 
cipline without the vows of monks, while they discharged the office of minis- 
ters in various churches.* 2 Possibly, St. Maelruain's institution may have 
been borrowed from, or may have had some features in common with, the 
order of Canons. It seems to be pretty well established, that both the Keledei 
of Scotland, as well as the Colidei of Ireland, exhibited the main characteris- 
tics of secular canons in their discipline, during the ages that succeeded this 
period. 33 

ancient Culdees. County of Dublin," p. 761. 

33 At the end of column 3. 3 ° See Professor Eugene O'Curry's " Lec- 

24 Now preserved in the Franciscan Con- tures on the Manuscript Materials of Ancient 
vent, Merchants' Quay, Dublin. Irish History," Lect. xvii., p. 364. 

25 At the end of column 5. 3I See Dr. O'Donovan's edition, vol. i., 

26 The same stanza is copied in the lower pp. 272, 273. 

margin, apparently in Colgan's handwriting. 32 In 817, a new rule and additional regu- 

27 He said : " I me not thankful for the lations had been enacted for the order of 
patron that avengeth not my cow on the Canons, at the Council of Aix-la-Chapelle. 
thief, for we see him without want of cattle 33 See Rev. Dr. Reeves on " The Cul- 
or of children or of health." dees of the British Islands," &c, part ii., 

28 This is represented as having been sect, ii., pp. 9, 10. 

expressed in an Irish rami, the composition Chapter ii. — x In that copy of the 

of St. Maelruain : — " Martyrology of Tallagh " found in the 

" Book of Leinster," as edited by Dr. Robert 

SeAnj; hiperiMm 1/m-o jroruiech Atkinson, we read at that date, the follow- 

1nichiAH CAingen ocuf bj\ech ing entry: " iiii. Idus Augusti Maelruain 

SechmAlL alerTA Ar\cech 16 cum suis reliquiis Sanctorum martyrum et 

Sir*ifiur»tt nihimApgo. virginum ad Tamlachtain venit." See 

p. 361 c. 

It is thus translated into English by Dr. 2 On a 6th of September, as we find it set 

Whitley Stokes: "Seng t sessam (?) have down thus : "hi. Non. Sep. Adventus reli- 

we for every one, afar offtrial and judgment, quiarum Scethi filiae Mechi ad Tamlach- 

oblivion of their advantage on every day, tain." See ibid., p. 362^. 

eternal hell (it is) not a falsehood." — 3 A copy of this is given, in a large Parch- 

" Transactions of the Royal Irish Academy," ment 4to Manuscript, No. 223, belonging to 

Irish Manuscript Series, vol. i. Notes the Messrs. Hodges and Smith collection, 

from the Lebar Brecc, pp. 91, 92, p. cxvii. preserved in the Royal Irish Academy. 

29 See John D'Alton's " History of the 4 For a fuller account of this valuable his- 

io2 LIVES 01 7HE IRISH SAINTS. [July 7. 



Already have we alluded to the date for St. Maelruain's establishment at 
Tallagh ; and, if we may draw an inference from a Festival set down in its 
Calendar, the 10th of August was a day on which the holy founder brought to 
or deposited at that place the relics of venerated Martyrs and Virgins, 1 with 
suitable rites and ceremonies. It is probable, that on the occasion, the 
church there and its altar had been consecrated ; for we know, that the con- 
tinuous practice, in the case of such ceremonials, is to place relics of the 
saints within the altar-stone on which the holy Sacrifice of the Mass is offered. 
Another supposition may be arrived at, however, that those relics had been 
conveyed in procession, and had been placed in shrines, which were placed 
probably over the high altar ; for we know, likewise, that at a period sub- 
sequent, other sacred relics 2 had arrived at Tallaght, and that the annual 
commemoration of both events was regarded as matter for observance there, 
both by the monks- and by the people, who annually assembled to pray 
before those sacred remains. 

Besides his other excellent virtues and accomplishments, St. Maelruain 
is traditionally regarded as having indulged in literary work, and he is 
credited with having been a poet. Yet of his genuine metrical compositions, 
we doubt if many of them have been preserved. An Irish poem is said to 
have been composed by St. Maelruan of Tallagh. 3 A much more important 
compilation has come down to our times, and it is known as the Martyrolo- 
gium Tamlactense, or the " Maityrology of Tallaght."* It has been supposed, 
that the conception and authorship of this work were due, in the first instance, 
to St. Maelruain ;5 although, it is thought, he received assistance in its pre- 
paration, from the celebrated St. /Engus the Culdee, 6 who was a subject and 
an inmate of his monastery. That we have not the original draft of St. Mael- 
ruain's composition is proved from the fact, that his own name has been 
entered in the preserved and published copies, at this same day. However, 
it seems most probable, that St. ^ngus added to the work, after St. Mael- 
ruain's death ; and, even after the death of the former, we find the insertion of 
St. /Engtis'* own name, so thatthere must have been interpolations, in nearly all 
the later copies. Indeed, it was no unusual custom for unauthorized persons to 
tamper with records of this character, by introducing items of information on 
their own responsibility, and to complete what they deemed to be defects or 
omissions. This was especially the case, with regard to copies of Annals or 
of Calendars, preserved in our monasteries. 7 

It should seem, that the temporal patron of Tallaght must have preserved 
very close personal relations with St. Maelruain and his community. This 

torical and ecclesiastical record, the reader 6 On its title lias been found, also., 

is referred to the First Volume of this work. " Martyrologium Aengussii filii Ilua-obhlenii 

Introduction, sect. ii. Also to the Third et Moelruaiii." 

Volume, at the nth of March, Ait. i., in the 1 1t should be very unwarrantable to charge 

Life of St. /Engusius Hagiographus or St. these additions as attempted forgeries— as 

./Engus the Culdee, chap. iii. some writers have illogically done — on those 

s See Kev. Dr. Lanigan's " Ecclesiastical who inserted such comments, as well as on 

History of Ireland," vol. iii., chap, xx., the monks, who preserved such records, and 

sect, vi., n. 47, p. 224. who transmitted them to posterity. 


may fairly be inferred, from the simple entry which remains to us of an Irish 
dynast's closing career. According to the "Annals of the Four Masters/' 8 
Cellach died a.d. 771. He is said to have been buried at the church in Tal- 
laght ; and, no doubt, for many long succeeding generations, the pious com- 
munity there offered up Masses and prayers for their deceased benefactor. 
We believe the following story to be apocryphal, as it seems unchronological. 
Mainnsena,9 the mother of Brenaiun, 10 of Biorr, as we are told, 11 came to 
Saighir, and she was desirous of going to the Island of Doiinhle. This is held 
to have been the present Cape Clear Island, by well-known writers, 12 who have 
furnished some description and illustrations of that place. As we have seen 
already,^ the greater probability is, that it lay between the counties of Wex- 
ford and Waterford. " Go not," said Ciaran of Saighir, 1 * " but, it is in 
Tamhlacht thy own resurrection and the resurrection of thy son Brenaiun 
shall be." It does not appear, that Tamlacht had a cemetery before the 
eighth century. One of the most interesting and instructive incidents of the 
period while Maelruain ruled over the monastery at this place, was the admis- 
sion of the celebratedSt. ^Engusthe Culdee 15 — then little known to fame and 
wishing himself to be altogether unnoticed — as an humble postulant. The 
celebrity of St. Maelruin's institute, and the congeniality of its discipline to 
his peculiar habits, probably induced St. ^Engus to leave Dysart Enos and to 
visit Tamlacht. For a long time, he served there as a mere farm labourer, 
and only an accident brought him prominently under the observation of the 
Abbot St. Maelruan. Afterwards they became bosom friends, while their 
tastes in literature and sympathies in holy exercises continued to the close of 
St. Maelruan's career. Elsewhere, this narrative has been written, and it is 
only necessary to refer the reader to those pages, which serve to illustrate 
the biography of both saints. 

Those religious, known as the Culdees, were at Tallagh, during the time 
of St. Melruan. 16 Although from the Lives of St. Patrick and of other very 
early Irish saints, we find the designation Culdee applied to holy servants of 
God ; yet, it has been thought, this term was not in vogue in their time, but 
that it was subsequently applied. x ? So far as we can understand, the brothers 

8 See Dr. O'Donovan's edition, vol. i., ^Engussius Hagiographus or St. /Engus the 
pp. 376, 377. Culdee, in the Third Volume of this work 

9 A note by Dr. Todd says, at the fore- at the nth of March, Art. i., chaps, ii., 
going word, Mainnsena. " This paragraph iii., iv. 

seems intended as a note on Tamlachta, not l6 See notices of the Cele De or Culdees, 

as putting Mainnsena as a saint on this day. in the Leabhar Breac, fol. 5, a, b, Catalogue 

Her name does not occur in the other Calen- of Irish Manuscripts in the Royal Irish Aca- 

dars." demy, p. 597. 

10 The death of St. Brendan of Birr oc- t? There is a poem, ascribed to St. Cart- 
curred, on the 29th of November, a.d. 571. hach or St. Mochuda of Lismore — who died 

11 By the O'Clerys. a.d. 636 — and which gives a metrical Rule 

12 In the ancient ecclesiastical books it is of the Celi De, to be found in a Manuscript, 
called " Insula Sancta Clara," and in the old belonging to Trinity College, Dublin, and 
Irish MS., " Inish Domhly." See Mr. and which is classed II 2, 16, cols. 224, 225. It 
Mrs. Hall's " Ireland : its Scenery, Charac- is headed "Do chelm "Oe mpo np, and it is 
ter," &c, vol. i., pp. 137, 138. comprised in twelve stanzas. It forms the 

13 In the present volume, at the 4th day of seventh division in a metrical composition of 
July, in the Acts of St. Fionnbarr, Abbot of 145 stanzas, and it immediately succeedsa di- 
Inis Doimhle, county of Wexford, Art. i. vision containing nineteen stanzas, on the 

14 This saint flourished in the fifth cen- duties of a monk. It may be doubted, how- 
tury, according to the common belief. See ever, that this is a genuine composition of 
his Life, at the 5th of March, in the Third St. Carthach. The Irish ranns, with an 
Volume of this work, Art. i. English translation, may found in '.' The 

15 See these and the following particulars Culdees of the British Islands, as they appear 
more fully set forth, in the Life of St. in History," &c, by the Very Rev. William 


of this ancient Irish monastic order were chiefly clerical recluses, 18 observing 
a distinctive habit of living from other monks. Perhaps we should include 
among this fraternity some — if not all — of those who are called the folk of the 
unity of Maelruain, namely : Maelruain of Tallagh, Maeltuile, son of Noec- 
huire, Maelanfaid of Dairinis mor (County Waterford) ; Fland the fair, son 
of Fairchellach, in Daire na fland (Derrynavlan, County Tipperary); Fland, 
son of Duibthinne, in Daire na fland ; Flannan, son of Tairdelbach, in Cill da 
lua (Killaloe) ; Maeldithrub, namely, the anchorite of Tir da glass (Terry- 
glass, County Tipperary) j Dimman of Ara (Aran Island) j Dalbach of Cul 
callach ; Feidlimid, son of Crimthain (King of Munster) ; Diarmaid of Desert 
Diarmada (Castledermot, County Kildare) ; Eochaid, bishop of Tallagh ; 
Oengus Ua Oiblein. 1 ? The foregoing list has been versified in the Irish lan- 
guage, and the lines are attributed to the celebrated Cormac Mac Cuillenan 
of Cashel, 20 who flourished near enough to that time, when Maelruain lived, to 
have procured authentic details. 

One of the eight Ecclesiastical and Religious Rules established in Erinn, 
and the sixth in chronological order, was that of St. Maelruain. It is known as 
the general Rule of the Celidhe' D£, vulgarly called the Culdees. It contains 
a minute series of regulations for their lives, their prayers, their preachings, 
their conversations, their confessions, their communions, their ablutions, their 
fastings, their abstinences, their relaxations, their sleep, their celebrations of 
Mass and their other duties. 21 A copy of this is contained in a prose tract 
of nine small quarto pages. 22 The " Rule for the Celi De" was composed 
by St. Maelruan, and it is said, about the year 780. However, we are inclined 
to think, that the date must be placed, at an earlier period. The original of 
this is not known to exist, and the version of it which remains does not 
appear to be older than the twelfth or thirteenth century. 2 3 It may be 
regarded as a modernized, or perhaps amplified, version of a much earlier 
document. The length of the Tract admits great variety in the subjects of 
which it treats, while its contents are greatly deficient in arrangement, and 
in many passages they are obscure. 2 * It is said, that Moelruain originally 

Reeves, D.D., Evidences, G, pp. 82, 83. 20 The Very Rev. Bartholomew Mac 

18 At least, such is the description given of Cat thy, D.D., who kindly furnished English 

them, in an Irish Poem of twelve quatrains translations of the Irish text from the Book 

in Leabhar Breac, fol. 261, beginning with of Leinster for the writer, states, there is no 

the heading Do Cell "Oe, no x>i clej\ech reason for calling the authenticity of Cormac 

pecterw. Mac Cuillenan's poem in question. At the 

*9 And this is verified by the poem com- bottom of that page in which it is, a modern 

mencing with " The hillock," of which version is given in the handwriting of 

Cormac Mac Culenain sang : " Hillock, Michael O'Cleiy, the chief of the Four 

green-topped," etc. See Dr. Robert Atkin- Masters, in whose possession the Manuscript 

son's edition of the Book of Leinster, p. 370^. once had been. 

Moreover, we are told, that Cormac Mac M See Professor Eugene O'Curry's " Lec- 

Culenain sang (in the poem mentioned, inter tures on the Manuscript Materials of 

alia) : — Ancient Irish History," Lect. xviii., p. 375. 

" Maelruain, Mea'tuile, glorious in deed, ibid. 

Maelantiad of Dairinis, 23 This is inferred from its orthography 

The three Elands, Maeldithrub zeal- and grammatical structure. 

ous, *•» See "The Culdees of the British 

Dimman, Dalbach, Feidlimid. Islands, as they appear in History," &c. By 

Very Rev. William Reeves, D.D., part ii., 

Diarmuid, Eochaid, sublime the tale, sect, ii., p. 7. 

And Oengus Ua Oibleim, a s A prose version of this Rule purports to 

The folk of that unity all be its translation in the Leabhar Breac, at 

(Are) round Maelruain, round Mael- fol. 9. It begins with these words : Incipic 

tuile." TI1A541I, na Celco tVOe, o ffloelpUAin 

— Ibid., p. 370^. cearuc. 


composed his Rule for the Cele De in metre. 25 This has been rendered into 
Irish prose, and it has been printed, with an English translation, by Dr. John 
O'Donovan, 26 to which notes are annexed, by Rev. Dr. Reeves. The Rule 
of St. Maelruain was remarkably rigorous. Meat was not eaten, nor was ale 
drank, by his monks, during their Abbot's own time ; 2 ? although, both appear 
to have been allowed — subject to certain conditions — in that copy of the 
Rule, which has come down to us. It is interesting to know, what formed 
the chief articles of food in the monastic establishment, at this early period. 
The dietary of the Tallagh community seems to have consisted of bread, 
thick milk, honey, skimmed milk, beer, butter, kale, biestings, curds, fish, 
cheese, eggs, apples, leeks, cheese-whey, and gruel, for these are specially 
mentioned, as being in daily use. There seems to have been a relaxation at 
Easter, when eggs, lard and the flesh of wild deer and wild hogs, with other 
flesh-meats, in case of sickness or scarcity of other nutriment, were allowed. 
There was a fast every month among the congregation of Maelruan, on half 
a meal of bread, and on half a meal of diluted whey. This Rule has precepts 
for bishops, pastors, confessors, virgins in religion, and lay people. It con- 
tains several regulations, connected with the sacrament of penance. It regards 
any divulging of confession, so as to say, " this is what the man did," as a 
very heinous crime. It is added, that this " is not penanced in the land of 
Erinn." 28 On the eve of the chief festivals, all feasting is prohibited, " because 
of going under the hand to-morrow." 2 ^ Frequent confession is also incul- 
cated."^ Yet, it is not profitable, when the transgressions are frequent. 
We are informed again, that it is not necessary to delay in case of minute 
confessions thoughts and idle notions, and abuse and anger, until Sunday, but 
to confess them immediately as they occur. He who makes his confession 
to a soul-friend — if he perform the penance according to his directions — need 
not confess them to another soul-friend, but only what has subsequently 
occurred. Some instructions are given, also, for guidance of the confessor.3 1 
It is right to refuse the confession of a person, who does not perform penance 
according to the soul-friend's direction, unless there happens to be a soul- 
friend near, who is considered more learned in rules, in the ways of the 
scripture, and in the practices of the saints. Let the penitent heed what he 
receives from the learned soul-friend, whom he first met, to whomsover he 
may reveal his confession each time, and let penance be enjoined him, 
according to the rules of frequent confession. In fine, it is also decreed, that 
the bishop, who confers noble orders upon any one, who is not instructed in 
religion and reading and rules, as also regarding the proper remedy for all sins 

26 Both are to be found in "The Culdees would be too long to wait till the Sunday 
of the British Islands, as they appear in following, for the person who habitually goes 
History," &c. By Very Rev. William to hand every Sunday, because these two 
Reeves, D.D. Evidences, H, pp. 84 to 97. days were always special with them at Mass." 

27 See " Proceedings of the Royal Irish 3I After this form : Difficult, indeed, is 
Academy," Irish Manuscript Series, vol. i., the duty of the soul-friend, because if he give 
part i., pp. 128, 129. the proper remedy, it is oftener violated than 

28 AccordingtotheO'Curry'sMSS., sect. 60. observed; but, if the soul-friend does not 

29 To these words Dr. Reeves adds the fol- give it, its liability falls upon himself; because 
lowing note : " The priest raises his hand in several are satisfied with making the con- 
the absolution, whence the modern expres- fession, without doing the penance, but it is 
sion, T>ul f a iAim f a^ai^c " going under better to proclaim their welfare to them, 
the hand of the priest," denotes going to though they do not respond to the penance 
confession." See "The Culdees of the British enjoined by the confessor. Another soul- 
Islands," &c, Evidences H., p. 84. friend may be gone to, if necessary, after the 

30 This Rule enacts : "When they do not permission of the first soul-friend has been 
go to hand (meaning to confession) on Sun^ obtained. 

day, they go on the Thursday after ; it 32 See Reeves' work "On the Culdees." 


in general, is an enemy to God and to man ; for, that bishop has offered an 
insult to Christ and to his Church, and hence he shall do penance for six 
years. 3 2 



In the Prologue to the " Feilire" of St. ^ngus, St. Maelruain is styled "the 
great Sun of the South Plain of Meath.''' 1 In the Book of Leinster, 2 there is 
an incident of his history related, from which the holy Abbot concludes, that 
it is better for a man to give his offering to the Lord than to earthly men. 
Into the version of St. Maelruain's Rule, which has been published, is ad- 
mitted the following account, that what Moelruain heard from learned men 
concerning the desertion of the land was : That Patrick, and the faithful 
whom he brought into Erin, will be repulsive in Heaven to any man who 
deserts his land, except so far as to remove from the east of it to the west, 
and from the north to the south. This seems to have reference to the great 
religious migrations from Ireland to the Continent, which prevailed in the 
eighth and following centuries.3 

That St. Maelruain had only been regarded as abbot,* and not as bishop, s 
in Tallagh, seems most probable, from the fact, that his apparently immediate 
successor there, Airerain, 6 surnamed the Wise,? is only styled an Abbot of that 
place. However, it cannot be denied, that even in the time of Maelruain 
there was a bishop at Tallagh ; and we know, that at a period, not long sub- 
sequent, there had been a St. Eochaidh 8 — successor of Maelruain — who 
united in his own person the offices of bishop and abbot. 9 Nay more ; it is 
almost certain, that St. Maelruain himself would not assume the functions of 
the episcopate through humility, while he enjoined on Eochaidh the duty of 
receiving consecration, to serve the purposes of the community, according to 
the custom of that time. 

The "cumhal " in the Latin documents is it — he is entered as a bishop. This addition 

expressed by " ancilla. " Its literal meaning to his name was probably a late interpolation, 

is "bondmaid," whose equivalent was 6 See an account of him, in the Second 

reckoned at three cows. See Dr. O'Dono- Volume of this work, at the 10th of February 

van's LeAbharv ha 5-CeArtf;, or "Book of — the date for his feast, Art. i. 

Rights," p. 139, n. (n). 7 Thus we find in that copy of the Tallagh 

Chapter hi. — l See "Transactions of Martyrclogy, in the "Book of Leinster," 

the Royal Irish Academy," Irish Manuscript edited by Robert Atkinson, M.A., LL.D., 

Series, vol. i., part i. On the Calendar of the following entry at iii. Idus Februarii, 

^Engus, by Whitley Stokes, LL.D., p. xx. " Airerain Sapientis et Abbatis Tamlactan 

2 Edited by Robert Atkinson, M.A., post Maelruain." Seep. 356. 

LL.D., fol. 286a. 8 Thus entered, at the 28th of January : " iii. 

3 See "The Culdees of the British Islands, Kl. Februarii, Eochaid Eps. et abb. Tamlac." 
as they appear in History," &c. By Very — See ibid., p. 356^'. 

Rev. William Reeves, D.D. Evidences, H, 9 His feast occurs at the 28th January, 

p. 91, and note. where some notices of him occur, in Firsl 

4 In the list of the community-folk of Tal- Volume of this work, Art. v. There, how- 
lagh, he is not called a bishop, nor in the ever, we did not assign his place — which 
Poem of Cormac Mac Cuillenan. undoubtedly was here — whilejhis deatli is re- 

5 However, in Rev. Dr. Kelly's version of corded in Dr. O'Donovan's " Annals of the 
the "Martyrology of Tallagh" — which we find Four Masters," at A.D. 807, recle 8 1 2, vol. i. f 
to have been drawn from the earliest copy of pp. 418, 419. 

July 7.] LIVES 0* 1HE IRISH SAINTS. 107 

It has been assumed, that Tallagh had been a rural episcopal See, 10 even 
from the time of St. Maelruan, and also because in our Annals and Calendars 
there are obituary notices of its bishops j" but, the fact does not appear to 
be well established. The oldest records extant represent it as a rectory 
belonging to the Archbishop of Dublin. In the thirteenth century, Henry de 
Loundres I2 annexed it to the Deanery of St. Patrick's, to maintain the 
dignity of the Dean, who as head of the Chapter was subject to the greatest 
expense. 1 * The present Protestant church x * is at least the third church, 
built on the same site. 15 It was parallel to the former one, while the latter 
stood on the rude remains of one older still. In mediaeval records, Tallagh 
is written Taulagh, and sometimes Tavelach. The church here was also 
called Taulaght-Maelruny — a corruption from the patron's name — while the 
chapels of Killohan l6 and St. Bride x ? were subservient to it. Besides the 
tithes, the Dean of St. Patrick's formerly possessed the right of presentation 
to the vicarage. 18 A large stone font is in the graveyard at Tallagh ; and, 
it is said, that pilgrims to the shrine of St. Mollrooney — such was the local 
pronunciation — were accustomed to wash their feet in it. Near Tallagh, and 
in the same parish, there is a townland still denominated Kilnamanagh x 9 or 
" the Church of the Monks." It was probably a dependency on the Monas- 
tery founded by St. Maelruain. Not far from the site of St. Maelruain's old 
foundation was the former palace of the Archbishops of Dublin.* This 
mediaeval and semi-baronial structure, from the pictures of it which remain, 
was a large castellated mansion, having several massive square towers and 
thick external walls, pierced with many narrow loop-hole windows. 21 It was 
even inhabited to a comparatively recent period. However, having become 
ruinous, and inconvenient for the usages of modern social life, the Arch- 
bishop's palace was unroofed in 1825. Afterwards, this site became the pro- 
perty of a lay gentleman, who repaired and converted a portion of its ruins 
into a modern mansion. Subsequently, he transferred the title and possession 
to the fathers of the Dominican Order. Soon again was a noble building 
erected for their religious establishment. At present, a spacious Dominican 
Convent occupies the site once covered by the archiepiscopal palace. Of 
the latter — in the true architectural taste and spirit of restoration — the former 
bell-tower has been preserved, and it still serves its original purpose. In the 
garden attached, there is an immense walnut tree, which is said to have been 

10 Previous to a.d. 1 152. See John of St. Joseph, Bishop of Tallagh, Art. iv. 
D'Alton's " History of the County of Dub- l6 It was situated without the cross-lands 
lin," p. 761. of the Archbishop in the townland of Old- 

11 This seems to have been in accordance, bawn, but it has been waste since A.D. 
with that monastic discipline observed at 1 532. 

Iona, and probably in other places through- ' 7 This chapel nearer the Dodder is now in 

out Ireland, where bishops were attached ruins. 

only to their respective religious houses, and l8 These privileges were confirmed to him 

for the purpose of ordaining the subjects of by a Bull of Pope Gregory IX., in the first 

those houses. year of his pontificate, A.D. 1227. 

12 He flourished in the thirteenth century, J 9 It is described on the " Ordnance Sur- 
and presided over the See of Dublin, from vey Townland Maps for the County of 
A.D. l2l3to 1228. See Harris' Ware, vol. i., Dublin," sheets 21, 22. 

" Archbishops of Dublin," pp. 318 to 320. 2 ° A picture of this medioeval mansion may 

13 See "The History and Antiquities of be seen, in vol. i., p. 201, of new edition of 
the Collegiate and Cathedral Church of St. Rev. Mervyn Archdall's "Monasticon Hi- 
Patrick, near Dublin," by William Monck bernicum," edited by Right Rev. Patrick F. 
Mason, Esq., book i., chap, v., p. 26. Moran, D.D., Lord Bishop of Ossory, &c, 

14 It was erected in 1829. at present Cardinal Archbishop of Sydney. 

15 An engraving of the Protestant Church Dublin, 1873, et se 1-> 4 to « 

at Tallagh may be seen in the First Volume 2t The accompanying illustration, copied 

of this work, at the 5th of January, the feast from a faithful drawing of the original by 



[July 7. 

planted by the hand of St. Madman himself. 22 Not far from it, there is a 
promenade, called the Friars' Walk. The enclosed grounds are admirably 
secluded from the high road, while they present a true picture of monastic 

The course of St. Maelruain having been usefully and religiously run, the 
time for his eternal reward began to open before him. We cannot doubt, 
but his departure was a sore bereavement to his community, in whose spiritual 
welfare he had always taken so deep an interest. In view of his approaching 
end, it seems likely, he made provision for their future wants, and on his 

Ancient Palace of the Archbishop of Dublin, at Tallaght. 

death-bed blessed them and their place. It has been stated, in the "Annals 
of the Four Masters," 2 3 that St. Maelruain, Bishop of Tamhlacht Maelruain, 
died, on the 7th of July, a.d. 787. Yet, under the head of Tamlacht, Duald 
Mac Firbis enters, Maolruain, bishop of Tamlacht, at a.d. 789,^ and at the 
7th of July. According to the Annals of Ulster, 2 * Maelruain of Tamlacht, a 
bishop and soldier of Christ, slept in peace, in the year 791. However, Dr. 
O'Donovan states, that the true date for his death is a.d. 792. 26 As already 
stated, 2 ? St. Maelruain was interred in his cemetery at Tallagh, and the site 
of his grave is yet pointed out by the people of that village. For the spot, 

William F. Wakeman, has been transferred 
by him also to the wood, engraved by Mrs. 

22 An illustration of this tree forms the 
Frontispiece, attached to the First Volume of 
this work. These larger illustrations have 
been designed to commemorate scenes, in 
connexion with the compilation of Irish 
Hagiology ; and accordingly, as affixed to 
the present volume, Trinity College, Dublin, 
has a special interest for having a close and 
an intimate relation with the learned Arch- 
bishop Ussher, Sir James Ware, the Rev. 
Drs. Todd and Reeves, who have laboured 

so well in the field of Irish Hagiology and 
Ecclesiastical History. 

23 See Dr. O' Donovan's edition, vol. i., 
pp. 392, 393- 

■* See " Proceedings of the Royal Irish 
Academy," Irish Manuscript Series, vol. i., 
part i., pp. 128, 129. 

25 See -AniialA Ul<voh. Edited with a 
Translation and Notes, by William M. 
Ilennessy, M.R.I. A., vol. i., pp. 270, 271. 

26 See " Annals of the Four Masters," 
vol. i., pp. 392, 393. 

27 See the First Volume of this work, at 
the 5th of January, Art. iv. 


extraordinary veneration is manifested ; nor will the people suffer any corpse 
to be interred too near it. His festival was kept on the 7th of July, 28 and it 
was long commemorated by the people with processions. This commemora- 
tion appears to have come down from remote times. The Martyrology of 
Tallagh 2 ? records, that at the 7th of July, veneration was given to Maol- 
ruain, Bishop of Tamlachta. This name appears in the Martyrology of 
Donegal, 30 nlso, at the same date, as Maelruain, Bishop of Tamlacht, in 
Leinster. Tamlacht, says the Calendarist, lies between Ath-cliath and Cill- 
dara ; but it should have been observed, not in a direct line. Even, St. 
Maelruain was venerated in Scotland, as we find him entered at the 7th of 
July, in the Kalendar of Drummond ; 31 from which we further learn, that his 
life was distinguished, not alone by his virtues, but by miracles. After his death, 
as we learn from the " Feilire," which was soon composed by his contempo- 
rary St. ^ngus, the people began to frequent his tomb, 32 and after pious 
service there, with purity, was " healed every heart's sigh." 33 A pattern was 
kept up at Tallagh, on the 7th of July, by the people of the town, and they 
were accustomed to call it St. Mollrooney's day. 3 * They had an incorrect 
idea of the patron saint, 35 according to the popular tradition. 

Many centuries have passed since holy men first lived, prayed, and studied at 
Tallagh; and although time has wrought many changes for its records, the present 
age witnesses asuccession of religious men, and a learned band of ecclesiastical 
scholars there, serving to maintain its former glories. The Catholic prelates 
of Dublin formerly made it a place for repose and retreat. Their fine man- 
sion has been levelled, and hardly a vestige of it now remains. However, at 
the present time, the Dominican fathers 36 have their convent and their novi- 
ciate, on its site ; and, as of old, it is still a house for monastic seclusion and 
discipline, as also a school for imparting instruction to those youthful aspi- 
rants, who desire the perfect state, and who have resolved to perpetuate in the 
present age the blessings of bye-gone centuries. The very graves 3 ? there are 

28 See Ordnance Survey Volume of festival. To these we have already alluded, 
" Extracts " for the County of Dublin, p. in the First Volume of this work, at January 
131, now preserved in the Library of the 5th, Art. iv. 

Royal Irish Academy. 35 Probably owing to their mode of pro- 

29 Edited by Rey. Dr. Kelly, p. xxviii. nouncing this saint's name, the people sup- 
His feast is also, at this date, in the Martyr- posed St. Maelruan was a female, and they 
ology of Christ Church, Dublin, edited by show an object called her griddle and her 
John Clarke Crosthwaite, A.M., and Rev. cake, in the churchyard. This information 
Dr. James Henthorn Todd, p. 134. the writer has received from W. D. Hand- 

30 Edited by Drs. Todd and Reeves, pp. cock, Esq., in a letter, headed 52 Dame- 
188, 189. street, Dublin, 26th of November, 1874. 

31 Thus at Nonae Julise, "Apud Hiber- ! 36 In connexion with their order, and in a 
niam Natale Sancti Confessoris Maelruain work of this nature, it may not be well to 
cujus Vita Virtutibus et Miraculis plena re- omit allusion to a distinguished and truly 
fulsit." — Bishop Forbes' " Kalendars of learned member, who has bequeathed to 
Scottish Saints," p. 17. them and to Ireland a record of undoubted 

3a The original word in the Leabhar Breac historical value. We mean the " Hibernia 

copy is ocAleAchc, " his own tomb," as dis- Dominicana," and its "Supplementum," by 

tinguished from the CAmhleAchc or " plague Father Thomas De Burgo, O.P., who was 

tomb " — an elegant and imaginative poetic also Bishop of Ossory, towards the middle 

antithesis and play upon the word, as the of the last century. Coloniae Agrippinse, a.d. 

ingenious and critically learned Irish scholar, 1762, et seq., 4to. 

Very Rev. Bartholomew M'Carthy, D.D., 3 ? Among these is to be seen that of the 

has pointed out me. eloquent and admired preacher of the Domi- 

33 See "Transactions of the Royal Irish nican Order, whose career is so minutely 
Academy," Irish Manuscript Series, vol. i., and elaborately compiled, in the interesting 
part i. On the Calendar of Oengus. By " Life of the Very Rev. Thomas N. Burke, 
Whitley Stokes, LL.D., p.xx. O.P., by William J. Fitz- Patrick, F.S.A., 

34 Certain religious celebrations were &c. Two volumes. London, 1885, 8vo. 
practised, on the yearly recurrence of the Article ii. — * These were a great and 


not forgotten, and withareverentcuriosity they are often visited. That fine archi- 
tectural group of buildings, which now adorns Tallaght, also forms an admir- 
able exemplar of the ecclesiastical renaissance, which has been so energetically 
achieved, while secular enterprise has been so restricted and oppressed, 
under the peculiar political and social conditions that obstruct the happiness 
and prosperity of Ireland. 

Article II. — St. Willibald, First Bishop and Patron of Aich- 
stadt, Germany. \_Eighth Century.'] Although we have a very genuine 
Life — and even written by a contemporary and a relative — of this saint, yet, 
it is to be regretted, that no definite statement in it conveys an idea of where 
Willibald was born, or concerning his descent and race. This is all the more 
remarkable, that his parents are never named in it, although frequent occasions 
occur for referring to them. Considerable doubt attaches, therefore, to the 
present holy bishop's place of nativity. While some writers consider him to 
have belonged to the people called Suevi ; x others make him a Scot or a 
Hibernian, and others an Englishman. The most ancient writer of his Acts, 2 
a nun, as also a relation and a contemporary of his own, does not record the 
country of his birth ;3 although from the allusion made to his early education 
and family we might be inclined to consider him an Englishman. It is to be 
observed, that the nun of Heidenheim, who wrote his Acts, belonged to the 
community of his sister St. Walburge, and she had the relation of his travels 
and much of his life from the mouth of St. Willibald himself, to whom 
personally she was well known. The Bollandist,* Father John Baptist Soller, 
who has edited these Acts, too readily adopts this conclusion ;5 for which, it 
seems to us, there is no positive proof. An old anonymous writer, whose Acts 6 
of this saint had previously appeared in Canisius' collection, sets Willibald 
down, however, as derived from the nation of the Angles. 7 Notwithstanding, 
that well-known mediaeval German writer, John of Trittenham, tells us, that 
Willibald, first bishop of Aichstadt, was a Scot by birth, 8 and a brother to St. 
Walpurgis, or Walburge,' a virgin and abbess of Heidenheim. Other old 
Lives of St. Willibald are said to have been written by Reginald, bishop of 

warlike nation of Germany; their territory 5 He writes: " Siquis Suevum, Scotumaut 
extending from the Rhine to the Elbe, ac- Ilibernum fingere voluerit Sanctum nostrum, 
cording to Strabo's " Geographia," lib. vii. is a me responsum non expect et ; ncc his 
A very interesting account of their manners, diutius immoranduin video, cum pridem ex- 
customs and power is given by Ciesar, in tra oninen controversial!) posita sint." — 
his work, De Bello Gallico, lib. iv., cap. i., Commentarius Prsevius, sect, i., par. 3. 
ii., iii. 6 The Bollandi»ts have them as Vita 

2 These are given by the Bollandist*, in Altera. Auctore Anonymo per antiquo. Fx 
four chapters, with notes, and in forty-five editione Canisii. This is in three chapters, 
paragraphs, including three of Praefacio containing nineteen paragraphs, with notes. 
Sanctimonialis. It is followed in their work with Miracula, 

3 Her biography — one of great interest and in eighteen paragraphs, and written by 
value — is intituled : Vna seu Hodceporicon, Bishop Philip. 

auctore virgine consanguinea Sanctimoninli 7 He writes thus, " de genere Anglorum 

Heidenheimensi, ex editione Canisii correcta .... oriundus," cap. i., sect. I. 

ex variis lect. Gretseri. * He was the thirty-ninth in succession, 

* See the Acts of this holy bishop, very and he ruled from A.n. 1306 to 132 2. 
fully given in the " Acta Sanctorum," tomus 9 See an account of her, in Rev. Albaii 

ii., Julii vii. De S. Willibaldo Episcopo Eys- Butler's "Lives of the Fathers, Martyrs, 

tadii in Germania, pp. 485 to 519. These and other principal Saints," vol. vii., 

are prefixed by a Previous Commentary, in July vii. 

eight sections and sixty-five paragraphs, J0 According to Canisius, he was the eleventh 

written by Father John Baptist Soller. bishop in succession. He lived A.D. 1322. 

July 7.] 



Aichstadt, 10 by one Adalbert," and by the bishop Philip, 12 of Aichstadt. 1 ' 
The latter, although a laboured and an extended treatise, abounds in historic 
errors. The Acts of this saint have received illustration from Surius, 1 * Father 
John Mabillon/s Dean Cressy, 16 Bishop Challenor, 1 ? Rev. Alban Butler,' 8 
and Les Petits Bollandistes. 1 ' Were we to adopt the accounts of English 
writers, this holy man was born in the kingdom of the West Saxons, near the 
place where Southampton now stands, and it is said his father was the holy 
king, St. Richard. 20 However, it is not at all certain, that his father 2I had 
been King of Wessex — as some writers have stated — but on the contrary, 22 
he belonged apparently to a grade less elevated in society. Moreover, it does 
not appear certain, that even the name of his father is known. 2 3 According to 
one account his mother was Bonna — said to have been a sister to St. Boniface; 
it is needless to observe, however,- that such a statement rests on no good 
authority. 24 His birth has been referred to about a.d. 704, 2 s by various 
writers j however, Father John Baptist Soller — who analyzes the chronology of 
this saint's Acts — states, that it ought to be placed about a.d. 700. 26 He had 
another holy and an older brother, named Winibald, 2 ? and a sister, St. Wal- 
burga. 28 Their relative places as to seniority have been stated, by the most 
ancient writers of their Acts. 20 These are stated to have been cousins of St. 
Boniface, 30 the illustrious Apostle of Germany ; but, there are good reasons for 
doubting such statement. So various have been the entries of this holy man's 
name in old records, that it has been questioned if they refer to one and the 
same person. Thus, he is styled, Wilibaldus, Wilbaldus, Bilibaldus, Bilbaldus, 
Williboldus, and Willeboldus p 1 while its probable derivation has engaged 

11 He only gives a brief notice, regarding 
Saints Willibald, Wunebald and Walburgis, 
in reference to the monastery of Heidenheim. 
Nor is this always in accord with what had 
been stated by the nun of that place. 

12 The strictures of those two latter writers 
are to be found in Gretser's work, De 
Ecclesia Eystettensis Divis Tutelaribus, 
printed at Ingoldstadt, A.D. 1617. 

13 See John of Tottenham's " Catalogus 
Scriptorum Ecclesiasticorum," fol. Hi., &c. 

14 See "De Probatis Sanctorum Vitis," 
tomus iv. , Julii vii. 

15 In "Annates Ordinis S. Benedicti," 
tomus ii., lib. xx., xxi., xxii., xxiii., xxiv., xxv. 

16 See " The Church History of Brittany," 
book xxiv., chap, xvii., pp. 642 to 644. 

17 See "Britannia Sancta," part ii., pp. 
18 to 21. 

18 See " Lives of the Fathers, Martyrs and 
other principal Saints," vol. vii., July vii. 

19 See "Vies des Saints," tome viii., 
vii e Jour de Juillet, pp. 102, 103, and 
n. I. 

20 See Rev. Alban Butler's " Lives of the 
Fathers, Martyrs and other principal Saints," 
vol. vii., July vii. 

21 Indeed, it is only the writer of the 
Second Life of St. Willibald, and rather 
modern writers, that call his father Richard. 
See Mabillon's "Annates Ordinis S. Bene- 
dicti," tomus ii., lib. xx., sect, xliii., 
p. 61. 

22 The first, who appears to consider his 
father was a king, seems to have been Adel- 

bert, Abbot of Heidenheim, who flourished 
in the time of Pope Eugenius III., who 
reigned from A.D. 1 145 to a.d. 1153, more 
than three hundred and fifty years after the 
death of St. Willibald. 

23 In that most genuine Life of St. Willi- 
bald by his relative the nun, his father is not 
noted at all for his rank, while he is only 
praised for his virtues. The feast of St. 
Richard has been referred to the 7th of Feb- 

24 See Dean Cressy's " Church History of 
Brittany," book xxiv., chap, xvii., p. 642. 

25 See Rev. Alban Butler's " Lives of the 
Fathers, Martyrs and other principal Saints," 
vol. vii., July vii. 

25 See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus ii., Julii 
vii. De S. Willibaldo Episcopo Eystadii in 
Germania Commentarius Praevius, sect, iv., 
num. 29, pp. 491, 492. 

27 His feast is celebrated, on the 18th of 

38 Her festival is set down, at the 25th of 

29 This has been shown, by Father John 
Baptist Soller, S.J., in his Preliminary ob- 
servations to the Acts of St. Willibald. See 
sect, iii., num. 28, p. 491. 

30 See his Life already given, in the Sixth 
Volume of this work, at the 5th of June — 
the date for his chief festival, Art. i. 

31 On these various denominations, Gret- 
ser has some critical observations, in which 
he refutes the opinion of Aventinus and 
others, regarding this matter, cap. ii. 


the attention of etymologists. 3 a Perhaps, after all, none of the foregoing had 
been the original name of the saint j and this is more likely to have been the 
case, it we can consider him of Scottish origin. We know, likewise, that Irish 
names have generally been changed into others, by people among whom our emi- 
grants to the Continent resided. When only three years old, Willibald had been 
attacked with a grievous illness, whereby his limbs became contracted, 33 and 
it was feared by his parents that he was about to die. It so happened, accord- 
ing to a usage common in those days, that a large cross had been erected in 
a public place near their house. Thither the faithful were accustomed to 
repair, and to prefer their several requests to Heaven. The parents of Willi- 
bald accordingly went to the place, when human remedies seemed to fail, 
and there they offered their prayers with great fervour. They vowed, that 
should their son be restored to them, that they would dedicate him to God 
in the religious state, and that when at age they would allow him to take the 
clerical tonsure. The result was, that he was immediately restored to health. 34 
As the boy grewin years, he manifested the gifts of grace and of wisdom, so that 
when five years old, 35 his parents, to secure their pious desires, resolved to 
place their son under the guidance of the Abbot Egbald, who then ruled over 
the monastery of Waltheim.3 6 For this purpose, he was entrusted to the care 
of a venerable and faithful man, called Theodredus,37 and who is also named 
Thealoretus.3 8 However, as the boy was so young, a chapter meeting of the 
monks was called by the Abbot, when all agreed, that he might safely admit 
the child to be an inmate of their house. Nor was their confidence in him 
misplaced, for soon Willibald began to manifest that spirit of earnestness 
and of industry, which soon made him a proficient in the study of sacred letters 
in every department of literature, while he began also to learn the psalms of 
David. The holy youth progressed each day in piety and wisdom, so that 
he was regarded as one of the most exact in the performance of all monastic 
exercises. By all of the monks he was held in the greatest esteem. At the 
age of seventeen, his father had conceived a great desire to make a pilgrim- 
age to the Holy Land, while his two sons, Saints Winibald and Willibald, re- 
solved on accompanying him. Accordingly, about the year 720,39 721, or 
722,4° all three set out from Hamble-Haven^ 1 and they landed on the coast 
of Normandy, at the banks of a river called Sigona,4 2 and near a city called 
Rotum,43 otherwise Rothomagus.44 After resting there for a time, they pro- 

32 Father John Baptist Soller states, that 38 This is the name given to him, in the 
while he does not accept Gretser's German shorter Life of our saint, which was written 
derivation of it, from wald, "a wood ;" he by Reginald. 

thinks that of Philip Bishop of Aichstadt 39 According to the Bollandist computa- 

better, viz. , the German word will, having a tion. 

like signification in English, and bald, 4 ° According to some writers, Winibald — 

"prompt," rendered in Latin " prompte vo- the elder brother — was then only nineteen 

lens," or "prompta voluntas." All this is years of age, and Willibald only seventeen. 

very fanciful, however, and if it proves any- See Bishop Challenor's "Britannia Sancta," 

thing it should be, that we have not yet part ii., p. 19. 

found out his original name. 41 The River Hamble has its source, about 

33 See Dean Cressy's " Church History ol one half mile from the town of Bishop's 
Brittany," book xxiv., chap, xvii., p. 643. Waltham, and it passes through the piece 

34 See Bishop Challenor's " Britannia of water called Waltham Pond, thence flow- 
Sancta," part ii., p. 19. ing into the Southampton Water, north of 

35 See Rev. Alban Butler's "Lives of the the Isle of Wight. See S. Lewis' "Topogra- 
Fathers, Martyrs and other principal Saints," phical Dictionary of England," vol. iv., 
vol. vii., Julyvii. p. 450. 

30 In Hampshire. *' Also known as Sequana, or the Seine. 

37 Thus is he called by the nun, who 43 Also called Rotuma and Rotumum. See 

wrote St. Willibald's Life, nr, published De Chesne's " Historic Francorum," tomus 

by theBollandists. Mabillotl calls him Theo- ii. Chronicon de Gentis Normannorum, pp. 

dore. 24 and 525. 

July 7/ 



ceeded on their journey through the vast territory of Gaul, for they had 
resolved to visit Rome on their way and the tombs of the Apostles. After- 
wards, they entered Italy, and travelled onwards through its provinces to the 
city of Lucca. 4 5 Their father fell sick in that city, and breathed his last ; when 
he was buried in the church of St. Frigidian or Frigdian. He is said to have 
died there, a.d. 721,4 s or about the year 722.47 His two sons afterwards 
crossed the Apennines on their way to Rome, where they visited the shrines 
of the Apostles, and remained there from the Natalis of St. Martin to the 
solemnity of Easter, engaged in various devout pilgrimages to the holy sanc- 
tuaries of the martyrs and saints. Here, too, they assumed the monastic 
habit/ 8 During the summer, they were attacked with an intermittent fever, 
which greatly prostrated them, but from which they recovered. Having 
satisfied their devotion in the Eternal City, they next resolved on a pilgrim- 
age to the Holy Land.49 Their adventures on the way, and the various places 
visited by them, are among the most interesting and authentic tours of the 
middle ages ; while their record throws most curious and considerable light 
on the state of religious and of pagan society there, and on the topography 
of Palestine. 50 At Gaza, Willibald lost his sight, and he continued blind for 
about two months ; but, upon his returning to Jerusalem, and there enter- 
ing into the church of the Holy Cross, his sight was restored to him.s 1 Seven 
whole years 52 were spent by them in Palestine ; when they resolved on 
returning to Europe. The brothers returned by way of Constantinople, a.d. 
727,53 and afterwards they visited Sicily, 5 4 a d. 729. They went also to Syra- 
cuse 55 and to Catana,s° and thence to Calabria.s? Then, St. Willibald visited 
Capua/ 8 afterwards Tyana,59 and finally the celebrated Monastery of St. 
Benedict on Monte Cassino. 60 There, Petronax 01 was Abbot, and only a 

4 4 Now the city of Rouen, capital of the 
Department of Seine-Inferieure, and situated 
on the right bank of the River Seine. For 
description, see "Gazetteer of the World," 
vol. xi., pp. 334, 335. 

4s Formerly the capital of an independent 
Republic, and afterwards of a Duchy ; but 
now included in Tuscany. It is surrounded 
with a fortified wall, having a circuit of three 
miles. Its ramparts are planted with tree*, 
which have a pleasing effect from a dis- 

4 6 Such is the Bollandist calculation. In 
the " Lives of the English Saints," there is 
a Life of St. Richard, by J. H. N. (Cardinal 
Newman), and his death is placed in the 
autumn of 722. See vol. Hi., p. 11. 

47 See Rev. Alban Butler's " Lives of the 
Fathers, Martyrs and other principal Saints," 
vol. ii., February vii. — to which day his feast 
has been assigned. 

48 See Father John Mabillon's " Annales 
Ordinis S. Benedicti," tomus ii., lib. xx., 
sect, xliii., p. 61. 

49 The Bollandist Father Soller states, that 
they left Rome for Palestine, a.d. 722. 

50 It is rendered still more interesting. 
from the notes of Mabillon and those of 
Basnage, in his edition of Canisius' " Lec- 
tiones Antiquae." 

51 See Bishop Challenor's " Britannia 
Sancta," part ii., p. 20. 

52 The chronotaxis of these years is given 
by Father John Baptist Soller, S.J. 

53 They were there about the Easter Fes- 

54 This large and fertile Island was called 
Trinacria by the ancients — owing to its trian- 
gular form — and it is only separated from 
Italy, by a narrow strait. 

55 This city was founded by one Archiar, a 
Corinthian, 500 yearsbefore the birth of Christ. 
It afterwards became the head of the Grecian 
colonies in Italy and Sicily. At a period 
long subsequent, it fell under the power of 
the Romans, and it was regarded as the 
capital of the Sicilian province. 

56 A city at the foot of Mount JEtna., and 
which was almost ruined by an earthquake 
in the year 1693. 

57 Also called Magna Gracia, the most 
southern part of the former kingdom of 

58 A town of Naples, in the Terra di La- 
voro, and seated on the left bank of the 
River Volturno. 

59 Now Teano, in the same district. 

60 Originally on the summit of this steep 
mountain — one of the spurs of the Apennines 
— and within the former kingdom of Naples, 
St. Benedict had founded his establishment 
on the ruins of an ancient temple of Apollo, 
in the year 529. This monastery has had a 
varied and an interesting history, from that 
date to our own times. 

61 This holy man ruled there as Abbot for 
thirty-two years, and he departed this life, on 
the 30th of April, a.d. 750. 



[July 7. 

few monks were under his charge, in the year 72Q. 62 Our saint is claimed, 
as belonging to the Benedictine order, which rule Willibald is said to have 
embraced, on the summit of that high mountain, after he had been absent ten 
years from his native country, and seven years since he had left Rome. 6 3 
There his conversation and example gave instruction and edification to that 
community. The first year of his arrival there, he was appointed sacristan of 
the church, and the second he became dean in the monastery. Afterwards, 
for four years he was porter or guest-master to the great monastery on Monte 
Casino; 6 * and for another four years, he was porter to another monastery in a 

Benedictine Monastery of Monte Cassino. 

valley at the foot of the mountain, and which stood near the River Raphito. 
This latter office required a rooted habit of virtue, which should suffer no 
abatement, owing to external occupations and frequent commerce with secu- 
lars ; it was also one of great trust and importance. 65 Among other visitors 
to Monte Casino, a priest — doubtless a Benedictine monk 66 — came thither 
from Spain, and he asked permission from the Abbot Petronax to visit Rome, 
while he urged St. Willibald to accompany him. This permission having 
been obtained, they first sought there the church of St. Peter, and St. Willi- 
bald had a special interview with the Sovereign Pontiff. Then he related, at 
the Pope's request, his various adventures in the Holy Land, while his con- 
versation charmed the universal Father of the Faithful, who listened with the 
greatest possible interest and edification to the narrative. The illustrious St. 

62 That assigned for St. Willibald's arrival 
at Monte Cassino, by the Bollandist Father 

63 See Mabillon's "Annates Ordinis S. 
Benedicti," tomusii., lib. xx., sect, xliv., 
p. 62 

64 The writer had a personal experience of 
the courteous and hospitable manner, in 
which — after a lapse of over iooo years from 
St. Willibald's time — his successor there dis- 
charged similar offices, on the 25th and 26th 
of October, 1886. The accompanying illus- 

tration, copied from the large copperplate 
engraving in Mabillon's Acts of the Bene- 
dictine Order, tomus ii., was drawn by 
William F. Wakeman on the wood, en- 
graved by Mrs. Millard. 

6 s See Rev. Alban Butler's "Lives of the 
Fathers, Martyrs and other principal Saints," 
vol. vii., July vii. 

66 See 'Mabillon's " Annales Ordinis S. 
Benedicti," tomus ii., lib. xx., sect, lxxviii., 
p. 79- 

67 He ruled from a.d. 731 to a.d. 741. See 


Boniface, bishop of Mayence, happened to visit Pope Gregory III., 6 7 at Rome, 
a.d. 738. He asked, as a special favour, that Willibald might be sent to 
assist him in the missionary labours of Germany, and he had a knowledge of 
his arrival at Rome. 68 This visit, according to the chronology of the 
Bollandists, took place towards the close of a.d. 74o. 6 9 To this request, the 
Pope readily assented, and sent for Willibald, who said with his Abbot's per- 
mission he would willingly obey. However, the Pope told him, that Petronax 
might be assumed to give his consent, as he had not even the power to oppose 
such an order. Wherefore, Willibald replied, that he was ready to obey, 
and to go not alone to Germany, but to any other part of the world where he 
might be sent. Having taken leave of Gregory III., Willibald proceeded to 
Lucca, where his father had been interred ; thence he went to Ticina and 
Brixia, and afterwards he journeyed to a place called Charinta, otherwise 
Charta. Then he visited the Duke Odilon, with whom he remained for a 
week. Thence he went to Suitgarius, and remained another week. He and 
Suitgarius went together to St. Boniface, who was then at Linthrat, or Linth- 
ruth.7° St. Boniface sent them to Eichstadt, that they might see, if it should 
be a suitable place for a religious foundation. At that time, the whole 
country around it was a waste, nor save a church of St. Mary, was a single 
house to be found in it. Then, Suitgarius gave that tract of country for his soul's 
salvation, and St. Boniface selected St. Willibald to become its future bishop. 
The town of Eichstadt, Eichstatt or Aichstadt is the capital of a principality, 
to which it gave name, in Bavaria. It is situated in a fine valley on the 
Altmuhl River, and in the circle of Upper Pfalz.7 f For some little time, St. 
Willibald and Suitgarius remained at that place, to find a suitable site for the 
erection of a religious house, and afterwards they went to St. Boniface, who 
was at Frisinga. They remained, until all three returned to Eystet. Then 
and there, St. Willibald was ordained a priest, to which order he had not 
hitherto been elevated. This ordination was on the eleventh of the August 
Kalends, and on the Feast of St. Mary Magdalen and of St. Apollinaris,7 2 
a.d. 740. After another year had elapsed, St. Boniface directed, that Willi- 
bald should come to him in Thuringia. This order he obeyed, in the autumn 
season, and he was hospitably entertained in the house of his brother Wune- 
bald.73 For eight years and more, they had not seen each other, and now 
they felt greatly rejoiced to be in company. While there, and in a place 
called Sallpurg,74 during the autumnal season, 75 Archbishop Boniface, with 
the bishops Burchard ? 6 and Wizo,77 consecrated Willibald as bishop, and 
after a week's stay he returned to his own place. This happened in the forty- 
first year of his age.7 8 Soon afterwards, he began the erection of a monastery at 

Sir Harris Nicolas' "Chronology of His- 73 While Willibald had been a monk at 

tory," p. 209. Monte Casino, Wunebald having proceeded 

6i He remained there from the Feast of St. to Rome, became a monk in Rome, whence 

Andrew, a.d. 739, to the Easter of the fol- he went to join St. Boniface's mission in 

lowing year. See Father John Mabillon's Germany. See ibid. 

** Annales Ordinis S. Benedicti," tomus ii., 74 This place is not to be confounded with 

lib. xxi., sect, xlviii., p. 108. the city of Salzburgh. 

69 See their Commentarius Pnevius to his 75 The nun of Heidenheim's Life adds : 
Acts, sect, iii., num. 20, p. 489. "circa illam fere horam tribus hebdomadibus' 

70 See Dean Cressy's " Church History of ante Natale Sancti Martini," &c. 
Brittany," book xxiv., chap. xvii.,p. 643. 7<5 First bishop of Wurtzburg. His feast 

71 See " Gazetteer of the World," vol. v., occurs on the 14th of October. 

P- 178. 77 it is thought, his name should rather be 

72 See Mabillon's "Annales Ordinis Sancti written Wicho, who was bishop of Augs- 
Benedicti," tomus ii., lib. xxi., sect, xlviii., burg. 

P- io8- ?H Gretser, in Libro Observationum Sua- 


Eichstadt, 7 ^ where he introduced the religious rule and discipline of St. Bene- 
dict. He spread it, likewise, in many other places. He never ceased to 
scatter the seed of the Gospel over that large field of labour entrusted to his 
charge, and he failed not to collect an abundant harvest of souls. 8 ° Great 
numbers crowded to place themselves under his guidance, and these he 
regarded as his adopted children. 81 Pastors and churches he provided for 
various places in Bavaria. From infancy, many were carefully trained and 
elegantly taught in his schools, so that at the age of puberty, his instructions 
brought forth their ripened fruits. He joined St. Boniface, likewise, in that re- 
monstrance, which he countersigned, 82 and which was sent in the shape of an 
epistle to Ethelbald, King of the Mercians. He was a holy and a learned man ; 
while gifted with intellect and eloquence, he knew how to perpetuate science 
and religion among the people and their instructors. His charity was most 
tender and compassionate, while he had singular talent for comforting the 
afflicted. 83 Notwithstanding his long incumbency as bishop, few of his Acts 
have been preserved. In the year 765, his subscription is found to a docu- 
ment; in 769, he was present at the ordination of Bernwelph of Wurtzburg ; 
in the year 777, he had the remains of his brother St. Wunebald 8 * removed 
to a more honourable tomb ; while some years afterwards, he assisted at the 
obsequies of his sister St. Walburge. 85 At the request of Lullus, Archbishop 
of Mayence, it has been stated, St. Willibald wrote for the edification of the 
faithful. This was chiefly to place upon record — as has been supposed — 
those great acts and events, which had just closed the career of the illustrious 
Apostle of Germany. 86 That he left behind a Life of St. Boniface, 87 Bishop, 
in one book, has been often stated. As we have already mentioned, this was 
not his composition, but that of another Willibald, a priest, who probably 
took his name from the present holy bishop. 88 Supposing this biography to have 
been written by the present saint, John of Trittenhem knew of no other writing 
attributed to him and remaining. 8 ? In the year 785, this holy bishop signed 
a deed,9° whereby he gave to the monastery of Fulda certain lands and 
possessions. St. Willibald flourished under Pippin,^ father to Charlemagne ; 
and, during forty-five years he ruled over his diocese, until he had attained 
his eighty-seventh year. His fasts were very austere, nor did he allow the 
slightest relaxation of his austerities, until his strength was quite exhausted. 
He is known to have been living in the month of October, 785 ; and, it is 
generally believed, that he departed this life in the eighty-eighth year of his 

rum places this consecration, at A.D. 745. 8s Such is the chronology of his Acts as 

See cap. xii., pp. 110, 11 1. However, it is given by Father John Baptist Soller, S.J. 
more generally assigned to A. D. 741. Mabillon's " Annales Ordinis S. 

79 In a record so early as the time of Char- Benedicti," tomus ii., lib. xxiii., sect, x., 
lemagne, this place is denominated " cas- p. 172. 

trum Rubilocus, quod Eichsteti dicitur." — 8 ? His martyrdom took place, on the 5th 

Goldast's " Alamanicaium Rerum Scrip- of June, 755. 

tores," tomus iii., p. 123. & See the Life of St. Boniface, Apostle of 

80 See Les Petits Bollandistes, " Vies des Germany, in the Sixth Volume of this work, 
Saints," tome viii., viie Jour dejuillet, p.102. at June 5th, Art. i, chap, i., and nn. 7, 8, 

81 He is noticed, with other holy bishops, 9, ibid. 

in that German Synod, held on the eleventh 8 » See "Catalogus Scriptorum Ecclesias- 

of the May Kalends, A. D. 742. ticorum," fol. Hi., <5v;c. 

82 See Mabillon's "Annales Ordinis S. *> See Mabillon's "Annales Ordinis S. 
Benedicti," tomus ii., lib. xxii., sect, xvii., Benedicti," tomus ii., lib. xxv., sect, lv., 

p. 135- P- 2 75- 

8 3 See Rev. Alban Butler's "Lives of the »« He died, on the 1 8th or the 24th of 
Fathers, Martyrs and other principal Saints," September, A.D. 768. See M. Le Dr. 
vol. vii., July vii. Hoefer's " Nouvelle Biographie General," 

8 * He died a.d. 761. tome xxxix., col. 541. 


age, and about the year 788.92 According to other statements, on the 7 th of 
July, a.d. 790, he breathed his last, and in the place where his episcopal See 
had been established. He was buried in his own cathedral. 93 In 938, Pope 
Leo VII. canonized him, according to some accounts; 04 and a translation of 
his remains took place in 989.95 Subsequently, Engelhard, the thirty-fourth 
bishop in succession of this See, erected a chapel to St. Willibald, and which 
has been converted since into the choir of the existing cathedral. 9 6 There is 
now to be seen a beautiful representation of St. Willibald, and seated between 
two columns ; on a pediment over it is a large crucifix, with statues of the 
Blessed Virgin Mary and St. John of the Cross, resting on the aforesaid columns 
and one on either side of the crucifix.97 Several relics of St. Willibald had 
been formerly preserved at Aichstadt. Various miracles are recorded, as 
having taken place, and soon after his death,9 8 owing to the merits of this 
holy bishop. 99 No less than four different translations of his relics are 
recorded. 100 The first was to the altar of St. Vitus ; the second was to the 
middle of the church ; the third was to the choir of the Blessed Virgin ; and 
the fourth to the choir of St. Willibald. 101 In the year 1270, the Bishop 
Hildebrand built a cathedral church in his honour. To it, his relics were 
brought with great solemnity, by his successor Engelhard, and there they 
have been preserved with great veneration, to the present day. 102 However, 
it was feared, that during the war with the Swedes, when many places in 
Aichstadt were burned or desecrated, that some of the relics of St. Willibald 
had not been spared. io 3 At Furnes in Flanders a portion of his relics was 
preserved. The tomb of Willibald is now to be seen in the cathedral of 
Eichstadt. ,0 4 In this diocese, his festival had been ritually celebrated as a 
Double of the First-Class. In Augsburg diocese adjoining, it was celebrated 
as a Double. io 5 A chapter of canons — called Willibaldin in honour of this 
saint — has been attached to his cathedral. An old office of St. Willibald 
had been preserved at Aichstadt. 106 Both the Roman io 7 and the English 
Martyrologies venerate his memory, on this day. IoS In the anonymous 

92 Such is the statement of J. H.N. (Car- been questioned, by Father John Baptist 
dinal Newman), in his elegantly written Life Soller. 

of St. Willibald, contained in '• Lives of the 10 - See Les Petits Bollandistes' " Vies des 

English Saints," vol. iii., p. 71. Saints," tome viii., vii e Jour de Juillet, pp 

93 See Mabillon's " Annales Ordinis S. Be- 102, 103, n. I. 

nedicti," tomus ii., lib. xxv., sect, lix., p. 276. It>3 According to the account of the Most 

94 Soller takes exception to this statement, Rev. and noble Bishop John Adam (Dio- 
as the solemnities for canonization were not clensis), it was not well known, how much 
then instituted. of St. Willibald's body remainded in the 

95 According to Bishop Philips' state- vaults of the church, as his tomb had not 
nient. been opened. 

90 In the year 1276, this same bishop had I04 See " Gazetteer of the World," vol. v., 

a cut-stone tomb prepared to receive tbe p. 178. 

relics. 10 5 This seems to be established from an 

97 Copperplate illustrations of this artistic Index to the Divine Office of that diocese, 
object, and of the altar there, are given by printed a.d. 1685. 

the Bollandists, as illustrations for St. Willi- lo6 Extracts from it are given by the Bol- 

bald's Acts. landists. 

98 This is stated, by an ancient but anony- 10 ? Thus : " In Saxonia sancti Willebaldi 
mous writer, and it is to be found in Gretser's priini Eistetensis Episcopi," Sec. — " Martyr* 
"Catalogus Episcoporum Eystettensium," ologium Roraanum Gregorii XIII.," p. 97. 
p. 4 2 8. Romae, 1878, fol. ed. 

99 Bishop Philip relates, in no less than Io8 See Dean Cressy's " Church His- 
eighteen paragraphs, the miracles wrought tory of Brittany," book xxiv., chap, xvii., 
through his intercession. p. 644. 

100 According to Bishop Philip's account, 109 See '* Historic Catholicae Iberniae 
cap. xxxviii. Compendium," tomus i., liv. iv., cap. xi., 

101 The foregoing statement in the text has p. 50, 


Calendar of Irish Saints, published by O'Sullevan Beare, 10 ? this great saint's 
name is written Wilchibald, where it is entered, at the 7th of July. As a 
Scottish saint, Thomas Dempster has likewise entered the feast of this holy 
bishop, in his Calendar, 110 at the 7th of July. 111 In summing up the virtues 
of St. Willibald, one of his biographers, Bishop Philip, states, that he was 
bountiful in alms-giving, assiduous in vigils, devout in prayer, perfect in 
charity, filled with a humane spirit, distinguished for his learning, fluent in 
eloquence, and most holy in conversation. The serenity of his looks mani- 
fested the candour of his mind, while his gentle words indicated a kindly 
heart j and all his exterior appearance conveyed truthfully the reign of sanc- 
tity in his soul. 

Article III. — St. Cronia, Cronae or Croine Beg, Virgin, of 
Tempull-Crone, County of Donegal. The simple entry, Cronae, occurs 
in the Martyrology of Tallagh, 1 at the 7th of July. There is nothing more to 
indicate her place or period, in that record. The Bollandists 2 received from 
Father Thomas O'Sheerin their notice of Crona parva or Crona parva virgo, 
for entry, at this date. We are told, she belonged to the race of Conall 
Gulban,sonto Niall. This St. Cronia, virgin, was the daughter of Diermit, 
son to Garuan, son to Brandub, son to Malge, son to Ennius Bogun, the son 
of Conall Gulban. According to the Sanctilogium and Selvacius, this virgin 
was venerated, on the 7th of July, in the church of Tempull Crone, within 
the district of Tyrconnell. 3 Hence then, her church is to be sought for in 
the extreme north-western districts of Ireland. It is now identified with 
Templecroan, 4 a most extensive parish,* in the barony of Boylagh, and county 
of Donegal. 6 The church of this parish, no doubt, derived its name from this 
present saint. Yet, we cannot discover, in what manner she had relation 
with it. The greater part of that dreary district, known as " the Rosses,"? 
lies within the parish of Templecroan. A wilderness of rugged mountain 
wastes and heaths are broken towards the west, into abrupt and rocky heights. 
Several islands, separated by inlets of the sea, are scattered along the western 
coast of the mainland. 8 In the Martyrology of Donegal, at this same date, 
a festival is entered in honour of Croine Beg, virgin, of Tempull Croine, in 
Tir Conaill. 

Article IV. — St. Comgell or Coimgell, Virgin, and Daughter 
to Diarmaid. In the holiness of woman's life, the poor may discover a 
wealth of resources, where good will predominates ; while the rich may find 

1,0 The Menologium Scoticum. s It contains 52,921 acres. These include 

111 Thus : "In Thuringia Vvillibakli Eis- 4.355a. or. 37p., on Aran Island; 989a. ir. 

tetensis episcopi primi, et gentis Apostoli, 27p. of the Gweedore tideway ; and under 

VV. F." — Bishop Forbes' " Kalendars of Loughs, 2,896a. I r. 9p. 

Scottish Saints," p. 205. 6 There is a good Map of this district in 

Article hi. — x Edited by Rev. Dr. Black's "Guide to Belfast, the Giants' 

Kelly, p. xxviii. Causeway and the North of Ireland." Edin- 

2 See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus ii., burgh, 1872, l2mo. 

Julii vii. Among the pretermitted saints, 7 It comprises a total area of about thirty 

p. 452. square miles, which is well described in 

3 See Colgan's "Trias Thaumaturga," Eraser's "Handbook for Travellers in Ire* 
Quarta Appendix ad Vitam S. Columbse, land." No. 146, pp. 601 10603. 

cap. iii., p. 480. 8 See Lewis' " Topographical Dictionary 

4 It is described, on the " Ordnance Stir- of Ireland," vol. ii., pp. 603, 604. 
veyTownland Maps for the County of Done- 9 Edited by Drs. Todd and Reeves, pp. 
gal," sheets 32, 40, 41, 48, 49, 50, 56, 57, 58. 188, 189. 


by contrast, the sad waste of their wearisome idleness, and the empty results 
of a profitless industry. According to the Martyrology of Tallagh, 1 on this 
day, Comgell ingen Diarmata, or Comgell, daughter to Diarmaid, was com- 
memorated. According to the entry for this day, and which the Bollandists 3 
acknowledge as having been received from Father Thomas O'Sheerin, Com- 
gella, the daughter of Diermitu, was sister to the preceding Crona. The name 
of this pious lady has been Latinized Candida; and, it has been supposed, as 
occurring in our Irish Calendars, that it comes nearest in phonetic pronuncia- 
tion to that of a St. Keevil, venerated in Ballybrennan parish, county of 
Wexford. St. Keevil's well is there known, and a patron was formerly held 
on the 27th of August.3 According to the Martyrology of Donegal,* venera- 
tion was paid at the 7th of July to Coimgell, virgin, and daughter of Diar- 

Article V. — St. Fiadabair, or Fiadhabhair, of Uachtar-achadh, 
now Ballinamore, Count v Leitrim. At the 7th of July, the Martyr- 
ology of Tallagh x records a festival to honour Fiadabair, of Uachtair Achaid. 
This district comprised the entire of the parish of Oughteragh, or Ballina- 
more, in the north of the barony of Carrigallen, and county of Leitrim. 2 
Father Thomas O'Sheerin furnished the Bollandists 3 with a notice of a 
Fiadabaria, for this day. Again, in the Martyrology of Donegal, * at the same 
date, the name appears, as Fiadhabhair, of Uachtar-achadh, in Cinel 

Article VI. — St. Tingmaich or Trighmeach, Bishop. We find en- 
tered, in the Martyrology of Tallagh, 1 Tingmaich, at this day. Neither his 
place nor his period appears to be known. In the Martyrology of Donegal, 2 
at the 7 th of July, there is a festival in honour of Trighmeach, a Bishop. Fur- 
nished with the entry by Father O'Sheerin, the Bollandists 3 have Trigmechus 
Episcopus, at the present date. 

Article VII. — Reputed Festival for St. Medran and St. Odhrain. 
These holy brothers were illustrious for their sanctity. However, it is not 
likely, they should be commemorated at this date ; but, from the meagre 
data and unreliable references to them in various records, we follow only in 
the wake of other writers. At present, their Acts are not known to be extant. 
Hence, it is difficult to give reliable particulars regarding them. Notices of 
these two saints, on the 7th of July, are contained l in the Bollandists' great 

Article iv.— 1 Edited by Rev. Dr. Four Masters," vol. iv., n. (c), p. 719. 

Kelly, p. xxviii. 3 See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus ii., 

2 See', Acta Sanctorum," tomus ii., Julii Julii vii. Among the pretermitted feasts, 
vii. Among the pretermitted feasts, p. 452, p. 452 

3 See "Letters containing Information rela- 4 Edited by Drs. Todd and Reeves, pp. 
tive to the Antiquities of theCounty of Wex- 188, 189. 

ford, collected during the Progress of the Article vi.— * Edited by Rev. Dr. 

Ordnance Survey in 1840," vol. i. John Kelly, p. xxviii. 

O 'Donovan's Letter, p. 280. 2 Edited by Drs. Todd and Reeves, pp 

4 Edited by Drs. Todd and Reeves, pp. 188, 189. 

188, 189. s See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus ii., 

Article v.— 1 Edited by Rev. Dr. Julii vii. Among the pretermitted saints, 

Kelly, p. xxviii. p. 452. 

2 See Dr. O'Donovan's "Annals of the Article vii. — ' In two sections, by 


work f although it is stated, that we look in vain for a record of them, in any 
of the Irish Calendars, whether published or in Manuscript. In the Universal 
Martyrology of Castellan, there is an entry of St. Medranus alone, at this 
date; while, the feast of his brother St. Odranus is referred, to the nth of 
October. This arrangement he appears to have adopted, from different 
annotations of Colgan, yet which do not seem mutually to accord. Thus, in 
one instance, St. Medranus or Medragius, besides being regarded as a monk 
under St. Kieran, 3 of Saigir, is also classed among St. Patrick's disciples.* 
There, however, he is assigned a feast, for the 6th of June, 5 at which date, 
we have already noticed a St. Medhran or Medrain, Bishop. Elsewhere, he 
is mentioned, as Medhranus or Medhragius, in connexion with a brother, 
named Odranus, 6 and both of these are stated to have been sons of Mac- 
craith, son to Trochall, son of Esomon, son to Daigrse, son of Nuadhat, &c. 
However, another pair of brothers, St. Medranus and St. Murchu, are vene- 
rated on the 8th day of June,? and these are called sons of Hua Macten. 8 
Again, both St. Medranus and St. Odranus, the sons of Maccraith, are men- 
tioned, as belonging to the race of Cairbre Baschaoin, and thus they become 
related to St. Senan of Inis-cathaigh. There, while the feast of the former is 
thought to be on the 6th or 8th of June ; the festival of the latter has been 
assigned to the 2nd or to the -26th of October.9 According to the account 
contained in the Life of St. Kieran of Saighir, proceeding from Muscraige 
Thire, and from the village of Lettir, St. Medran and St. Odhrain were 
brothers, who came to visit his monastery. The province of Connaught they 
specially desired to seek, and there they intended to settle, at a place called 
Tulach-ruaidh. But, St. Medran chose to remain at Saigir, to become a dis- 
ciple of St. Kiaran the Elder, in his monastery. For this change of purpose, 
he was reproached by Odhran, who besought St. Kieran to refuse Medran 
admission. St. Kieran replied: "Let the Lord decide between you, if he 
should remain here or depart with you. Let him now hold a lamp in his 
hand, and if it be kindled into a flame with his breath, he ought to remain 
here, but, if otherwise, let him depart with you." Immediately, Median's 
breath lighted the lamp, and accordingly, he remained at Saighir, to the end 
of his days, and with a reputation for great sanctity. Then, St. Kieran said 
to Odhran : " Hear me, brother Odhran, I tell you truly, that even if you 
visited the four quarters of the world, 10 you shall die notwithstanding, in your 
village of Lettir. 11 Wherefore, return and remain there, because from thy name, 

Father John Baptist Soller, S.J. work, notices will be found of both in 

2 See " Acta Sanctorum," tomus ii., Julii Ait. v., vi. 

vii. De SS. Medrano et Odrano Fiat. 8 See Colgan's " Acta Sanctorum 1 1 iber- 

ConfessoribusLethreci in Ilibernia, pp. 477, niae," Martii v. Vita S. Kierani Fpiscopi 

478. et Confessoris. cap. xxviii., p. 461, and nn. 

3 See his Life, in the Third Volume of 31, 32, p. 465. 

this work, at the 5th of March, Art. i. » See //-/>/., Martii viii., Appendix ad Vitam 

4 See Colgan's "Trias Thaumaturga," S. Senani, cap. iiL, p. 542 rteU 53$. 
Quinta Appendix ad Acta S. Patricii, cap. 10 The Latin words are: "et si quatuor 
xxiii., p. 268. rhundi plagas circumiveris," &c. A curious 

s In the Sixth Volume of this work, question arises from this passage in tiie old 

Art. vi. Life: Did the writer believe, there were 

6 According to the Genealogic Pedigrees lour great Continents then known in Ire- 

ofthe Irish Saints, chap, xvii., tiiese are re- land to exist ? It seems most probable, that 

spectively called St. Medhragius of Saigir besides the geographical knowledge of 

and St. Odhranus the Master. The former Europe, Asia and Africa, then undoubtedly 

as we are told is called Medhranus, also, in possessed, that of (beat Ireland, or the pre* 

various Irish Calendars, as may be seen by sent American Continent, was equally a fact 

referring to the 6th and 8th of June. of which the early Irish had cognizance long 

"i At that date, in the Sixth Volume of this before the age of Christopher Columbus. 


that village shall henceforward be distinguished/' And so it happened. 
According to the word of Kieran, Odhran returned to that place, where he 
erected a religious establishment. The latter was Abbot over that monas- 
tery in Muscraigia, or Muskerry. It was called from him Leitter Odhrain. 
There, he was distinguished for great virtue, and many miracles, as hath been 
recorded in his Life. 12 There, too, he passed away from this earth, to enjoy 
the rewards of eternal bliss. 

Article VIII. — Reputed Festival of St. Boisilus. At the Nones 
or 7th day 1 of July, in the Scottish Kalendar De Nova Farina, there is an 
entry of St. Bosilius and of his companions. At this date, likewise, the Bol- 
landists, 2 quoting a Codex Usuardinus Altempsianus, has a feast — and as 
they remark very unintelligibly entered — for Boisilus cum Maria Virgine. To 
them, he does not appear different from St. Boisilus, whose festival occurs on 
the 23rd of January. 

Article IX. — Reputed Festival of a Translation of St. Kenti- 
gern, Bishop, Scotland. In Greven, and in the Manuscript Florarius 
Sanctorum, there is a Translation of St. Kentigern, Bishop, recorded, at the 
7th of July. A well known feast for this holy Scottish prelate is at the 13th of 
January, 1 as the Bollandists 2 observe. His chief festival, however, is at the 
13 th of November.3 

Article X. — Reputed Feast of St. Colman. Father Henry Fitzsimon 
has a Colmanus, at the 7th of July, 1 as he quotes from the Life of St. 
Kilian. This festival belongs more properly to the ensuing day. 

Article XI. — Reputed Festival for a Translation of the Eleven 
Thousand Virgins and Martyrs. In the Florarius Sanctorum, it is stated, 
that at Cologne on the 7th of July took place a Translation — we may pre- 
sume relating to the Relics- — of the Eleven Thousand Virgin Martyrs con- 
nected with that city. The Bollandists, 1 at this day, record such an entry; 
but they wonder how, if it were true, the notice should have been omitted 
from the Cologne Martyrologies. However, they refer to the 21st of Octo- 
ber, 2 as destined to relate all that need be stated regarding those Ursuline 
Virgins and Martyrs. 

Article XII. — Reputed Festival for Saints Wilchibaldus, Disi- 
bodus, Kalian, Bibianus, Totnanus. A feast for St. Disibodus has been 

11 It is also written Lettren, in St. the reader is referred to that date, in the 
Kieran's Life. First Volume of this work, Art. ii. 

12 This statement, taken from the old 2 See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus ii., 
Acts of St. Kieran, proves, that formerly Julii vii. Among the pretermitted saints, 
such a biography had been composed. It is p. 449. 

one of the many ancient tracts, which have 3 bee his Acts given at that date. 

since been lost. Article x. — * See O'Sullevan Beare's 

Article viii. — * Thus: " Bosilii et " Historic Catholicae Iberniae Compen- 

Sociorum." — Bishop Forbes' " Kalendarsof dium," tomus i., lib. iv., cap. ii., p. 53. 

Scottish Saints," p. 73. Article XI.— * See "Acta Sancto- 

2 See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus ii., rum," tomus ii., Julii vii. Among the pre- 

Julii vii. Among the pretermitted feasts, tcrmitted saints, p. 452. 

p. 449. 2 For their Acts, the reader is referred to 

Article ix. — l For some notices of him, the same day. 


assigned to this day, by Camerarius, as the Bollandists 1 remark ; while by 
Castellan, it has been relegated to the 8th of September, as having been held 
in Disemberg, near Spanheim, in the diocese of Mayence. The Bollandists 
refer its celebration to the 8th of July. In the anonymous Calendar of Irish 
Saints, published by O'Sullevan Beare, 2 these names, Wilchibaldus, Dissibo- 
dus, Kalian, Bibianus and Totnanus, occur, at the 7th of July. But, I sus- 
pect typographical error and a misplaced festival, at least so far as concerns 
most of them. 

Article XIII. — Reputed Festival of a St. Bicce. Veneration was 
given to Bicce, at this date, according to the Martyrology of Tallagh. 1 Else- 
where, we find no corresponding entry, in any other Calendar. 

®fgl)tb J3ap of Snip* 







MANY aspire to heroic fame, but, impelled thereto through motives of 
human ambition ; while the present holy martyrs were humble in 
their own estimation, yet exalted in the sight of God, and they are revered by 
just persons, because they ended virtuous lives, through the treacherous and 
evil machinations of those who conspired their death. Many seek for know- 
ledge, by relying too much on their own abilities, and without asking for those 
Heavenly lights, which can alone effectually dispel the darkness of mental 
vision ; but, St. Kilian is regarded as one of the Irish Doctors ■ on account of 
his learning, while he turned this learning to forward noble aims, by observing 
the Divine Commandments, and by labouring with zeal for the extension of 
God's kingdom, among the unenlightened and unbelievers. 

The Life of St. Kilian, Apostle of Franconia, has been written, at a period 
not long after his death ; while various Manuscript Acts, relating to him and 
to his companions, have been preserved to our own times. With his Acts are 

Article xii. — x See "Acta Sanctorum," Article xiii. — * Edited by Rev. Dr. 

tomus ii., Julii vii. Among the prctcr- Kelly, p. xxviii. 

mitted feasts, p. 452. Article i. — Chapter 1.— See Father 

2 See " Historioe Catholicce Ibemiae Com- Stephen White's " Apologia pro Hibernia," 

pendium," tomus i., lib. iv., cap. xi., p. 50. cap. v., p. 66. 

July 8.] 



usually associated those of his companions in martyrdom, Saints Colman and 
Totnan. There is a Harleian Manuscript 2 Vita S. Kiliani.3 in a large vellum 
folio, belonging to the twelfth century. This Life has been interpolated, 
however, with subsequent additions.* There is a Tract,* De S. Kiliano cum 
Sociis suis, Martyribus, 6 and it seems to have been an abridgment of the 
former piece. An Admont Manuscript 7 contains a different Vita S. Kiliani, 8 
and this has been published by the Bollandists,? from a Manuscript in their 
possession, collated with other Manuscripts, 10 as also with the text of 
Canisius " and of Mabillon." There is another Admont Manuscript, con- 
taining Passio Chiliani, Martyris, et aliorum Sociorum ejus.^ Among the 
Arundel Manuscripts, in the British Museum, there is a thirteenth century 
Tract, 1 * " Legenda in festo S. Kiliani ;" x s but, it is short, and apparently of 
no great value. 16 There is an account by Sander 1 ? regarding a Vita S. 
Kiliani. 18 There are various copies of a Manuscript intituled, Vita S. Kiliani 
Sociorumque ejus, in the National Library, 10 Paris ; in that of the city of 
Metz ; 2 ° in that of the Duke of Burgundy, 21 Bruxelles ; two copies of his 
Acts are at Bamberg ; 22 three at Vienna -p two copies at Hamburg ; 2 * one 
copy at Stuttgart, 2 * one at Windberg, 20 one at Wurtzburg, 2 ? one at Rebdorf, 28 
and one at Lilienfeld. 20 

8 Numbered 2801, in ff 54l>56. 

3 This has a Prologue, commencing 
" Sanctorum Martyrum certamina." Then 
the Passio commences with the words : 
" Beatus Kilianus, Scotorum genere," &c. 
Expl. Passio. — " manifeste curabimus, ad 
laudem et gloriam Domini nostri Jesu 
Christi, qui cum Patre et Spiritu Sancto 
vivit et regnat Deus per infinita ssecula 
sseculorum. Amen." This has been printed 
by Canisius, in " Antiquos Lectiones," 
tomus iv., pars ii., p. 625, and also by Sera- 
rius, in Opera, p. 329, Ed. Mogunt, a.d. 
161 1, fob Surius has issued it, in " De Pro- 
batis Sanctorum Vitis," vol. iv., Julii viii., 
pp. 135 to 138. 

4 It has been published by the Bollan- 
dists, in "Acta Sanctorum," tomus ii., 
Julii viii. 

5 It is printed in Capgtave's " Nova Le- 
genda Anglise," but it does not occur in 
John of Teignmouth's " Sanctilogium," as 
found among the Cottonian MSS. Tiber. 
E. i., and among the Bodleian MSS. Tan- 
ner, 15. 

6 It begins with these words : " Beatus 
Kilianus, genere Scotorum, nobilibus ortus 
parentibus ;" and it ends with these words : 
" corpora Sanctorum revelavit, et visum re- 

i Headed : " Passio S. Cholomani, Passio 
S. Kyliani episcopi." 

8 This begins with these words : " Fuit 
vir vitse venerabilis nomine Killena, quern 
Scottica tellus de magno edidit genere." 
Expl. — regnante Pippino, primo Orientalium 
Francorum Rege feliciter." 

9 In "Acta Sanctorum," tomus ii., Julii 
viii., pp. 612 to 614. 

10 Ex MSS. Monasteriorum Windburgen- 
sis et Rebdorfensis. 

11 In " Antiquce Lectiones," tomus iv., 
parsii., p. 625. 

12 In " Acta Sanctorum Ordinis S. Bene- 
dicti," tomus ii., ssec. ii., pp. 991 to 993. 

13 It begins with these words : " Fuit in 
Britannia insula, provincia Northanumbrana 
quidam paterfamilias, genere Saxo, nomine 
Uuillgis," &c. Thus described in Charles 
Purton Cooper's Appendix A. 

14 It is a small vellum folio, classed 198. 
'5 At fob 28. 

10 It begins : " Sanctus Kilianus, Scotus 

*7 In his work, " Bibliotheca Belgica 
Manuscripta," p. 262. 

18 It begins with : " Fuit vir vitae venera- 
bilis in Hibernia, Kilianus." Ex MSS. In- 
sulis, apud Claudium Doresmieulx. 

19 One is on vellum, and of the thirteenth 
or fourteenth century. It is classed 5278, 
57. olim Colbert. 

20 This is a vellum 8vo. 

21 This is of the eighteenth century, and 
it is classed 8942. 

22 Intituled, Legenta S. Kiliani, and S. 
Kiliani Ep. et Sociorum Passio. 

23 Intituled, S. Chiliani Vita, S. Kiliani 
ejusque Sociorum Passines, and also a Life 
of St. Kilian, in German. 

24 Intituled, Historia S. Chiliani, as also, 
Passio S. Kiliani et Sociorum ejus. 

25 Intituled, Brevissima Epitome Vitse S. 
Kiliani aliorumque. 

26 Intituled, Vitaa Sanctorum Kiliani Epis- 
copi Wirzburgensis, Kolomani Presbyten et 
Totnani Martyrum. 

27 See Thomas Duffus Hardy's "Descrip- 
tive Catalogue of Materials relating to the 
History of Great Britain and Ireland to the 
end of the reign of Henry VII," vol. i.,part i., 
PP. 339 to 341. 



[July 8. 

The Acts of this Martyrdom of St. Kilian and of his companions are 
thought to have been written by P2gilvvald, 3 ° a monk of St. Burchard's, at 
Wurtzburg.3 1 This biography, however, has been interpolated, nor do we 
know if an original copy of it can now be found. John of Erford 3a also 
wrote the Life of our saint, in Latin verse. 33 

St. Kilian and his companions, Martyrs, are commemorated in the 
" Hystorie plurimorum Sanctorum," 34 and in Capgrave.W At the 8th of 
July, Lippeloo notices them, 36 as also Baillet,37 and in the Benedictine collec- 
tion 3 8 they are to be found. The learned Jesuit writer Nicolaus Serarius 
has admirably illustrated the Acts of these Martyrs, ^ m some historic and 
dogmatic notes, he has added to the Lives of the Saints, as published by 
Surius. The Acts of St. Kilian and of his companions are also preserved in 
Canisius, 40 but the Life as issued here is interpolated. 4 1 The Acts of those holy 
Martyrs have been published by John Bale, 42 as also by Laurence Surius, 43 in 
eleven paragraph? ; but, according to his method, abbreviating original docu- 
ments and polishing their style ;44 by Molanus also, by Mabillon,45 and by 
Baronius. Messingham* 6 has published the Life of St. Kilian, with notes. The 
Bollandists have issued the Acts of those holy Martyrs, at the 8th day of 
July.47 Their editor has been Father John Baptist Soller, S.J., who has 
given a previous commentary, 48 with notes appended to those Acts. The 
first in order of these is that found substantially in the Admont Manuscript^ 
and the second is that, which is met with in the Harleian Manuscript. s° This 
has been attributed to the monk Egilvvardus. 51 The Bollandists obtained 

28 Intituled, Vitse Sanctorum Kiliani Epis- 
copi Wirzhurgensis, Kolomani Presbyter i et 
Totnani Mariyrum. See Charles Purton 
Cooper's Supplement to Appendix A., 
p. 63. 

29 Intituled, Vita S. Kyliani. 

3° He wrote the Life of St. Burchard. 

31 In that Life of our saint, attributed te 
him, and published by the Bollandists, at 
the close, the writer promises to write a Life 
of St. Burchard. 

32 He was a monk in the Monastery of St. 
Stephen, and he lived in the fourteenth cen- 

33 Serrarius saw a copy of it, but he only 
furnishes the following short specimen :— 

"Sanctorum merita norunt compungere 
Cura solicita studiove pio recolen- 

34 Published at Louvain, a.d. 1485. See 
fol. xciii., xciiii. 

3 s See " Nova Legenda Anglise," fol. 

36 See "Vitze Sanctorum," vol. iii., pp. 
101 to 106. 

3 ? See " Les Vies des Saints," tome ii., 
pp. 129 to 132. 

38 See Mabillon and D'Achery's "Acta 
Sanctorum Ordinis S. Benedicti," tomus ii., 
saec ii., A.D. 600 to 700. The Acts proper 
are in 12 paragraphs; there are previous 
observations in 3 paragraphs, pp. 99 1 to 

39 His notes were issued in 1598. 

40 See "Antique Lectiones," tomus iv., 
pars ii., p. 628. 

41 According to the learned critic Pagius. 
He remarks, also, that in St. Kilian 's 
authentic Life the day for his death is not 

42 See " Scriptorum Illustrium Majoris 
Brytanniai," Posterior Pars, Centuaria De- 
cimaquarta, num. xxiii., xxiiii., pp. 196, 

43 See "De Probatis Sanctorum Vitis," 
vol. iv., viii. Julii, pp. 135 to 138. 

44 Without a consciousness of the fact, 
he has thus very considerably lessened the 
value of his work. 

45 See " Annales Ordinis S. Benedicti," 
tomus i., lib. xvii., num. lxviii., pp. 586, 

46 See " Florilegium Insula; Sanctorum," 
pp. 318 to 330. 

47 See ** Acta Sanctorum," tomus ii. , Julii 
viii. De S. Kiliano Episc. et Martyre, 
Colomano seu Colonato et Totnano ejus 
Sociis. Herbipoli in Franconia. 

48 In six sections, and fifty-nine para- 

49 This is contained in nine paragraphs. 
Throughout the succeeding part of this bio- 
graphy, we shall allude to this as the First 
Life of St. Kilian. 

s ° There is a Prologue of the Author, and 
afterwards follow two chapters, comprising 
twenty-three paragraphs. To this we shall 
allude in succeeding pages, as the Second 
Life of St. Kilian. 

July 8.] 



other Manuscripts^ 3 which they have used in collation with those of Acts," 
published by Canisius and Mabillon. The Acts of St. Kilian and of his com- 
panions are to be found in the works of Dr. Meredith Hanmer,5* Dean 
Cressey," of Bishop Challenor,s 6 of Rev. Alban Butler, 57 and of Rev. 
Hubert M'Laughlin.* 8 

That St. Kilian — as also inferentially his companions in Martyrdom, St. 
Colman nnd St. Totnan — had belonged to the Scottish land by birth 59 and 
by race co is stated in the ancient Acts. The latter holy Martyrs, as subor- 
dinate to St. Kilian, are often not mentioned in accounts of his mission, or 
they are separated from him in veneration. One record left us regarding St. 
Kilian's Life, presents the statement, that he was a Scotus from Ireland. 61 
Some of the Scotch writers have preferred a claim for his birth having 
occurred in Scotland, from the account of his being set down as a Scotus. 
That he was a native of Ireland is almost universally admitted ; but, we have 
no account of the part of it to which he belonged. 62 The name of St. Kilian, 
or Kilianus as Latinized, has been varied by different writers of his Acts to 
Killinus, Killenus, Chillianus, Cilianus, Ccelianus, Chilianus, Quillianus, 
Kyllena and Killena. By the Germans he is called Kulhn. 6 3 In like manner, 
the names of his companions in suffering have been confused by various 
writers : thus, we find Colman and Totnan written Colmann and Totmann ; 

51 According to the opinion of Mabillon. 
As it comes to us, it appears to abound in 
errors, if we are not to deem these attribu- 
table to interpolation. 

5 3 One of these was obtained " a nostro 
proegrandiValcellensiseu Moretianocodice." 
Another is described as "puriora Acta ex 
schedis IUustrissimi Episcopi Lindani." 

53 The most ancient of our Martyr's Acts 
are supposed to have been written after the 
time of St. Raban Maur — who lived in the 
early part of the ninth century— and for 
sufficient reasons adduced by Father Sober. 

54 See " Chronicle of Ireland," pp. 155, 


55 See "The Church History of Brittany," 
book xxiii., chap, xxv., pp. 613 to 615. 

s 6 See " Brittannia Sancta," part ii., pp. 
24 to 27. 

57 See " Lives of the Fathers, Martyrs, 
and other principal Saints, vol. vii., July 

58 See " Biographical Sketches of Ancient 
Irish Saints," sect, xii., pp. 182 to 192. 

59 The Bollandists' first Life have it: 
"Fuit vir vitse venerabilis, nomine Killinus 
quem Scottica tellus de magno ededit 
genere," &c. 

60 The second Life is still more explicit : 
" Beatus Kilianus, Scotorum genere nobili- 
bus ortus parentibus, divinae tamen gratias 
factus et nobilitate clarissimus." 

61 The Second Life afterwards continues 
its account of St. Kilian, as being of Scottish 
origin : " Scotia, quae et Hibernia dicitur in- 
sula est maris Oceani, fcecunda quidem gle- 
bis, sed sanctissimis clarior viris ; ex qui bus 
Columbano gaudet Italia, Gallo ditatur Ale- 
mannia ; Kibano Teutonica nobilitatur 

61 A talented native poet, in a composition 
entitled, "St. Kilian," or " A Lay of the 
early Missionary Days," gives the following 
particulars — probably founded on local tra- 
dition—concerning his place of birth in 
Breffney. However, we are inclined to be- 
lieve, that this has reference rather to a St. 
Caillin, who was venerated on the 13th of 
November. How the infancy of St. Kilian 
had been passed is thus described : 

" Nursed beneath an Irish mountain, by 

an Irish mother's hand, 
Where the wild Borora whispers to 

the meadows of the land, 
Taught the music of the harper and 

the anthems of the blest, 
Kilian grew as grows the ash-tree by 

the ruins of the west. 

" Winter stars that light in splendour 

Eire's calm and and solemn sky, 
Might have borrowed their chaste 

brightness from the gleaming of his 

The young lily bending lowly when 

the dew is in the air, 
Was a type of his meek spirit when 

his young lips moved in prayer." 

— " A Wreath of Shamrocks : Ballads, 
Songs and Legends," by John K. Casey 
(Leo), pp. 116 to 131. 

63 See Bishop Challerior's " Britannia 
Sancta," part ii., p. 24. 

6 * To this list seems to be added in the 
Second Life Columbanus and Gallus. Sige- 
bert, Reginus, and others quoted by Sera- 
rius, add to or take away some of those 
names, or vary them into many forms. 


Calan and Totmann ; Colonatus and Tothnanus j Colanan and Tornanan ; 
Dolomann and Tholraann j Colomann and Tolmann. Again, their names are 
written as Colonat and Tothnat. Other persons have been added to these, 
as companions of St. Kilian, such as Gallonus, Arnuuales and Donanus. 6 * 
St. Kilian and his companions in martyrdom are also variedly noticed, in 
some of the Calendars ; but, it is correct to state, that the three soldiers of 
Christ who travelled together, and who alone were put to death at Wurtz- 
burg, were Saints Kilian, Colman and Totnan, while such has been the con- 
tinued and universally received tradition of the clergy and people, who 
regard them as their special patrons. 65 

St. Kilian was of an illustrious family, and, it is even stated, that this vene- 
rable martyr was of royal descent. 66 The respectability of his origin is 
vouched for, by the ancient writers of his Acts. 6 7 There are no data in his 
Acts, notwithstanding, whereby we can even approximately decide on the 
period of his birth; but, probably it was a little before — and certainly not 
much after — the middle of the seventh century. 

Almost from his infancy, St. Kilian had a taste for study, and for the 
acquirement of knowledge, especially that tending to inform his mind on sub- 
jects of highest interest to every true Christian. His talents for the acquisi- 
tion of learning manifested themselves, by progress and perseverance in his 
studies ; while the latter were directed in a more especial manner to those 
branches of knowledge, which might enable him to gain souls for Christ. 
Especially, he applied with untiring endeavours, to the study of Holy Scrip- 
ture. On all occasions, he sought the direction of the Holy Ghost, to 
enlighten his mind on those matters, that were "hard to be understood, which 
the unlearned and unstable wrest, as they do also other Scriptures, to their 
own destruction. 68 With diffidence in his own judgment, and in his powers 
of understanding, Kilian referred all natural and acquired penetration to that 
Almighty Being, from whom he received it ; and hence, he was deemed 
worthy those superior gifts of intellect and of disposition, which placed him 
in advance of so many students, who applied to sacred erudition. After a 
most excellent course of instruction, which it appears his parents took care 
to procure for him, it has been asserted, that at an early age, Kilian devoted 
himself to the monastic profession. 6 ? Such was the progress he made in 
obedience, abstemiousness, prayer and vigil, that it was deemed expedient for 
him to take sacred orders, and he was advanced accordingly through the 
various grades. Having attained the dignity of the priesthood, he was care- 
ful to discharge well its duties. His charities and other good works became 
conspicuous ; while his brethren, admiring his great virtues, desired he should 
succeed to a higher charge. 7° Having embraced the monastic life, he is said to 
have governed some monastery.7 1 However, it has been doubted if there be 
sufficient evidence, to establish such a conclusion ;7 2 while Father Soller 

6 5 See the Bollandists' " Acta Sancto- name of this writer, 
rum," tomusii., Julii viii. DeS. KilianoEpis. 68 ii. Peter, iii., 16. 

et Martyre, Colomano seu Colonato et Tot- 69 According to the Second Life, 

nano ejus Sociis. Herbipoli in Franconia. 7 ° This is stated in his Second Life. 

66 " In Hiberniaregio sanguine natu?." — »' "Of which, however," adds Rev. Dr. 
Molanus. See, also, Lippelo, Surius and I .anigan, " I do not find any particular men- 
B.ironius. linn." — "Ecclesiastical History of Ireland," 

6 7 But according to the depreciatory vol. iii., chap, xviii., sect, x., p. 115. 
account, given by Dr. Meredith Hanmer, a 7a Trithemius goes so far as to state, that he 
certain writer " saith he was a king's base was both monk and abbot in the monastery 
sonne." See " Chronicle of Ireland," p. 155. of Iona. This statement is wholly ground- 
We are not further enlightened regarding the less. 


thinks it to be just as likely, that neither was St. Kilian an abbot, nor were 
his companions monks. St. Kilian's pastoral labours, after his call to the 
sacred ministry, were continued for several years ; while many souls were 
converted from evil courses, during their exercise. At last, he had a Divine 
admonition, 7 ^ and he heard these words : " He that desires to come after 
me, let him deny himself, take up his cross, and follow me." 74 

Already, St. Kilian had announced the Gospel with much fruit in his own 
country. According to some accounts, he was there advanced to the epis- 
copal dignity. 75 This, too, seems most probable, from all we can learn, in 
reference to his career. As an effective and a persuasive preacher, he 
acquired great renown. Among the Irish clergy, he was looked upon as the 
most erudite scholar, their country could possibly produce ; although the fame 
of Irish seminaries for learning was even then diffused over most European 
countries. The zeal of Kilian, for the propagation of Divine Faith among 
the pagans, induced him to think of leaving his family, friends and native 
country. Proposing his design to his companions, 76 and pointing out 
with earnestness and eloquence the unhappy condition of those, who were 
yet asleep in sin and ignorance, and in whose ears the voice of Gospel heralds 
had not yet resounded ; our saint created a like desire in the souls of eleven 
among them, and these resolved to accompany him. 77 The chief one among 
them was a priest, named Colman, who afterwards suffered martyrdom 
together with St. Kilian. A Deacon, named Totnam, also the companion of 
his suffering, 78 was one of those companions. The year 686 is that most 
correctly set down for their departure from Ireland ; and, it has been con- 
jectured, that St. Kilian was mature in years, at that period. A few months 
before this, John V. 7 ? had been raised to the Pontificate. On setting out, 
their course was directed first to Britain. Thence, they sailed for the shores 
of France. 80 On landing, they proceeded towards Franconia, which lay 
beyond the Rhine. At length, they came to the present site of Wurtzburg, 81 
then only a small village, 82 in which there was a castle. This place is now 
the capital of the circle of Lower Franconia, and a handsome city of 
Bavaria, very pleasantly situated, chiefly on the right bank of the River Main, 
which is there crossed by a fine bridge. This city is surrounded by a lofty 

73 This is stated in the First Life. disertimscribit in Martyrologio Beda . . . 

74 St. Matt, xvi., 24. Et Paulo post. Lectionarius Moguntinus 

75 We read in the First Life of St. Kilian, liber enumerat Colonatum, Gallonem, Ar- 
" ut exinde pontificate didicissit regere cut- nuuildem, Presbyteros, Totnatum Diaco- 
men," &c. The Bollandist editor, Father num, septemque alios." Serarius, in Vita S. 
Soller, thinks, for reasons he assigns, that St. Kiliani, notis. 

Kilian had been consecrated as bishop in his 79 He only ruled one year from A.D. 685 to 

own country. See "Acta Sanctorum, " tomus 686. See Sir Harris Nicolas' "Chronology 

ii., Julii viii. De S. Kiliano Episc. et of History," p. 210. 

Martyre, Colomano seu Colonato et Totnano 8o However, Thadaeus, Abbot of the 
ejus Sociis. Herbipoli in Franconia, Com- Scots, at Ratisbon writes : " Ad Flandriam 
mentarius Prsevius, sect, ii., num.9, IO > IJ > prospero comitatu pervenerunt." — Canisius' 
pp. 601, 602. " Antiquce Lectiones," tomus iv., Fragmen- 
ts In the First Life, their names are thus turn Chronicum, p. 473. 
incorrectly given : "id est Lonato ac Gal- 8l Its first name is said to have been Mus- 
lone at Arnuvalle presbyteris et Totnano topolis, and also Praxipolis; afterwards Her- 
diacano," &c. bipolis; also Wirtziburgum, Wirziburgum 

77 We read "qui quod mente conceperat pro- and Wirceburgum, in the vernacular German 
positum, sociis communicans, invenit omnes Wurtzburg. 

non tantum consentientes, sed divini spiritus 82 In the Topographia Meriani, an in- 

caloresuccensos,ipsumqui hortabaturad opus teresting account of this city may be found, 

impellentes." — Baronius' " Annales Ecclesi- 83 See " Gazetteer of the World," vol. xiv., 

astici," tomus xii., A.D. 686, sect, vii., p. 500. p. 562. 

78 "De sancti Kiliani sociis, duos fuisse b4 See "The Popular Encyclopedia; or 


wall and deep ditches, as also having six gates. On the opposite bank is the 
citadel or castle of Marienburg, situated on a rock 400 feet in height. 8 * The 
soil around this city is very fertile, producing much grain, while fine vine- 
yards abound in its vicinity, along the hills over the valley of the Maine.** 
Wurtzburg was then ruled by a potentate, whose name we do not learn ; but 
who was succeeded by a person of distinction named Gozbert * 5 or Cospert. 86 
Regarding his origin or station, little appears to be known. 8 ? Paganism 
universally prevailed among the people, in that part of Germany, at the time 
of their arrival. 88 The Irish evangelists, if not highly successful at first, yet 
had good hopes for the future. Thinking his prospects of success sufficiently 
flattering, the holy missionary Kilian adopted measures, which seemed to him 
best calculated to carry out his designs for the conversion of that nation. 



The missionaries directed their course towards Wurtzburg, then ruled over by 
Duke Gosbertus. Although a Pagan, he had a mind gifted with superior intel- 
ligence. It is stated^ that he had a great veneration for Diana, who was the 
goddess he chiefly worshipped. Meantime, the zealous missionaries had 
applied themselves to the study of a strange language ; and such were the 
graces granted to them by the Almighty, that in a short time, not only did 
they learn it very perfectly, but they were able to speak it with fluency. Here 
they began to proclaim in a public manner, the great mission on which they 
were sent, and to carry out the objects for which they had cheerfully aban- 
doned their native country, already subdued to that Faith its first great 
Apostle St. Patrick had announced. The gratitude of a people, rescued from 
pagan darkness and idolatry, had excited in the minds of those most devoted 
servants of God an earnest desire to bestow upon other nations — now sunk 
in the same dismal shades — that gift which should profit more than all other 
advantages a nation might enjoy. Such were the feelings, and such the pur- 
poses, by which their present course had been directed. After these declara- 
tions, they began to explain the nature and doctrines of the Christian religion, 
contrasting it in the most favourable light with pagan errors, and showing the 
debasing influence of these latter over men's minds and passions. The 

Conversations Lexicon," vol. vii., p. 128. tern, quern RabanusinMartyrologiojudicem, 

*5 Like many of the kings and chiefs of the Sigcbertus principem Wirtziburgensium vo- 

micklle ages, but for the Acts of the Saints, cat." — "Annates Ordinis S. Benedict i," 

Gosbert and his wife Geilana should dis- tomus i., lib. xvii., num. lxviii., p. 587. 

appear from history. 88 Serrarius has given a very learned I )is- 

& So is he called, in the Martyrology of quisition on the idolatrous worship, which 

Notker. then prevailed in Franconia, in his notes to 

8 ? Mabillon states " Gosbertum regionis the Life of St. Kilian. Notatio 14. 

ducem, Iletani semoris filium, Ruodis nepo- CHAPTER II. — ' This is not stated, in the 


novelty of their doctrines, combined with the learning, eloquence and per- 
suasiveness of their preachers, attracted immense crowds of persons to hear 
them. These listened with great respect, and felt very anxious to have a 
repetition of arguments and explanations offered, by their newly arrived 

The report of Kilian's eloquence no sooner reached the ears of Prince 
Gozbert, than he hastened to increase and personally to influence the number 
of auditors. He procured an immediate interview with the holy Bishop. 
The latter improved the occasion, by laying before him those arguments 
establishing the great truths of Christianity. He dwelt on the nature and 
attributes of God ; on the mystery of the Holy Trinity ; and on the general 
plan of salvation, in which Christ took upon Himself our human nature, and 
suffered on the cross at the hands of Jews. This movement on Gosbert's 
part — in the beginning, perhaps, the result of mere curiosity — proved an 
occasion for opening the king's eyes to the light of Faith. The first inter- 
view led to continued and more prolonged conferences, concerning religious 

After receiving all necessary explanations and instructions, this Prince 
conceived a most exalted idea of the doctrine taught by the saint. He 
admired, too, that spirit of self-sacrifice which could thus impel men to aban- 
don friends, home and native country, to encounter in its propagation those 
perils of various kinds, to which they had necessarily been exposed. Gosbert 
encouraged the missionaries to labour anew in a field, which then afforded 
such happy expectations and results. He then made a public profession of 
the true Faith. He sought and obtained the sacrament of regeneration, at 
the instance of St. Kilian. He is said to have been baptized, with many 
others, on the day previous to that of our Lord's Resurrection, 1 and which 
corresponded with Holy Saturday. 

The example given by the Prince induced numbers to seek the baptismal 
font. Christianity soon began to spread among the people. In less than 
two years after this event, idolatry had altogether disappeared from Wurtz- 
burg city, and from its dependent territories, while the Christian religion was 
thus proudly established, instead of the former Gentile superstitions. After 
making himself acquainted with the wants of the inhabitants, and the neces- 
sities of their condition, St. Kilian then undertook a journey to Rome. He 
resolved to seek the Pontifical sanction, for opening there his new mission. 2 
Colman and Totnam were his companions on the way. They arrived at 
Rome, a.d. 686, according to the most probable accounts. On their arrival 
there, they found the holy See in possession of Pope John V.'s successor, 
who was named Conon. 3 Kilian was examined by the Pontiff, regarding his 
religious profession and doctrine.* However, there appears to be no reason 
for supposing, that the Pope had any grounds for suspecting his orthodoxy.s 
Those strangers were graciously received by the Pope. St. Kilian revealed 

First Life of St. Kilian, and Serrarius ap- Abbatis, Scotorum Ratisbonse, p. 473. 

pears to have wasted his researches, in try- 3 « y n eletto Pontefice a '21 Ottobre del 

ing to ascertain why this day had been 686." — De Novaes' " Storia de Sommi 

chosen. See Art. 15, in his annotations on Pontefici," tomo secondo, An. 686. 

our saint's Acts. * Probably, to discover whether or not, 

3 The Abbot Thadaeus seems to imply, that he had been infected with any leaven of 

this resolve had been formed in Flanders "ubi Pelagian heresy, and which had prevailed to 

per Angelicam visionem revelatum fuit bea- some extent among people inhabiting the 

tissimo Kiliano, ut per Alemaniam iter British Isles. 

dirigeret ^ versus Romam ; et sic pervenit s Such is the opinion of Father Soller, in 

Romam." — Canisius, " Antiquae Lectiones," treating about this relation found in his 

tomus iv. Fragmentum Chronicon Thadaei Acts. 

Vol. VII.— No. 3. 2 


his projects and purposes, for approval of the Sovereign Pontiff. Being 
satisfied on the score of his orthodoxy, this Pope is said to have created him 
a regionary Bishop, but without assigning him to any fixed See. He con- 
ferred upon St. Kilian, however, full powers for regulating all religious obser- 
vances, and in such a manner, as rendered his authority wholly independent 
of any other episcopal jurisdiction, saving only the rights and privileges of 
the Roman Church, and that obedience he owed its Chief. The saint like- 
wise obtained permission to preach with apostolic authority. It has been 
stated, 6 that St. Kilian served St. Peter's church for some years, which were 
spent in the Eternal City, and that he was then appointed Bishop of Herbi- 
polis,7 in Franconia. However this may be, for that country he took his 
departure from Rome, resolving to devote himself with apostolic abandon- 
ment, to cares and labours, inseparably connected with his new mission. 
Colman and Totnan bore St. Kilian company, on his return to Germany. It 
is said, that they left Columbanus 8 in Italy, when he had parted from Gallus,9 
who was prostrate from the effects of a fever in Germany. 10 But, as this 
statement presents an anachronism, perhaps the better way to treat it should 
be to consider, that for the founder of Bobbio we should substitute his place, 
which was among the Apennines, and on the direct route from Rome to their 
German destination. In his travels, St. Kilian is believed to have met St. 
Fiacre 1X — who is said formerly to have been a servant to his father — but 
these holy men were not allowed the opportunity of a very prolonged inter- 
view." Hurried time obliged each to hasten in different directions. 

A usage, similar to that existing among the Jews, had been commonly prac- 
tised by the people of Wurtzburg ; and, it was exemplified in Prince Gosbert's 
own condition. He had taken to wife the widow of his own brother. Her name 
was Geilana — sometimes called Geilane, and Geila.^ The prince entertained 
the strongest sentiments of love and attachment towards his consort; but, 
for some time, Kilian thought it imprudent to disturb the conscience of his 
convert, who still remained in good faith regarding the lawfulness of his mar- 
riage. Its validity, moreover, now came into question. 1 * It soon was St. 
Kilian's duty, to explain the church discipline on this point. Having first 
grounded his new convert in the doctrines and faith, he had embraced ; 
Kilian then endeavoured to explain to this prince, the false and objectionable 
nature of that connection, formed with his female companion. This he did, 
but in the most gentle and persuasive manner ; for, he knew, that the most 
tender and sensitive natural feelings of Gosbert must be stirred. Yet was it 
necessary, to teach him the true Christian doctrine and practice for his correc- 
tion. When the matter was first proposed to him, the king felt a great 
repugnance to the idea of separation ; but, being assured, it had become a 
matter of necessity, if he wished to live in a manner becoming his profession, 
all difficulties seemed to remove from his mind, and Gozbert consented to 
the divorce. He signified this assent, but with the Christian's spirit of self- 
sacrifice. j s This determination of the king soon came to the knowledge of 

6 By Molanus. St. Kilian, an Irishman and a contemporary. 

7 The former name for Wurtzburgh. See Rev. Alban Butler's "Lives of the 

8 His festival occurs, at the 2ist of Novem- Fathers, Martyrs and other principal Saints," 
ber. He died a.d. 615. vol. viii., August xxx. 

9 His feast is held, on the 16th of October. ,3 See Mabillon's "Annales Ordinis S. 
He died before the middle of the seventh Benedict!," tomus i., lib. xvii., num. lxviii., 
century. p. 587. 

10 According to the Second Life. M Serrarius has a long Disquisition on this 
" His festival was held on the 30th of marriage in his Life of St. Kilian, Art. 16, 

August, and he died about A.D. 670. 17, 18. 

ld This account refers, however, to another ,s His words are thus reported : " Audivi 


Geilane. She was not disposed to acquiesce in this arrangement, however, 
without putting into practice all the artifices of a woman, whose worldly 
interests and conscientious scruples were by no means violently opposed. Her 
arguments and artifices, notwithstanding, were of little avail, as the Prince's 
stern resolutions were not then to be overcome. 16 Hereupon, she burned with 
an insatiable fury, against the ministers of Jesus Christ, and she resolved upon 
seizing the first occasion for effecting a deadly revenge. This opportunity 
was soon presented. 

The Prince being called away on a military expedition, in the year 689, 
his wicked consort found hardened assassins, 1 ? who were hired to execute her 
scheme of vengeance. These abandoned wretches acted with too much fide- 
lity to her instructions. Although St. Kilian and his companions are said to 
havehad a miraculous warning, 18 concerning this design against their lives; they 
did not think of saving themselves by flight, or even of seeking a protection, 
which the ruler and people of Wurtzburg would be willing to afford. St. 
Kilian exhorted his companions to constancy, assuring them that the soul at 
least would prove invulnerable, to any assaults of their temporal enemies. 
The holy missionaries applied themselves to making the best preparations 
possible, by prayer and fasting, while anticipating their coming danger. On 
the 8th day of July — according to some writers, a.d. 688, j 9 according to 
others a.d. 689 2 ° — whilst St. Kilian and his companions, ColmanandTotnan 
— some writers adding others to the number — were together in the same 
apartment, their assassins entered with drawn swords. Their intentions 
were at once apparent, from a stern determination, manifested in the demoni- 
acal expression of their countenances. St. Kilian offered himself first to the 
executioners' strokes, and he was instantly laid lifeless at their feet. His 
companions, who were present, fell in like manner, but only to arise with 
greater glory in a world beyond the grave. 31 According to the First Life of 
St. Kilian, it is said, they were beheaded. To remove all traces manifesting 
this deed of butchery, the martyrs' bodies were removed, under cover of the 
night, and the corpses were interred in the most private manner. The cross, 
the book of the Gospels, with other books and movables, which belonged to 
them, were thrown into the same grave. 23 

However, a religious woman, Burgunda by name, 2 3 had a cell near that 
oratory, in which the holy Martyrs were accustomed to pray ; and, during 

pater, te docente, quia Dominus Jesus monet, the "carnifices " are put in the plural num- 

nihil preferendum suo amori, non patrem, ber. 

non matrem, non filios, non uxorem, et l8 This is not mentioned in the First Life, 

idcirco quamvis unice diligam junctam mini but it is given in a more detailed manner in 

uxorem, propono tamen divinum amorem. the Second Life, than here presented. 

Sed non adest mihi otium inquirendi qualiter Father Soller suspects it to be an interpola- 

eam dimittam, quia contra hostes nostrse tion. 

reipublicse festino, cum autem fuero reversus, '« Thus : " Essi ricevettero la palma del 

inventa opportunitate dimittendi, seperabor martino nell' anno 688." — Moroni's Diziona- 

ab ilia." — Messingham's ". Florilegium In- rio di Erudizione Storico-Ecclesiastica, vol. 

sulae Sanctorum," Vita S. Kiliani, p. 321. xiv., Art. Colomano. 

16 It seems rather inexplicable, that St. 20 See Baronius' "Annates Ecclesias- 
Kiliandidnot seek a dispensation, in this tici." 

peculiar case, from the Sovereign Pontiff, 2I According to local tradition — affirmed 

who had power, and most probably the in- also in an epitaph composed for the Martyrs 

clination, to exercise it for what seems to — the year of their l'assion was 689. Some 

have been very sufficient reason. writers, such as Werner, have placed it 

17 In the First Life only one assassin is at A.D. 694, while others, with Sigibert, have 
thus mentioned, " accessit lictor ad eos, ense it so late as A.D. 697. 

acuto quasi prseparatus ad jugulandos Dei 22 Serrarius, as usual, has a disquisition on 

amicos," &c. In most of the other Lives, the books that had been buried, in his edi- 


her vigils, she seems to have witnessed the murderers proceeding to engage 
in their nefarious project. Her curiosity and suspicions were the more 
awakened on their return, so that she went to the spot where the martyrdom 
took place. There, she only found their blood, in which she steeped a linen 
cloth, and this she buried in that place, where she knew the bodies to have been 
covered over with earth. 2 * Still, Burgunda resolved on keeping it a secret, 
lest the wicked Geilane should remove them to any other spot, and for 
greater concealment. That holy woman continued to frequent, but by stealth, 
that place where the bodies of the holy martyrs had been committed to the 
earth, and there she prayed beside their remains. In order to remove all 
suspicion calculated to reveal their tragical end, that wicked woman, who was 
the principal author of their murder, caused a report to be industriously 
circulated throughout the city, that St. Kilian and his companions had left 
it secretly, and that it was impossible to discover, whither they had retired, or 
for what purpose. Meantime, to remove every trace which might serve to reveal 
the spot where their remains had been deposited, Geilane conceived the 
idea of forming a frame-work of planks over their grave, and on these she 
caused a stable to be built for horses. 2 * That place of sepulture might have 
remained unknown to all persons, had not Burgunda — when death was about 
to remove her from this life — revealed it to some faithful companions who 
surrounded her. 

Shortly after the occurrence of their martyrdom, Gozbert himself returned 
to Wurtzburg, and he was told, that no trace of the Christian missionaries was 
to be found. Being astonished at their mysterious departure, he caused instant 
enquiries, and a search to be made throughout the whole province, to dis- 
cover the place of their retreat. The fraudful Geilane at last persuaded her 
husband, that he should little concern himself about such migratory, worth- 
less and unceremonious visitors, so that he soon became indifferent on the 
matter, and as we may well imagine his scruples on the score of his marriage 
were soon removed. When those matters as related by degrees faded from 
popular recollection, still the crime of that murder though hidden became 
revealed, and in a most miraculous manner. Both of those wretches, who 
had perpetrated that barbarous deed, were at length discovered, and through 
a manifest judgment of Heaven. In a very remarkable way, Divine justice 
was soon visited upon them. One of the murderers put an end to his own 
existence by the sword, while he cried out : " O Kilian, you bitterly persecute 
me, since fire consumes me ; what I have done, I cannot conceal ; I see the 
sword, stained with your blood, now about to slay myself." The horrors of 
a guilty conscience crowded the mind of his fellow assassin with fearful 
images, both by day and night ; and, in fine, these tormented him, in such a 
manner, that every glimpse ot reason was extinguished, and he became a 
raving maniac. He ran publicly through the streets, confessing the deed he 

tion of St. Kilian's Life, Art. 19. ibi stabulala super sepulcra Martyrum, nee 

23 The account of this holy woman's inter- stercora nee urinam jacerent honorem 

erence differs greatly in the First and Martyribus exhibentia, ut quod de Capite 

Second Lives of St. Kilian. 1'ropheta vaticinatus est, hoc in eis membris 

2 * Nothing of this regarding Burgunda, or reperietur. Cognovit, inquiens, bos posses- 

what follows, is to be found in the First Liie, sorum suum, et asinus praesepe Domini sui ; 

which makes it be suspected as an interpola- Israel non cognovit." 

tion in the Life attributed to Egilward. 26 Some of these particulars are not con- 
2 5 What is not to be found in the First tained in an ancient Life of St. Kilian, pub- 
Life has been here introduced into the lished by Surius, Serrarius, Canisius, and 
Second, and it was most probably only a Mcssingham, written, it is supposed, by 
popular legend. " Ferunt tamen ab his, qui Egilwaid, and found, also, in Mabillon and 
fuere, posteris rclatum, quod animalia the Bollandists, 


had committed, tearing himself in a shocking manner, and crying out, that 
St. Kilian had tortured him with fire. He was instantly arrested, and brought 
before the Prince, who began to deliberate whether or not he was a fit subject 
for the punishment his crime seemed to deserve. One of Gosbert's courtiers, 
however, who was in favour with Geilane, counselled her husband to leave the 
chastisement of this wretch to the Christians' God. To this advice the Prince 
inclined. That courtier had in view an idea of teaching the Prince to doubt 
the miraculous dispensation of Providence, and to incline once more to the 
worship of the goddess Diana. To the old practice of paganism the courtier 
was secretly inclined, although he had professed Christianity, to gain Goz- 
bert's confidence. 26 Gozbert unhappily yielded to his worst persuasions. 
The unhappy Prince again returned to the superstitions and idolatrous prac- 
tices of his pagan ancestors. The vengeance of Heaven was at length vindi- 
cated, by the unhappy end of the wicked Geilane. An evil spirit took 
possession of her, and continued to torment her so long as life lasted. She 
was often heard exclaiming : "lam justly tormented, because I have mur- 
dered innocent men; I am rightly tortured, because I prepared tortures for 
them. O Kilian, you persecute me fiercely, O Kolman, you add fire, O 
Totnan, you supply the flames. It is enough for you to have conquered; 
too heavily are your injuries avenged. O Kilian, you are so called from the 
chalice, 2 ? but a very bitter cup you pour out for me." Then she raged to that 
degree, that her attendants could scarce restrain her. The people of the Eastern 
Franks afterwards drove her son Hetnan from the kingdom. In a short time 
after St. Kilian's death, Gosbert suffered the punishment of having aban- 
doned the true and living God. This prince is said to have been killed by 
his own servant. 28 However, there seems to be no just warrant for this latter 
statement. 2 9 Nay more ; all Gosbert's kindred were displaced from any 
positions of trust or dignity in that province, while his whole race was utterly 

As a zealous labourer in the Lord's vineyard in Eastern Franconia, 
before or in a.d. 742,3° St. Burchard 3 1 had been nominated first Bishop of 
Wurtzburg,3 2 which city had been erected into an espiscopal See, by St. 
Boniface, Archbishop of Mayence ; and, as has been stated, in consequence 
of his learning about the extraordinary miracle already related.33 A story is 
told, 3 * which has been accepted for the narrative relative to finding the 
remains of those holy martyrs. When the venerable virgin St. Gertrude, 35 

27 This seems belonging to an interpolated Life, given by Canisius, and which Mabillon 
passage in the old Life by Egilward ; and appears to have followed. 

although the Latin runs, " a calice Kiliane 3 ° This year was held the German Council, 

diceris," it is quite an incorrect derivation in which as Mabillon shows, both Burchard 

for St. Kilian's name. Almost equally in- and Willibald presided as bishops. 

correct are many of the attempts of commen- 3l His feast is held, on the i4thofOcto- 

tators on the Acts of these Martyrs, to give ber. 

the true derivation. 3* To this dignity he was appointed by 

28 "All the actors in this tragedy," says Pope Zachary, as may be seen in the Epis- 
the Protestant historian Milner, " Gosbert ties relative to St. Boniface, Epist. 132, 
among the rest, came to an unhappy end ; 133. 

and there is no doubt, but that in this case, 3i St. Boniface is said thus to have pro- 
as well as many others, the blood of the phesied : "Felix es Wirzpurch, et inter 
martyrs became the seed of the church. Germanise non ignobilis urbes ; et quamvis 
Numbers of the eastern Franks had em- his temporibus quarumdum civitatum pos- 
braced Christianity, and sealed the ministry trema habearis, tamen exornata corporibus 
of Kilian." — "History of the Church of Martyrum, inferior non habeberis." — Mabil- 
Christ," vol. i., century vii., chap, ii., Ion's "Acta Sanctorum Ordinis S. Bene- 
p. 533. dicti," ssec. iii., pars, i., p. 702 

29 Yet it is in the edition of our saint's ** In the Second Life of St. Kilian. 


who was daughter to Pepin, King of the Franks, sought to avoid the marriage 
designed for her, she is said to have travelled into Franconia, where she 
founded a monastery in honour of the Blessed Virgin, at a place called Carle- 
bnrg. There, she caused two pious men who accompanied her to receive 
Holy Orders. Those were named Atalongus, who became a priest, and 
Bernard, who became a deacon. Afterwards, she returned to her own country, 
where she became abbess over a nunnery founded at Nivelle, in Brabant. 
Now, it so happened, that Atalongus 3 6 was a man well read in scholastic 
learning, and distinguished for his solid virtues. But, he knew scarcely any- 
thing about St. Kilian and his companions. However, as he taught young boys 
their lessons, while standing before him in the class one day, all those at once 
cried out, as if moved by some Divine impulse : " Kilian makes signs, and 
he should be taken from that place, where he has been ignominiously buried." 
These exclamations astonished the priest, but he threatened the pupils with 
stripes for raising such a foolish clamour. However, when night came, and 
when he had taken some refreshment, the priest retired to rest, and he had 
dreams of an extraordinary character. In the morning when he awoke, a vision 
of St. Kilian, surrounded with a dazzling light, was presented to his view. 
The holy Martyr then spoke these words : " Unless you believe, you shall 
not see ; which observations our Lord Himself prophetically addressed to 
the Jews; unless you believe, you cannot understand/' When the sun began 
to rise afterwards, no sight of it remained for Atalongus, and when he learned 
from a servant, that the day was already advanced, he recollected how he had 
presumed to chide his scholars for their ready faith, and he burst into tears. 
Whereupon, he began to enquire from the people of that place about St. 
Kilian, whose praises had been already proclaimed by his youthful charge. 
One of those persons who lived there, and a rustic, informed him, that Kilian 
had come from a far distant country, that he had spread the Christian reli- 
gion throughout their province, that he was destroyed through the perfidy of 
a woman, unknown to the people, and that his memory was even then fading 
from their traditions. Wherefore, when the priest heard this account, he 
asked to be brought near the reputed place where the Martyrs' bodies lay, 
and there he most earnesty prayed, that through their intercession, the Lord 
might graciously pardon his want of discretion and the rashness of his words, 
so that his sight might be restored. It pleased the Almighty, favourably to 
hear his prayers; and with great joy, Atalongus proclaimed the wonderful 
miracle wrought in his regard. This announcement soon spread abroad, and 
the Martyrs' fame was greatly magnified. 

The bodies of St. Kilian and of his companions were suffered to remain 
in the place of their first sepulture, until about the year 746.37 Some writers have 
a later date, while others bring it down to a.d. 752. However, it is doubtful 
if St. Burchard was then living. 3 8 It has been stated, 3 ? that Pope Zacharyhad 
canonized St. Kilian ; but, we must recollect that no form of pontifical 
canonization had been instituted, until several subsequent centuries had 

35 Her feast occurs, at the 17th of March, of their concealment. 

and she has another festival at the 8th of 37 According to Sigibert's Chronicle. 

May, in the Belgian Martyrologies. She was 38 See the observation* of Father Soller, 

born in 626, and she departed this life a.d. in reference to this chronology, in " Acta 

659. Sanctorum," tomus ii., Julii viii. De S. 

36 This story about Atalongus does not Kiliano Epis. et Martyre, Colomano seu 
appear in the First Life, and it seems incon- Colonato et Totnano ejus sociis, Herbipoli in 
sistent with the account therein contained, Franconia. Commentarius Praevius, sect, iii., 
that Btirgunda had already discovered the pp. 603 to 605. 

relics, and that she made known the place 39 By Luke Castellan. 


elapsed. Through the instrumentality of St. Boniface and by order of Pope 
Zachary/ a solemn Translation of the remains to a shrine, at Mount Saint 
Mary, near Wurtzburg, took place. This is generally supposed to have 
happened, on the 8th day of February. On this date, at least, a festival has 
been instituted, in commemoration of those holy martyrs. It is said to have 
occurred, likewise, during the reign of Pipping 1 the first KingofFranconia.* 2 
The holy Bishop Burchard suspected, that as the devoted martyrs had been 
secretly murdered, and as the hurried concealment of their remains was an 
object kept in view by all the parties concerned in the murder, their bodies 
could not have been deeply buried in the earth. Accordingly, he ordered a 
public fast, which was kept by the clergy and people, so that the Almighty 
Discoverer of hidden things might deign to reveal his secrets to the faithful, 
who desired to honour him through his saints. 43 He announced a day for 
the Elevation, when a great multitude of people flocked into Wurtzburg, 
some through a hope of witnessing great miracles, some through a desire to 
be healed from corporal diseases, and all through religious motives. The holy 
Bishop himself went to the traditional place of sepulture. He brought with 
him a spade or mattock, and began to open the earth. Under St. Burchard's 
auspices, a search was instituted by numbers of willing labourerers who 
were present, for the recovery of those dead bodies. They were at length 
found, and in a shallow grave. The martyrs' flesh was reduced to dust. 
However, their bones, and those sacred articles buried with them, were dis- 
covered, in a good state of preservation. What seemed most wonderful was 
a fragrant odour that became diffused around ; and the people assembled in 
ecstatic delight sought to touch the sacred relics, or bear them in some way, 
while they were being removed from their place of deposition. With great 
delight, and as if by unanimous acclaim, they all cried out: "Glory be to 
God on high, and on earth peace be to men of good will." 

Illustrious miracles were wrought on the occurrence of this elevation, as 
likewise, on many subsequent occasions. As it seems, at this time a basilica 
dedicated to the holy Mother of God stood in Wurtzburg, and it was on a 
very elevated site. Thither, on a day appointed for the purpose, with a great 
concourse of the clergy and people, the bishop removed their sacred relics, 
and with great religious ceremony. St. Burchard and the clergy kept vigil 
over the martyrs, and he resolved on that site to erect his chief monastery. 
However, he had a revelation, that owing to the steepness and difficulty of 
the ascent to that mount, the structure which he began with wood must be 
abandoned. The removal of their relics was only temporary, notwithstanding 
this care ; for, St. Burchard immediately set to work, and he commenced the 
building of a new cathedral. This afterwards was called Novum Monas- 
terium, or the New Monastery. This church had been placed under the 
special invocation of St. Kilian, St. Colman and St. Totnan. It was built of 
stone and elegantly fashioned. To it, the bodies of the saints were brought, 
an elaborate sarcophagus having been prepared, to receive their remains. 

*° He presided in the chair of St. Peter, * 2 According to the First Acts of St. 

from a.d. 741 to 752. See Sir Harris Kilian and his companions. 

Nicolas' " Chronology of History," p. 21 1. 43 This account is taken from Egilward's 

41 Known as Pepin le Bref, who on the "Vita S. Burchardi," lib. ii., cap. ii. 

death of his father, Charles Martel, a.d. 741, * 4 Now known as Die Neuminster Kirche. 

succeeded to the kingdoms of Neustria and It fronts on one of the principal streets of 

Burgundy, afterwards extending his sway Wurtzburg, and it is surrounded on every 

over Franconia in 752. His death took side by houses, over which however appear 

place, a.d. 768. See M. Le Dr. Hoefer's the facade and dome or cupola, with a sort 

"Nouvelle Biographie Generate, " tome of tower crowned by a Byzantine-style of 

xxxix., cols. 541 to 544. minaret. It is very faithfully presented in 



[July 8. 

That church «♦ is said to have been erected over the very spot, where the 
relics of those holy Martyrs had been so long entombed. The people of 
Wurtzburgh believe, also, that this was the exact site, on which the castle of 
Duke Gosbert formerly stood. The tomb of the Martyrs — very artistically 
designed and of antique workmanship — is surrounded by strong and wrought 
iron railings of very handsome workmanship. It is to be seen, in the crypt 
of what is interiorly a most beautiful church, and numbers of the faithful 
daily assemble to pray before this tomb.* 5 There, in former times, many 
miracles are said to have been wrought ; nor have we any doubt, that the 

Die Neuminster Kirche, Wurtzburg, containing the Martyrs' Tomb. 

aithful clients of those saints, at the present] day, receive various spiritual 
and temporal benefits through their intercesson. The city * 6 and citizens of 
Wurtzburg, who are almost exclusively Catholics, are under the special pro- 
tection of their Patron Martyrs. 

the accompanying illustration copied from 
a photograph procured on the spot. A 
drawing of it by William F. Wakeman on 
the wood has been engraved by Mrs. Mil- 

«sOn the 23rd of September, 1886, the 
writer had the same privilege and an oppor- 
tunity for inspecting this and other fine 
churches in Wurtzburg, during the course of 
a trip from Frankfort-on-the Maine to Ratis- 
bon and Vienna. 

46 It contains a Catholic University and 
thirty-three Catholic churches, including the 
cathedral, with several other fine religious 
houses and institutes. 

4 ? On a stone slab, the following verses 
were inscribed : — 

" Annis sexcentis octogenisque nove- 
Istic Kyllenam scimus fontis prope 

Et Colonatum, necnon Tothnanque 

Ob Salvatorem proprium fudisse 

Hinc fuit, est, et erit salus illi, qui 

pie quaerit, 
Est caecus, mutus, claudus, sordusque 

Septingentesimo quinquagesimoque 

A Bonifacio, Burkardo consociato, 
Hi sunt sublati, rite quoque canoni- 

zati : 
Hos pete devote, qui sint oramine 

pro te. 
Septingentesimo nonagesimo quoque 

Burkardus moritur, corpusque suum 

Juxta sanctorum tumulum, ceu scribi- 

tur, horum, 
Per Megengaudum successorem re- 


July 8.] LIVES 01 THE IRISH SAINTS. 137 

An epitaph, in memory of these martyrs, was placed over the sepulchral 
crypt, to the west side of the church, but several years after their death.*? 
However, it does not appear to have conveyed to us the exact date for St. 
Burchard's elevation of the remains ; nor is it correct to have stated, that he 
procured the canonization of those Martyrs. It is even doubtful, if St. Bur- 
chard lived to a.d. 752, although some writers have it, that he died on the 
9th of February, in that particular year/ 8 Some of the Benedictine writers *9 
suppose St. Kilian to have belonged to their order ; but, this is altogether 
an unwarrantable supposition. In the vestibule of the chapter of Neuminster 
was to be seen a Latin inscription^ in verse. This is in the upper part of 
the building, and on the northern side of the crypt. The authorship of the 
inscription has been contested, some writers attributing it to St. Burchard,* 1 
while it is more correctly supposed to have been written, in comparatively 
recent times. It is interesting to notice, that in Wurtzburg the figures of 
those saints have been thus represented : St. Kilian in an episcopal dress ; 
St. Colman in a priest's habit, and St. Totnan in that of a deacon. It may 
be observed, likewise, that on an old seal, dating back to a.d. 1119, St. 
Kilian is figured in an episcopal habit, having a curiously shaped old mitre 
on his head, with a dalmatic and pallium over his soutane, bearing an Irish 
fashioned staff in his right hand, and an open book in his left. Another seal 
of a.d. 1 135 presents him seated on a throne, with staff and book, but with 
habiliments somewhat dissimilar from the former figure. 52 On the coins of 
Wurtzburg, he is represented as holding a sword and a crozier ;S3 also, as 
holding a cross, with a sword beneath his feet ; 5 * also, as holding a dagger 
and sword ; 5 * also, as martyred by sword and spear ;5 6 as likewise, holding 
two swords. 5 7 The holy martyr is sometimes * 8 — but incorrectly — called 

48 See Rev. Alban Butler's " Lives of of Brittany," book xxiii., chap, xxv., p. 
the Fathers, Martyrs, and other principal 613. 

Saints," vol. x., October xiv. 59 This city was only erected into a Bishop- 

49 Among these is Trithemius, and even ric, fifty-three years after his death ; how- 
Mabillon, although expressing it with a ever, St. Kilian is the principal patron, as 
doubt. likewise a recognised Apostle, for the pro- 

50 It ran as follows : — vince of Franconia. 

60 See Bishop Challoner's " Brittannia 

"Hi sunt, Herbipolis, qui te docuere Sancta,"part ii., p. 25. 

magistri, 6l See "The Popular Encyclopedia; or 

Qua verum colores religione Deum. Conversations Lexicon, "vol. vii., Art. Wurtz- 

Impia quos tandem jussit Geilana ne- burg, p. 128. 

cari, 6a The spacious episcopal palace is not far 

Celavitque sub hunc corpora caesa from the cathedral, in which are to be seen 

locum. several fine monuments of the deceased 

Ne turpi, sine laude, situ defossa jace- bishops of Wurtzburg. 

rent 63 There is a notice of this Festival, at the 

Corpora, Burkardus sub monu- same date, in the Third Volume of this 

menta locat." work, Art. vi. 

64 The interior presents an uncommonly 

51 Such as Henricus Pantaleon and Arnold striking appearance, it being decorated with 
Wion. fresco paintings, rich and in the most gar- 
s'' See the Bollandists' "Acta Sancto- geous colouring. Along the grand nave and 

rum," tomus ii., Julii viii., Commentarius mounted high on corbels are numbers of 

Praevius, sect, vi., p. 611. beautiful statues. 

53 See Very Rev. F. C. Husenbeth's 6s The accompanying illustration of the 
"Emblems of Saints," Third edition. cathedral front at Wurtzburg taken from a 
Edited by Augustus J essopp, D.D., p. 125. photograph procured there has been drawn 

54 In Bilder Legende. by William F. Wakeman on the wood, en- 

55 In Die Attribute der Heiligen. graved by Mrs. Millard. 

s 6 In Der Heyligen Leben. M See "Thesaurus Reliquiarum Electora- 

-i Lambrecht. lis Brunsvico-Launeburgicus." Hanoverise, 

58 See Dean Cressy's "Church History 1713- 



[July 8. 

Bishop of Wurtzburg ;59 by some writers, however, it is thought probable, he 
had been consecrated as Bishop before he left Ireland. 60 

A magnificent cathedral 
— the building of which is 
said to have taken place in 
1042 ; 61 and which now 
fronts on one of the chief 
streets in Wurtzburg — has 
two imposing flanking 
towers on the facade, and 
they are crowned with 
tapering spires to lanthron 
finials, which are again 
surmounted with crosses. 62 
Over the entrance door of 
fine design are two grand 
rose-windows with a triplet 
circularly-headed window 
in a compartment between 
them. On building this 
new cathedral, a shrine 
was prepared within its 
walls, for the reception of 
the holy martyrs' remains, 
and to this they were 
transferred on the 25th of 
March. 6 3 The year when 
this Translation took place 
has not been discovered. 
Under the tabernacle of 
the high altar within 6 « are 
preserved the heads of St. 
Kilian, St. Colman and 
St. Totnan, in magnificent 
silver shrines. 6 * A portion of the martyrs' relics were said to remain, encased 
in a rich shrine, and in possession of the Elector of Brunswick-Lunenburg. 66 
Among the elegant Epigrammatic Latin Poems 6 ? of Father Bonaventure 
Baron, there is one on St. Kilian, the Irish Martyr ; and, it pithily describes 
the occasion of his death, with the reverence paid to his memory. 68 

Throughout Germany, but especially in Franconia, extraordinary venera- 
tion has been entertained and manifested in regard to the revered Martyrs, 
Kilian, Colman and Totnan. But, as we may naturally suppose, Wurtzburg 
claims to concentrate most that cultus, which its good Catholic people pay to 
their Irish patrons. An ancient illuminated copy in Irish handwriting, of the 

Fa9ade of Cathedral Wurtzburg. 

6 ? See " Opuscula Prosa et Metro," Ar- 
gumento etiam Varia, tomus I. The dedi- 
cation of this work is dated by Frater Bona- 
venture Baron, at Herbipolis, 6. Nones of 
May, 1666, and the first folio volume was 
published there in 1668. The second folio 
volume appeared at Lyons, in 1669. 

68 Thus run these lines : — 

" Pellis idola adytis, Christum Kyliane 
reponis : 

Nee pateris nisi quum faemina pul- 

sa thoro est. 
Vivis Apostolicos Kyliane superstes 

Baptista pariter funere functus obis." 

— Lib. ii., n. 20, p. 26. 

69 Among the Manuscripts preserved at 
Wurtzburg, it is intituled, Codex Evangelio- 
rum quo usus est S. Kilianus. 

79 See an admirable article ** Irish Art in 


Epistles of St. Paul, and of the Latin Gospels belonging to St. Kilian, 6 ^ is 
yet preserved in Wurtzburg.7° It lias been described, by M. Wattenbach, an 
eminent German antiquary. It is traditionally believed by the people, that it 
had been stained with the martyrs' blood. Before the irreligious innovations 
of Luther and his brother reformers in Germany, in nearly all the imperial 
cities there, churches and chapels had been dedicated to those martyrs. Besides 
Wurtzburg, in Windsheim the principal church^ 1 built a.d. 1190, was dedi- 
cated to St. Kilian, In Hailbrun, in the country of the Suevi, there was also 
a church, and in it are memorial representations of the saint. In Halle, there 
was a church, dedicated to him, with memorials. In the town of Huxar, and 
near the monastery of Corbei, before the year 1000, a church had been built 
and dedicated to St. Kilian; while, it is related, at a.d. 1088, that oblations 
were made to its altar, by certain pious patrons.7 2 Likewise, at Vienna, 
the capital city of Austria, there is annually a solemn celebration of the 
Feast of the holy Patrons of Franconia.73 The church of Lambach,74 a town in 
Upper Austria, had for its special Patrons, Saints Kilian, Colman and Tot- 
nan, and there 75 the people had great devotion for their memory. 

Having related the foregoing Elevations and Translations of those holy 
Martyrs' relics, it is difficult to find what honours were paid to them in Wurtz- 
burgh, before the close of the fifteenth and beginning oi the sixteenth century. 
Yet, in a Missal, which is printed in Teutonic or Gothic characters, we have 
a Mass in honour of St. Kilian, both on the vigil and on the day for his chief 
Feast. We have also an Office^ 6 which had been recited in Lambach, with 
an Octave.77 Its divisions have been noted by the Bollandists, and certain 
extracts from it are reproduced ; but, various passages prove, that some inter- 
polations of Egilward's Acts have been admitted to its Lessons. We learn,? 8 
that in the early part of the last century, very special veneration was given to 
St. Kilian, and to his companion Martyrs, in the city of Wurtzburg. On the 
eve of their chief Festival, 8th of July, it was the custom there, to sound the 
great cathedral bell for the Ave Maria at noon, when all the bells in the city 
and its suburbs gave forth a sonorous and continuous peal, to assemble the 
clergy and people for the First Vespers of the chief Feast. 79 Having finished with 
Complin, an hour's interval was allowed, when Matins and Lauds were recited 
in the collegiate church of the New Monastery for the following Festival Day. 
The senior Dean of the cathedral church presided on the occasion. The 
Prince Bishop of the city and all his canons were present to chaunt First 
Vespers in the cathedral. This celebration was continued all the remaining 
days of the Octave; while the Abbot of St. Benedict's Order with his monks, 
secular clergy of the collegiate churches in the city, and all the parish priests 

Bavaria," by Miss Stokes, in " The Journal are here to be seen. 

of the Royal Historical and Archaeological 7<5 It is intituled: "viir. Julii. In Festo 

Association of Ireland," vol. i., part ii. SS. Kyliani et Sociorum Martyrum, Patro- 

Fourth series, January, 187 1, pp. 352 to norum Ecclesise Lambacensis." 

359. 77 it extends to nearly three entire folios in 

71 Over its high altar, this saint's passion 4to, or to 24 pages. 

was delineated. ? 8 The account in the text Father Soller 

7 2 This is stated, by Christian Francis had from the learned, most reverend and 
Paulinus, in his Chronicle of Huxar, pub- illustrious John Bernard, Bishop of Chryso- 
lished at Frankford, a.d. 1698, fol. 6, 7. politanus, suffragan of Wurtzburg. 

73 This is stated, by Galenius, in his Ca- 79 It is remarkable, that without the choir, 
lendar, on this day; and, it may be found, at this time, and for the ensuing three days, 
from the Offices celebrated at Osnaburg M in- the right of asylum in the city was pro- 
den, and other places. claimed by the public herald, for all who had 

74 See an account of it in the "Gazetteer left it, charged with a public crime, and who 
of the world," vol. viii., p. 634. feared prosecution or punishment for their 

75 A noble Benedictine Abbey and Church delinquencies. 


in the vicinity, assisted. They generally came in procession, and bearing 
the reliquaries of saints kept in their respective churches. Early on the 
morning of July 8th, the Little Hours of Prime and Tierce were publicly 
recited in the cathedral. Afterwards, the canons of the cathedral assisted at 
a First Solemn Mass. This ended, from seven to eight o'clock, the Assistant 
Bishop of the diocese usually preached on a subject appropriate for the 
occasion. Afterwards, at eight o'clock, the Prince Bishop and the clergy in 
solemn procession went from the cathedral to the place where the tombs of 
the martyrs were, in the collegiate church of the New Monastery. Thence 
they returned to the great cathedral, where the heads of the Martyrs, placed 
in their respective silver statues, were exposed on the high altar. Then the 
Prince Bishop commenced the celebration of a Second High Mass. In the 
evening, Second Vespers of the Feast were sung, the Bishop Assistant or the 
Cathedral Dean usually presiding. Then the clergy of the various city and 
adjoining churches returned to them, and bearing back their respective relics 
in solemn procession. During the whole octave, and while the relics of 
Saints Kilian, Colman and Totnan were exposed on the Cathedral Altar, a 
Pontifical Mass was celebrated each morning, by a Bishop, or by an Abbot, 
of the diocese. On the day of the Octave itself, a grand procession, at which 
all the cathedral canons were present, went around the city. A singular cus- 
tom was observed on the occasion of these processions, that the regular 
soldiers and citizens — sometimes to the number of six thousand — lined the 
route, and presented arms in honour of their saintly Patrons. Again, during 
that whole Octave, the most solemn cultus was observed in the secular collegi- 
ate church 8o of St. John the Evangelist, where the tombs of the martyrs lay. 
Also, in the seminary of St. Kilian, and in the church of the celebrated Hos- 
pital of Julianus, special veneration was paid to the holy Martyrs, whose relics 
were there exposed. Until the political changes of the present century took 
place, doubtless these magnificent celebrations took place ; but, even yet, in 
the Catholic city of Wurtzburg, the Festival of its holy Martyrs and Patrons 
is held, with appropriate religious rites and ceremonies. 

In Ireland, the memory of those holy Martyrs has been preserved in 
churches, chapels, and religious institutes, which have been erected in their 
honour, and which have been specially dedicated to them. On an elevated 
and a beautiful situation at Greystones, county of Wicklow, in the diocese of 
Dublin, the foundation stone of a chapel dedicated to St. Kilian was laid, on 
the 14th of October, 1866, by the Very Rev. Monsignor Walter Lee, P.P., of 
Bray. 81 It was designed in the early English style of Gothic architecture, 
and it measured 72 feet by 22. However, the growing population and 
requirements of that fashionable watering place necessitated the enlargement 
of the primitive erection ; and accordingly, on Sunday, August 1st, 1886, His 
Grace the Most Rev. William J. Walsh, Archbishop of Dublin, visited Grey- 
stones, where, with the impressive ceremonies of the church, 82 he laid the 
foundation stone of transepts, extending east and west, with a choir in addi- 
tion, and designed by P. F. Comber, C.E., of Bray. These have greatly 
enlarged the building, now exceeding considerably over 100 feet in length. 

80 Known in Latin Records as "Novum be deferred, until it became absolutely ne- 

Monasterium." cessary to proceed with the building, owing 

8 ' The site, half an acre of land, had been to a clause in the lease, which limited the 

granted by Mr.Thomas Phelan — a gentleman time to within ten years, 

then about to emigrate to America — on a 82 The proceedings are reported, at some 

lease for 500 years, at a nominal annual rent length, in the Freeman 's Journal of August 

of is., if demanded. For want of funds, the 2nd, 1886. 

erection of ajsuccursal, church there had to 83 A handsome statue of St. Kilian, 


Besides the Ven. and Very Rev. Monsignor Dean Lee, 8 3 and several priests, a 
large assemblage of parishioners and strangers was present. The whole build- 
ing, in its present completed form, presents an exceedingly commodious and a 
handsome succursal church. It seems the clergy and people of Mullagh 
parish held a tradition, that the holy Apostle of Franconia, the Martyr St. 
Kilian,had been born there, and accordingly it had been resolved to honour his 
memory. Wherefore, considering him to be their patron, on Thursday, June 
25th, 1857, the foundation stone of a new Catholic church, dedicated to St. 
Kilian, and to be erected in the mediaeval style of Gothic architecture, was 
blessed. The stone was laid, in the presence of several of the clergy, belong- 
ing to the surrounding parishes, and of a large concourse of the respectable 
parishioners. The Very Rev. Matthew McQuaid, P.P. and V.F., delegated 
by the Right Rev. Dr. Browne, Bishop of the diocese, officiated on the occa- 
sion. 8 * This church was afterwards completed, in an excellent architectural 
style, and it was opened in honour of Franconia's and Ireland's illustrious 
Apostolic Bishop and Martyr. The Catholic church in the beautiful vale of 
Clara, near Glendalough, county ofWicklow, was authorized to be dedicated 
to SS. Patrick and Kilian. 85 Its situation is in a secluded spot, beside the 
rushing Avonmore River, a few miles above where it unites with the Avonbeg, 
at the celebrated " Meeting of the Waters/' In the United States of 
America, we find churches and schools dedicated to St. Kilian, at Fond du 
Lac County, at Hartford, Washington County, and at Hudson, Walworth 
County, State of Wisconsin, in the Archdiocese of Milwaukee ; as also, in the 
Diocese of Green Bay, and at New Franklin, Brown County. 

From an early period, the Martyrologies and Calendars have recorded the 
Feast of those holy Martyrs. Thus, in the Hieronymian copy of Usuard, belong- 
ing to Lucca, there is an insertion ; 86 as also, in an old Martyrology, belonging 
to St. Martin, at Treves. 8 ? The Martyrologists, Wandalbert, 88 Raban, 8 9 and 
Ado, or his interpolator, placed it, on the 8th of the Ides of July ; while the 
principal festival of those Martyrs has been assigned to this date, the pre- 
sumed anniversary of their Martyrdom. Notkerhas rather lengthened notices 
of those saints, and evidently drawn from ancient Acts, closely corresponding 
with those referred to, in the earlier paragraphs of the present biography. 
Trithemius, Ghinnius, Bucelin, Maurolycus, Felicius, Galesinius, Dorgan, and 
Menard, have a record of their Festival, and of the saints' names, more or less 

wrought by Herr Arnold Fussenging, an emi- 89 He writes : " In pago Austrioe, et castro, 

nent Bavarian artist, and now mounted over the nomine Wirziburg, juxta Moiii fluvium, 

high altar of the church, was a personal gift sanctorum natale Chiliani martyris et duo- 

of the Dean, to whom the credit of erecting rum sociorum ejus, qui ab Hibernia Scoto- 

the whole of this handsome church is due. rum insula venientes, nomen Christi in prse- 

84 The foregoing account has been taken dictis locis pnedicaverum ibique ob veritatis 
from a contemporaneous newspaper, the confessionem, a quodam judice iniquo, no- 
Catholic Telegraph of July 18th, 1857. It had mine Gosberto, trucidati sunt, etposteamul- 
been sent by a local correspondent. tis signis veri Christi Martyres esse clarue- 

85 By His Eminence Paul Cardinal Cullen, runt." 

on November 14th, 1864, at request of Very 9 ° Thus : " Herbipoli in Germania sancti 

Rev. Richard Galvin, P.P., Rathdrum. Chiliani Episcopi, qui a Romano Pontifice 

8 ° " In Austria, passio S. Kiliani." The ad praedicandum Evangelium missus, cum 

Bollandist Soller deems this to have been an multis ad Christum perduxisset, una cum 

addition to the original. sociis Colomano Presbytero et Totnano Dia- 

* 7 Thus entered : " In Vuirceburg, quae et cono trucidatus est." — " Maityrologium 

Ermipolis nuncupatur, Kyliani episcopi et Romanum Gregorii XIII.," &c, p. 98. 

martyris." Editio novissima, Romae, 1878, fol. 

88 He states : 9I Thus, in Bishop Forbes' " Kalendars of 

Scottish Saints:'' " S. Kiliane bishop of h*er- 

" Octavo ante Idus Cilianum Procopi- bipolis Scotismon vnder heraclius. 630." 

umque." Seep. 157. 


exactly rendered. The Roman Martyrology has a succinct and an accurate 
entry regarding them, and likewise at this date. 9° In nearly ail the more 
recent Acts, Martyrologies and Calendars of Saints, in like manner are to be 
found placed the names of Saints Kilian, Colman and Totnan. In the Scot- 
tish Kalendars, St. Kilian and his companions are entered, at the 8th of 
July, viz. : in Adam King's Kalendar^ 1 and in Dempster's Menologium 
Scoticum.9 2 Also, their feast is set down in R. Chambers' " Book of Days."93 
In reference — evidently to these Martyrs — there is a curious entry 94 placed 
in the Martyrology of Tallagh,^ at this day, the 8th of July, in honour 
of St. Celian, a Scottish Martyr, with his holy brethren, Aedh and Tadg, with 
Anurma, wife to the King of the Goths. We are informed, that they were 
massacred by the prefect of the Royal Palace, and in the Hippodrome of the 
king's residence. On Convceus' List of Irish Saints, St. Chilianus, St. Colo- 
natus or Colomanus, and Totnanus, Martyrs, are set down at the 8th of 
July.9 6 Father Henry Fitz-simon has also Totnanus, at this same date, and 
as he states, by universal assent. 97 Father Stephen White 9 8 commemorates 
these three holy companions, Kilianus, Colonatus and Totnanus, martyrs, 
at the present date. The martyrdom of these three saints is noted in Vene- 
rable Bede's Martyrology,99 according to the statement of Father Stephen 
White. 100 For this introduction, the Roman Martyrology is quoted. At the 
8th of July, veneration was given to Kilianus, Colmanus et Colonatus, 
Totnanus, Diaconus, according to the Martyrology of Donegal. 101 There is 
a Cillian, son of Dodhnan, adds the calendarist, at the 23rd of October. Then 
he says : " inde error ;" 102 but the writer of this note probably only intended 
it for a memorandum, to guide himself or his readers to a better intelligence, 
regarding the present Kilian or the Cillian, son of Dodnan, entered by him at 
the 23rd of October. At the same date, in the Martyrology of Donegal, 103 we 
find the names of Cele-clerech, Bishop, Aedh, and Tadhg. 10 * These three 
suffered Martyrdom, in Uairseburg, 10 s in Almania. 

91 Thus : "In Franconia Kiliani, Totnani, Martyris et sociorum (Colonati et Totnani) 

Colmani et Ervvaldi monachorum, gentis ejus, qui de Ibernia Scotorum insula, 

Apostolorum, qui a Geilana martyris affici venientes, nomen Christi in prasdictis locis 

jussi, M." — Ibid., p. 205. praedicaverunt, ibique ob confessionem veri- 

93 See vol. ii., July 8, col. 555. tatis sub quodam judice Dosberto trucidati 

94 It runs thus: " S. Celiani Scotti sunt, et multis postea signis veri Christi 
martyris cum Sanctis fratribus Aedh ocus martyres esse claruerunt." 

Tadg ocus Amarma conjuge Regis Gotho- I0 ° See "Apologia pro Hibernia," cap. iii., 

rum truncati a prepositodomus regiaein ippo- pp. 22, 23. 

dromia Palatii regis." These words are MI Edited by Drs. Todd and Reeves, pp. 

from a gloss to Marianus O'Gorman's 190, 191. 

Martyrology. I02 A note by Dr. Todd says at Inde error: 

95 Edited by Rev. Dr. Kelly, p. xxviii. u It is not very clear what the error was to 

96 Thus: " S. Chilianus Epis. Hiperbo- which our author here alludes. He probably 
lensis genere et martyris nobilissimus. meant the error in the name. He does not, 
Wiziburgi. 8 Julii." " S. Colonatus, seu however, quote the Mart. Rom. correctly; 
Colomanus, et Totnanus martyres et socii perhaps for " Colmanus et Colonatus," we 
beati Chiliani Albiniaci. 8 Julii." See ibid., should read Colmanus vel Colonatus." 

cap. x., p. 48. 103 Edited by Drs. Todd and Reeves, pp. 

97 See O'Sullevan Beare's " Historic 190, 191. 

Catholicae Iberniae Compendium," tomus i., I04 There can be no doubt, that the 

lib. iv., cap. xii., pp. 55, 57. Chilianus of the Roman Martyrology, and 

98 This writer remarks : "en tibi novos his fellow martyrs — notwithstanding the 
tres martyres, Gyralde." See "Apologia variation in the names — are the same as 
pro Hibernia," cap. ii., p. 15, cap. iii., Cele-clerech, Aedh, and Tadg. 

p. 23. io s A note by Dr. Todd says at Uairse- 

99 In these terms : " Octavo idus Julii in burg : "i.e., Wirtzburg in Franconia." The 
pago Austria et Castro nomine Wurtzbourg, more recent hand adds here in Roman letters, 
juxta Maenum fluvium, natale S. Kiliani u Vide aliter apud. M. Taml." 


With regard to the great Apostles of Gentile nations, we may safely assert, 
that the person, who imparts Christian knowledge to those who have it not, 
is like one who gives sight to a blind man. He is a true enlightener of men. 
Although, indeed, the words of a preacher may contain little that is very 
striking or remarkable, and although intellectually, the holy man may be below 
mediocrity ; yet, the true preacher knows how to teach old and young, the 
doctrines and precepts of Jesus, with a startling and an awakening freshness, 
which present them as with a voice of power, thrilled and inspired by an 
eloquence from on high. When this is felt by his hearers to be earnest, and 
when it is known his own life is one of self-sacrifice, the mustard seed soon 
begins to take root and to grow into a large tree. The labours and zeal of 
those Apostles of Franconia, as on this day celebrated, flourished and faded, 
for a brief time ; but, their blood sealed and watered that soil, where they 
preached words of efficacy. In after time, the withered plant revived, and it 
became that seed, which gave many Christians to the Church. 





ALTHOUGH not wholly reliable in all statements, the most valuable and 
authentic account of Pagan Germany 1 we possess is that furnished by 
the celebrated Roman historian, Caius Cornelius Tacitus. 2 We are, however, 
more concerned with the subsequent state and condition of that most impor- 
tant country, which extended from the Rhine to the Vistula, and from the 
Danube to the German Ocean and the Baltic Sea.3 According to Rhineland 
tradition, the first teacher of Christianity, Crescens or Clemens, came with the 
twenty-second Roman Legion, which had been with Titus in Palestine. 
Afterwards, it was quartered at Mainz, about a.d. 78. In Mainz, he began 
to announce the truths of the Gospel. A teacher, named Eucharius, in Trier 
or Treves, also aided his efforts, to preach and propagate the Christian Reli- 
gion throughout that wild tract of country, lying between the Main, the 
Rhine, the Moselle, and the Saar. In the year from the foundation of Rome 
651, or before the birth of Christ, 102, Marius delivered Rome from the 

Article 11.— Chapter 1. — l See A. R. consuls. 

Carson's edition " C. Cornelii Taciti Opera : 3 Some ancient writers give it even a larger 

ad Fidem optimorum Exemplarium." De extent. See Rev. Fathers Catrou and 

Situ, Moribus et Populis Germaniae, pp. Rouille's "Roman History; with Notes 

415 to 430. Edinburgi, 1826, 8vo. Historical. Geographical and Critical," done 

3 He was born about the year 810, after into English from the original French, vol. 

the building of Rome, or the year 57, after vi., book lxii., sect, xxx., n. 105, p. 90. 

the birth of Christ. He wrote this Treatise, * See Jules Zeller's " Hisioire d'Alle- 

a.d. 98, M. Cocceius Nerva, Aug. iv., and magne," tome i., liv. i., chap, ii,, sect, ii., 

M. Ulpius Trajanus Caesar II. being then pp. 53 to 62. 



[July 8. 

incursions of the Cimbri and Teutones— who were Germans — for the first 
time ;* afterwards, Caesar made some attempts to restrain them from invad- 
ing Gaul ;5 Drusus, Tiberius and Varus conducted various Roman expeditions 
against them, and with varying success or reverse f Germanicus in the year 
of Christ, a. d. 13, made a final attempt to subdue Germany, but notwith- 
standing his valour and military skill, he did not succeed in re-establishing 
the Roman dominion there.? Although divisions prevailed among the German 
nations contending for supremacy, and although the Romans took care to 
foment and avail of those dissensions ; yet, were they unable to effect more 
than an occasional and a precarious supremacy. Galba succeeded, however, 
in causing the Catti to abandon that district of Germany between the Lahn, 
the Maine and the Rhine, and it was distributed among the Roman veterans, 
during the time of the Emperor Caligula. 8 There, likewise, Christianity 
began to spread ;9 although the vast extent of Germany north and east was 
not subject to Roman dominion. It seems pretty well established, that long 
before Constantine made Christianity a state religion, it obtained a firm foot- 
hold IO within that particular territory." A very interesting glimpse depicting 
graphically the state of that district, about 371, when the Idyll " Mosella w " 
was written, has been left us by the poet Ausonius.^ In it, we have a descrip- 
tion of his journey from Mainz to the sources of the Moselle. 14 He crossed 
the Nahe at Bingen, 1 * and he passed by the military road over the Huns- 
rucken to Neumagen, 16 on the Moselle, below Treves, and at the frontiers of 
the Belgse. 1 ? Long before the age of Disibod and his companions, however, 
the Nahegau, and even the wooded country between the Nahe and the 

5 See his work " Commentariorum de 
Bello Gallico," lib. i., cap. xxxi. to liv. 

6 See Carlo Denina's " Rivoluzioni della 
Germania," tomo primo libro i., capo ii., 
pp. 12 to 21. Fizenze, 1804, 8vo. 

7 See " Histoire des Allemands, traduite 
de l'Allemand de Schmidt, par J. C. de la 
Veaux, Profcsseur Royal a Berlin, tome i., 
liv. L, chap, vi., pp. 66 to 93. A Liege, 
1784, et seq. 8vo. 

8 These various incidents of early German 
history are very lucidly set forth, in Jules 
Zeller's " Histoire d'Allemagne," tome i., 
liv. ii., chap, iv., pp. 129 to 183. 

9 We do not know exactly, what amount 
of actual facts underlines the rhetorical 
statements of St. Justin Martyn, of St. 
Irenaeus, and of Tertullian, when they tell 
us, that in the second century of our era, the 
Christian religion had not only spread 
throughout the Roman Empire, but among 
the tribes and peoples beyond, and expressly 
among the Germans. 

10 There Roman remains have from time 
to time been found, in considerable quanti- 
ties. Numerous graves were in and near 
Kreuznach, in which coins and human re- 
mains have been found. There are no traces 
proving the pagan custom of cremation upon 
any of the latter. They were uniformly east 
and west in position, which also marks 
Christian burial from the earliest times. 

" Herr Heep has some interesting obser- 
vations regarding the castra stativa, at this 
northern end of the Ilunsrucken, and in the 

villa rustics around. 

12 See "Corpus Poetarum Latinorum," 
Ausonii Burdigalensis Idyllia, x., pp. 1091 
to 1095. 

13 He was a native of Bourdeaux in France, 
and he lived from about the year 320 to 

14 The following are the opening lines : — 

" Transieram celerem nebuloso flumine 
Addita miratus veteri nova moenia 

^Equavit Latias ubi quondam Gallia 

C annas, 
Infietseque jacent inopes super arva 
,s The former name of Bingen was Vin- 
cum. It is easily recognised, by its situation 
on the Naua or Nahe. There is a common 
readingof Vicum for Vincum, but theltenera- 
rium Antonini gives the name as Vincum. 
The modern name could hardly come from 
Vicum or Vicus. 

16 Noiomagum, where Constantine estab- 
lished an enormous military settlement, is 
easily recognised as Neumagen on the 

1 The two points at the beginning and end 
of the poet's journey being fixed, the old 
Roman road from Bingen to Treves over the 
Hunsrucken, appears to have been that direc- 
tion in which the writer pursued his solitary 
way. Trackless forests spread on either side 
of the route. 


Moselle — the Hunsrucken district — bad become Christianized. Mainz and 
Treves l8 were the chief cities, from which Christianity flowed out over the 
surrounding districts. The scene of Constantine's vision of the cross, T 9 was 
at Mainz, 20 in a.d. 311, when he set out with his legions against Maxentius. 
The best proof of the extent to which Christianity had spread, during that 
period, is found in the fact, that from political as well as from religious mo- 
tives, Constantine found it convenient to recognise its influences. 21 Never- 
theless, the Christianity of that district seems to have relapsed into heathen- 
ism, in the age of Disibod. This fact could be easily accounted for, owing to 
the irruptions of the wild hordes of Alemanni, 22 at first, and afterwards of the 
Franks, 2 3 who overturned the Roman power in Gaul, by their great victory 
obtained at Soissons, in the year 486. 2 + Under the Romans, colonies of bar- 
barian captives had been settled on the Hunsrucken, by Constantine II., 
about a.d. 360, owing to the wily statecraft of that people, 2 * who desired 
those slaves of their Empire to become interested in holding other conquered 
lands than their own. and who expected, in the case of outbreak by their bar- 
barian neighbours, that the chief victims should be those who had yielded to 
them in war as enemies, and in whose fate the heartless conquerors felt little 
direct interest. Perhaps the tenacity, with which the colonists clung to their 
ancient practices in those districts, which became afterwards the scene of 
missionary labours for Disibod and for his companions, owed something to 
the fact, that the population of those wild-wooded tracts had not benefited by 
the examples of heroism and self-devotion manifested by the early martyrs and 
pastors, whose doctrines began to spread through the better organized and more 
civilized provinces of the Roman Empire. The leader of the Franks, King Clovis 
orChlodoveus certainly did not — in the wilder settlements of his tribe — bring 
about an entire abandonment of their old paganism, after his conversion to 
Christianity. So late as the end of the eighth century, we find here in the 
forests, and under the great oaks, a rustic worship of the old gods, and main- 
tained by the Frankish settlers, within the episcopal diocese of Worms and 

From some earlier accounts, as seems most probable, St. Raban Maur 2(S 
and Marianus Scotus 2 ? — or rather his interpolator Abbot Dodechinus 28 — have 

18 With these stations, the Nahegau and 23 These poured across the Rhine, when 
even the Hunsrucken stood connected by they harried and wasted the country, and 
military roads, which remain to this day. finally settled in the modern provinces of 

19 This is described in his own Epistle to Alsace and Lorraine. See Edward Gibbon's 
Eusebius. " History of the Decline and Fall of the Ro- 

20 This is the oldest Christian See in Ger- man Empire," vol. iv., chap, xxxviii., p. 
many. 349. Rev. Dr. William Smith's edition. 

21 The various convulsions to which Ger- "* The Franks defeated the Alemanni, A.D. 
many had been subjected from the third to 496, in the decisive battle of Tolbiacum, or 
the fifth century are set forth in Jules Albiacum. This is held to be Tulpich, on the 
Zeiller's " Histoire d'Allemagne," tome i., Lower Rhine ; or, if we read Albiacum, then 
liv. ii., chap, v., pp. 184 to 264. Albich, near Alzir, in the neighbourhood of 

22 The Alemanni for a time were dominant Kreuznach. 

people, until their superiority was disputed. 2S The Emperor Julian reproached Con- 

" La Germania Mendionale e Mediterranea stantine with having been the fiist to elevate 

era tuttaviadaTuringi, da Sassoni, dagli Ale- the Barbarians to offices of importance in 

manni posseduta. Questi ultnni occupavano civil and military affairs. See " Histoire 

la maggior parte della Svevia, perche gli des Alemands," traduke de l'Allemand de 

Alemanni erano per la piu parte di quelli Schmidt, par J. C. de la Veaux, Professeur 

Svevi che abitavannoanticamente nella Ger- Royal a Berlin, tome i., liv. i., chap, viii., 

mania Settentrionale tra l'Elba e 1 Oder." — p. 125. 

" Rivoluzioni della Germania," di Carlo 26 His Life has been treated of already, in 

Denina, tomo primo, libro ii., capo ii., the Second Volume of this work, at Feb- 

p. 95. ruary 4th — the date for his festival. Abou . 




taken their notices of the holy man Dysibod. The Life of this saint was written, 
according to the direction of Abbot Helinger, 2 ^ by St. Hildegardis, 30 in the year 
1 1 70. This distinguished woman received her education, at Disibodenberg, 
from the Abbess Jutta. 31 St. Hildegarde was subsequently the last Abbess 
over that convent. 32 She tells us, in the beginning of her biography, that 
she had revelations or some sort of internal monitions to undertake this 
work. 33 However, it seems probable, that earlier Lives of St. Dysibod were 
then in circulation, and which were but amplified in particular passages, 3 * with the 
pious reflections of St. Hildegarde. It is very certain, that the narrative is in- 
volved and intricate, nor can we depend much on its general historical accuracy. 
The present saint's virtues and labours are commemorated by Molanus, 
Canisius,and Arnoldus. 3 * The Abbot John of Trittenheim 3<5 has an account of 
St. Disibodus ; as also the Abbot Dodechinus, who was Abbot of Dissenburg, 
and John Wilson, 3 ? commemorate him. The Acts of this holy missionary and 
bishop have been included in the collections of Lippeloo, 38 of Surius, 3 ? of the 
Bollandists,4° and of the Benedictines.* 1 Father John Mabillon has an 
account of St. Disibodus, in his " Annales Ordinis S. Benedicti." 42 He is 

his Martyrology, more has been stated in the 
First Volume. Introduction. 

27 In G. Waitz's edition of Mariani Scotti 
" Chronicon," there is no entry regarding 
our saint, as may be noticed by referring 
to the " Monumental Germania Historica," 
tomus v. 

38 This Codex version, of what professes 
to be the Chronicle of Marianus, has been so 
filled with local historic incidents, that it 
might better deserve the title " Annales S. 
Dysibodi."— Ibid., pp. 483, 484. 

2 9 He was the fifth Abbot over the Abbey, 
built on Disibodenberg Mount. 

30 For nearly one hundred years, after 
1005, a cloister for nuns of noble families 
existed at Disibodenberg, as well as the 
cloisters for the monks. And 

" Die Nonnen sangen ; O Christe du 
bariitigam suss und traut ! 
Die Monche seufz'ten : Maria, O 
Komm, du susse Braut I" 

31 The Abbess Jutta of Disibodenberg — 
one of the old Sponheim race — went through 
the Glan with dry feet, and she turned water 
into wine, according to the Legend of her 

32 Having found the community of goods 
between monks and nuns there not quite to 
her severer taste, she insisted on a separa- 
tion. With the help of the Counts of .spon- 
heim and others, after great resistance on the 
part of the abbot and monks, she accom- 
plished her object, and founded a new reli- 
gious Parthenon for herself andhernuns, about 
1 1 50, on the Rubertsberg, and on the left 
bank of the Nahe near Kreuznach. The only 
male inmate of their house, in that place, 
was the holy Rupert, a saint who was buried 
there many hundred years before, in the 
times of King Pippin. The abbess Hilde- 
garde has been renowned for extraordinary 

sanctity and austerity, while her revelations 
have made her celebrated, not alone during 
her own age, but through all succeeding cen- 
turies. Her feast is celebrated on the 17th 
of September. 

33 See the Bollandists' " Acta Sanctorum," 
tomus ii., Julii viii. De S. Disibodo Episc, 
et Confess, in Dysenberg, Territorii Mogun- 
tini, in Germania. Vita auctore S. Hilde- 
garde moniali. Ex M. S. Maximini Trevi- 
rensis, in Four chapters and Fifty-four para- 
graphs, pp. 588 to 597. A previous Com- 
mentary in Three sections and Thirty-three 
paragraphs, by the Editor, Father John 
Baptist Soller, precedes, and notes are 

34 Such is the opinion of Mabillon, when 
treating on this subject, in the "Acta Sanc- 
torum Ordinis S. Benedicti." 

35 See Father Stephen White's "Apologia 
pro Hibernia," cap. iv., pp. 26, 44. 

36 In his "Chronicon llirsaugiensis," ad 
annum Christi 1108. Likewise, in his work 
" De Viris Illustribus Ordinis S. Benedicti, 
lib. iii., cap. eclviii. 

37 In his " Martyrologium Anglicanum," 
at Julii viii. 

The "Vita Sanctorum." The Third 
Volume contains Acts of St. Disibod, Bishop, 
at July the 8th. See pp. 113 to 119. 

39 See Vita St. Disibodi, Confessoris, in 
Gcrmannia, in thirty-seven paragraphs of 
Surius, tomus iv. of "Acta Sanctorum, " pp. 
141 to 148, at Julii viii. 

40 See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus ii., 
Julii viii., pp. 581 to 599. 

41 In the Appendix to the Fourth Volume 
of the "Acta Sanctorum Ordinis S. Bene- 
dicti," sax iii., pars ii., A.D. 700 to A.D. 800, 
is written the Life of St. Disibod, Confessor, 
in 8 paragraphs, pp. 496 to 498. 

4i Sec tomus i., lib. xvi., num. xliv., pp. 
522, 523. 
43 In his work " Annalibus Trevirensibus, 


noticed, likewise, by Christopher Brower.43 The Bollandists 44 had obtained 
Acts of St. Dysibod, which were taken from a vellum Passional, belonging to 
the monastery of Bodensee, but to which they attached very slight importance, 
as the accounts contained in them appeared to have been very unskilfully 
compiled from other Acts of saints, and to have been mainly taken up with a 
puerile Legend of King Dagobert's hunting and of his bestowing a munificent 
endowment for the monastery of Dysibod, as also with an account of miracles 
which had been wrought through his intercession after the time of St. Hilde- 
garde. It is supposed, that these legends had been collected probably in 
the thirteenth or fourteenth century. There is an unreliable account in 
Dempster 45 of this holy missionary. It was Colgan's intention to have 
written his Acts at this date/ 6 Adrien Baillet 4 ? has some notices regarding 
him, as Abbot of Disenburg. Among the more modern Irish writers, in 
Walter Harris' Ware, 48 as also in the works of the Rev. Dr. Lanigan w and 
of John D'Alton, 50 there are notices of St. Dysibod. A brief account of St. 
Disen or Disibode is to be found in Les Petits Bollandistes' 51 collection. 

As a great portion of St. Hildegarde's Acts of this holy man are diffusely 
rhetorical and traditional, we shall confine ourselves to an abbreviated state- 
ment of the few facts they present, with some notices of him from other sources. 
St. Disibod, or Disen, is said to have been descended from a noble Hiber- 
nian family, although his parents were not possessed of a superfluity of this 
world's riches. They were oppressed by the hostility of a certain powerful and 
tyrannic chief, who was dominant in their part of the country, and who had re- 
duced them and others as well, to a state of depression and dependence. Disi- 
bod was still a boy, at this time, and from the very earliest age he was distin- 
guished for many virtues. Although some of the Scottish writers claim him as a 
compatriot,* 2 he was born in Ireland, and as seems most probable, 53 some time 
after the year 620. It would appear, that his dispositions were all of a pious 
tendency ; that he was pure of mind, and prudent for his age ; avoiding evil 
and doing good, to the very utmost of his ability. No wonder, that his parents 
were unwilling to surrender him as a hostage to that tyrant, whose caprices 
were of a passionate and an ill-natured bent. Wherefore, they watched an oppor- 
tunity and fled with him to a more remote part of the country, where a river 
flowed into the sea. 54 At this place, there was a town and an institute of 
religious men, who conducted a school. These taught various liberal sciences, 
and Disibod was placed under their care. His learning and intellectual 
abilities were only surpassed by his proficiency in the graces of the Holy 
Ghost, which gave great comfort to his parents, during their forced expulsion 
from their former home. Disibod had a most retentive memory, and as day 
by day he grew in stature and in mental resources, he applied also to the 
practice of good works, to prayer and to alms-giving, daily becoming more 
perfect in the knowledge and observance of God's law. He was resolved to 
devote himself entirely to the Divine service. Accordingly, step by step, he 
received the various minor charges of the ministry. At thirty years of age, 
he was promoted to priest's orders. He then resolved, more sedulously, 
if possible, to cultivate the Lord's vineyard. It so happened, in that part of 

ad annum Christi 639. Mensium et Dierum." 

44 See "Acta Sanctorum," tomusii., Julii v See "Les Vies des Saints," tome Hi., 

viii. De S. Disibodo Episc. et Confess., &c. pp. 67 to 69. 

Commentarius Preevius, sect, ii., num. 15, p. 48 See vol. i., " Archbishops of Dublin," 

584, and pp. 597 to 599. p. 304. 

4 > See " Historia Ecclesiastica Gentis Sco- « See "Ecclesiastical History of Ire- 

torum," tomus i., lib. iv., num. ccclxxiii. land," vol. hi., chap, xviii., sect, ix., pp. 114, 

46 As may be seen from "Catalogus Ac- 115. 

tuum Sanctorum quae MS. habentur, ordine s° See "Memoirs of the Archbishops of 



[July 8. 

the country, one of the bishops belonging to the place had been called away 
from this life ; and according to the custom prevailing, all the people assem- 
bled to chose his successor. The holiness of Disibod, and his suitability for 
that exalted office, were thoroughly well known. Accordingly, he was 
unanimously elected. Through humility, he at first refused, but those, whose 
prudent opinions he respected, urged him to comply with what seemed to be 
the will of Divine Providence. He was soon afterwards elevated to the 
dignity of Bishop, although he accepted this position with extreme reluctance. 
However, he collected around him some persons of great judgment and 
piety, by whose advice he desired to be chiefly guided. They gave him the 
greater courage to discharge the duties of his trust faithfully, and while loyal 
to their spiritual superior, they afforded him great consolation, in some trials 
and difficulties to which he had been subjected. Notwithstanding, his greatest 
refuge was in distrust of himself, and in prayer to God, whereby his deficien- 
cies might be supplied. We are told, that the See over which he presided 
was that of Dublin ;ss and some writers, who have treated regarding the suc- 
cession of Prelates in that See, make him succeed St. Wiro, s6 another sup- 
posed bishop in that See. He is said to have resigned it, and to have 
left for Belgium, where he died at Rurimond, on the 8th of May, a.d. 650. 57 

This, however, not 
alone admits of 
doubt,s 8 but, it is 
altogether improba- 
ble, as Dublin had 
not become a city, 59 
nor had it been 
erected into an ec- 
clesiastical centre of 
government, at that 
early period. 60 It 
may be, that Dysi- 
bod was a bishop in 
some other part of 
Ireland, 01 and that, 
as the fame of Dublin 
— the chief city of 
our Island— reached 
the Continent before 
the time when his 
Acts had been writ- 
ten, it was assumed, 
he must have pre- 
sided over its See, at 
a more remote time. 
He bore the episco- 
pal dignity and bur- 
den, it is said, for ten 
years. During this 
time, by his preach- 
ing and zeal, he con- 
verted many sinners from the error of their ways. While many of his subjects 
were averse to wholesome discipline, others are said to have been pagan, 

Street View in the City of Dublin. 

Dublin," pp. 20, 21. 
i' See "Vies des Saints," tome viii., 

viii e Jour de Juillet, p. 164. 

s 2 See Dempster's " Historia Ecclesiastic 


while a schism arose, and many opposed the teaching to be found in the Old 
and New Testaments. 62 Even some are stated to have joined the Jewish 
sect. 6 * Difficulties seem to have beset him, in his administration of diocesan 
affairs ; and, for a long time, he steadily opposed the evils, which threatened 
him, while bearing with fortitude and patience those various calumnies and 
injuries that fell so thickly upon him. Even his personal safety seems to have 
been affected, and a conspiracy of his enemies helped to gather a band of 
rioters, who desired to depose him. Owing to the opposition of these turbu- 
lent characters among his flock, he was obliged at length to resign his bishop- 
ric. Disibod collected a few religious men to whom he revealed his purpose, 
which was, to leave his native country, family and friends, for the sake of 
Christ, whose vineyard he could not successfully continue to cultivate there, 
and to find in a foreign land, some field of labour, which might be productive 
of better results. It is thought to be probable, that Disibod exercised his 
episcopal functions, until the year 674/4 when he is supposed to have resigned 
the government of his See. Some writers assign an earlier date for his migration 
to the Continent. 63 Before parting from Ireland, an angel is said to have 
appeared in a dream, and told him, that he must wander thence, to kindle in 
dark places the light of the Gospel, and that he must not rest anywhere, until 
one day when he shall have come into a country, where his staff should stick 
in the earth, and afterwards become a green sapling. At the same time, 
Dysibod learned, how he should see a white hind, scratching a spring in the 
ground, and two rivers meeting, at that place. In consequence of those 
troubles, already alluded to, he left his native country, resolving never more 
to return. Taking the pilgrim's staff — like so many holy Irishmen of that 
period — and resolving to seek another sphere of duty, with cheerful mind he 
prayed " Lead kindly light," 66 and he trusted to God's protection and guid- 
ance for the future situation, where his work in life might procure him an 
eternal reward. 6 ? 

Gentis Scotorum," tomus i., lib. iv., num. 6 ° See D'Alton's "Memoirs of the Arch- 

ccclxxiii,p. 205. New edition. Edinburgh bishops of Dublin, "p. 21. 

1829. 6l In a safe manner, Mabillon states: 

53 This must only be calculated, on the very ** Disibodus in Hibernia natus, ibidem epis- 

uncertain data to be extracted from his Acts. copus fuisse dicitur." — " Annales Ordinis S. 

** This indefinite way of stating it leaves Benedicti," tomus i., lib. xvi., num. xliv., 

us ignorant of the exact place to which he is p. 522. 

said to have gone. 6a Father Thomas O'Sheerin suggests the 

5S John Wilson, in his "Martyrologiam possibility of Pelagianism having spread in 

Anglicanum," at the 8th of July, speaks Ireland, at this time. 

of him as Bishop of Dublin : " Ordina- 63 It is quite evident, that nearly all these 

tus est Dubliniensis in eodem regno Epis- statements are from the pure workings of 

copus." imagination, on the part of the writer of our 

56 See an account of him on the 8th of saint's Acts. 

May— the date for his festival — in the Fifth 6 * See the additions to Marianus Scotus' 

Volume of this work, Art. i. " Chronicon." Ad annum 674 et 675. 

57 See Harris' Ware, vol. i., "Archbishops 6s In Les Petits Bollandistes' "Vies des 
of Dublin," p. 304. Saints," it is set down at about A.D. 652. 

58 While he adopts this assertion on Wil- See tome viii., viii e Jour de Juillet, p. 164. 
son's credit, Harris states it as unsupported 66 The sentiment conveyed in a beautiful 
from any authorities cited by that writer. See Hymn, written by His Eminence John Henry 
ibid. Cardinal Newman, in his "Poems," many of 

. 59 The accompanying illustration presents which are so replete with true devotional 

a view of Dublin from Grafton-street. On feeling. 

the right is a portion of Trinity College and 6 ? See the Bollandists' "Acta Sanctorum," 

nearly opposite on the left, the front of the tomus ii., Julii viii. De S. Disibodo Epis. 

former Houses of Parliament. Drawn from et Confess., &c. Vita Auctore S. Hilde- 

a photograph, by William F. Wakeman on garde moniali, ex Ms. S. Maximinise Trevi- 

the wood, engraved by Mrs. Millard. rensis, cap. i. , pp. 588 to 590. 



[July 8. 



Moved by the spirit of God, St. Disibod was accompanied by three pious and 
learned men, named Giswaldus x or Gillilaldus, Salust, and Clement, who 
travelled with him from Ireland. Their first course was probably directed 
to England, although St. Disibod's Acts are silent regarding the special 
places visited by them. However, it is stated, that Disibod, and those who 
had accompanied him from Ireland, kept moving about and preaching from 
one place to another, for ten years, 2 before finding the site for his permanent 
abode. The journey of those strangers was chiefly through France and Ger- 
many, so far as we can interpret the order of narrative. It is likely, in after 
time, they had reached the course of the Lower Rhine, and had travelled 
along its left banks, through that highly romantic and precipitous duct 
through which it flows, from the present city of Bonn, to Coblentz, and on to 
liingen,3 where it is joined by the Nahe and its tributaries. The holy 
missionary's exemplary life and actions caused even the rude inhabitants of 
those countries, through which St. Disibod travelled, to entertain a great 
veneration for him. His earnest, zealous and persuasive eloquence seemed 
to be directed only for the attainment of one end, to win over his fellow-crea- 
tures from the error of their ways. He preached the Gospel without cessation, 
everywhere producing a harvest of souls, by the exercise of his apostolic 
labours, yet oftentimes finding those persons, whom he exhorted in vain. 
He had a profound distrust in his own unaided exertions; and therefore, he 
frequently prayed the Almighty to assist and guide him. 

Dysibod was at last consoled by a vision, which he had one night, having 
been assured by the Almighty, that his trials should cease, and that he should 
soon find a place of rest, to reward him for his toils and anxieties in God's 
service. It is by no means certain, that our saint lived so very shortly after 
the death of St. Benedict/ as has been stated by the Abbess St. Hildegarde,s 
or that he desired to establish a house of that order, wherever he purposed to 
rest. When he wished to gather around him a religious community, it seems 
most probable, he intended only to follow the monastic models and rules, 
which prevailed in Ireland during his time. After the interval already calcu- 
lated, as being spent in preaching and journeying on his mission, St. Disibod 

Chapter 11. — * So is he styled, by Ma- 
billon, in his " Annales Ordinis S. Bene- 
dict, " tomus i., lib. xvi., num. xliv., p. 

2 See John D'Alton's "Memoirs of the 
Archbishops of Dublin," p. 20. 

3 A finely coloured Map, Le Rhin de May- 
ence a Coblenz, pi. vi., in Klisee Rectus' 
"Nouvelle Geographie Universale," tome 
iii., presents the physical features of this re- 
gion which are beautifully shown. See chap, 
iii., sect, iii., p. 550. 

« This happened A.D. 543. 
5 Of St. Benedict she remarks : " qui nuper- 
rime migraverat." 

6 " Unde iter ingrediens nemorosa per 

avia solum, 
Et nulla humani spectans vestigia 

Praetereo arentem sitientibus undi- 

que terris 
Dumnissum, riguasque perenni fonte 

Arvaque Sauromatum, nuper metata 

colonis : 
Et tandem primis Belgarum conspi- 

cor oris 
Nivomagum, divi castra inclyta Con- 

— Ausonius' "Idylia," x. Mosella, 11. 5— II. 


entered the Lower Palatinate of Germany. He appears to have travelled 
through that picturesque region so happily described by the Poet Ausonius. 6 
It is said, that he and his companions wandered without the sacred sign, till 
one day, travelling through this distant part of Gallia, its future patron reached 
the Nahethal. No doubt, similar reports of that heathenism and paganism, 
existing in the wild woods and solitudes of northern Germany, which attracted 
St. Goar 1 and others from Aquitaine, had penetrated to Ireland, then the 
Island of Saints and of missionaries. A desire for spreading the Gospel 
among those people, inspired Disibod and his zealous companions, to under- 
take the labours of their mission. 8 Through the mountains of the Hunds- 
ruck region^ and beyond those of the Hoch Wald 10 and Idar Wald, they 
passed. At length, they penetrated to the valley of the Nahe. 

That district lying round the villages of Sohren, Niedersoren, and Sohr- 
schied, 11 on the right and left of the old Roman road, were the fields I2 of 
ancient colonists, known as the Saurometes. In these wild mountain and 
forest districts, along the river Nahe, and where it flows into the Rhine, it is 
pretty clear, that in the sixth century the scanty population must have 
relapsed into entire paganism. Early as Christianity had been planted in 
those regions, it was not from Mainz or Treves, however, that efforts were 
now made to reclaim those rude populations to Christianity. The missiona- 
ries had come from a remote Island in the Western Ocean, and these too 
were the pioneers of civilization. In the interior of that country, at the present 
time, every valley that descends towards the Rhine near Bingen is domi- 
nated by high donjons and walls, and there too begin those magnificent 
and vine-clad heights, on either bank of that noble river. x 3 TheGlan and the 
Nahe were the rivers beside whose commingling waters, as had been foretold, 
the wanderers were to find their future home. "This is my place of rest," 
cried out Dysibod to his companions, when they had arrived there. 1 * A high 
and wood-crowned hill of difficult access presented itself, and the position 
was one of extreme beauty, in the eyes of those stranger pilgrims ; nor can 
their taste and judgment be questioned on this point, by tourists who visit it 
at the present day. 

A strong probability exists, that St. Disibod had been created a "Regionary 
Bishop, J 5 without a fixed See ; and, we may suppose, that such elevation was 
a consequence of his indefatigable missionary efforts. However this may be, 
near the confluence of the Nahe and the Glan, according to the legend, his 
staff stuck fast, and behold it burgeoned and unfolded into leafage. This was 
the sign he had so long desired. A white hind was grazing near, under whose 
feet a clear spring was welling forth. The holy man stood and worshipped 

? The town of St. Goar, on the Rhine, I0 The German word Wald — applied to 

still preserves in remembrance the missionary many local denominations — has the significa- 

zeal of its patron, St. Goar. He came from tion of " forest." 

Aquitaine to convert the pagans of the " The syllable sohr has no German or 

Rhineland. He died there, a.d. 575. Teutonic root. 

8 In this description and in other accounts " Called " arva Sauromatum." 

which precede and follow, we have utilized I3 See Elisee Reclus' " Nouvelle Geogra- 

a very interesting series of articles intituled, phie Universelle," tome iii., chap, iii., sect. 

" Letters from Kreuznach," which have been iii., pp. 547 to 555. 

published in The Glasgow Herald. See No. I4 This spot is situated about two miles 

vi., Thursday, September 2nd, 1875. from Kreutznac, and one from Sponheim. 

9 It stretches between the Rhine, the See Mabillon's " Annales Ordinis S. Bene- 
Moselle and the Nahe, running chieflynorth dicti," tomus i., lib. xvi., sect, xliv., p. 523. 
and south. With the Vosges Mountains it IS See Les Petits Bollandistes, " Vies des 
is connected through the Hoch Wald chain. Saints," tome viii., viii e Jour de Juillet, p. 
See "Gazetteer of the World," vol. vii., 164. 

p. 166. l6 The Life by St. Hildegarde thus de- 


like Jacob, leaning on the top of his staff, admiring, as if by some forewarn- 
ing instinct, the beauty of that scene. He prayed, likewise, that other souls 
might delight in frequenting it, and that a faithful people might serve God 
there. Not disobedient to the heavenly vision, Disibod and his companions 
built themselves huts at the foot of that hill. 16 His own habitation faced the 
east, while the cells of his compnnions were severally somewhat removed from 
it. 1 ' For a considerable time, they lived on herbs and roots, not having any 
oth er kind of food. Sometimes, when hunters or fishers entered this wood, for 
the purpose of enjoying the excitement of their respective pursuits, and when 
woodsmen came there to gather wood, or for other reasons, they found Dysi- 
bod engaged in digging for his daily sustenance or employed in collecting 
what was necessary for his support. Soon the rumour spread abroad, that a 
holy man and his companions, no doubt divinely inspired, had come to settle 
in that wild place. The people respecting their motives began to furnish 
them with means for living among them, in return for which kindness, the 
missionaries studied and learned their language, that so they might better in- 
struct those to whom they announced the words of eternal life. The poor 
and needy were encouraged to approach the hermits' cells, where they were 
fed with what food those pious men could spare, while they were taught to 
labour for that food which is not perishable. The examples of the Eastern 
solitaries, such as Anthony aud Macharius, was a model on which Dysibod 
and his companion fashioned their lives. Lest the ancient serpent might pre- 
vail against them, they practised great mortification, and many austerities, 
that they might bring their flesh into complete subjection under the spirit. In 
return for his self-sacrificing mode of living, St. Dysibod was gifted with the 
power of working miracles. Many who were sick and infirm he healed ; but 
especially, through a sincere humility, he avoided as much as possible the 
praise and admiration of men. 

The original populations of that district, in which Disibod laboured as a 
missionary, were probably the Sauromatian colony and their descendants ; 
while the Frankish conquests added only thinly scattered settlements, here 
and there, throughout the Wald. The fame of St. Disibod's sanctity could 
hardly fail to spread abroad, and accordingly, as if by a spontaneous move- 
ment, several people collected and built an oratory for him, on the eastern 
side of that mountain where he dwelt, and it was intended for his accommo- 
dation, so that he might celebrate the Divine mysteries there, and engage in 
his offices of prayer and sacrifice. This was contrived, likewise, to prevent 
an easy access, which might bring pilgrims in greater crowds to him, and 
thus interrupt his daily round of spiritual exercises. Although he led a soli- 
tary life l8 in that place, yet was he accessible, not only to the brothers of 
his community, but even to strangers, who came to him for advice or instruc- 
tion. Before his death, the holy man saw a chapel erected on the eastern 
brow of that hill. In like manner, a village or collection of huts — the nucleus 
of the later Studenheim — was built on a plain at its western foot, when the 
thorns and brambles had been removed. Gardens and small paddocks were 
there enclosed, to serve for his purposes and temporal wants. He erected a 
monastery *9 accordingly, and he collected about him many monks, belong- 

scribes it: " Mons autem ille in circuital, ries. 

cum adjacentibus sibi silvis, locis quoque ,8 In Harris' Ware, it is stated he lived there 

perviis et inviis (non unius hominis sed com- " an Eremetick Life," vol. i., " Archbishops 

provincialium, tam minorum quam majorum) of Dublin," p. 304. 

plusquam milliare unum eo tempore erat." ' 9 While some writers have the erection of 

17 This description is quite in keeping, this monastery at A. n. 674, others place it at 

with the plan of the primitive Irish monaste- a much earlier date. 


ing, it has been said, to the Order of St. Benedict. However, this latter 
statement does not appear to be correct ; for, it is much more probable, that 
St. Dysibod and his companions lived under an Irish form of rule, which in 
times long subsequent was supplanted there by that of St. Benedict. 10 Soon 
his congregation began to increase, and he endeavoured to govern it in a 
manner, which might serve to repulse the approach of sin among them. He 
warned the monks, to put on the whole armour of Christ ; to be chaste, 
humble, disinterested and persevering in virtue. He cautioned thern against 
the spirit of worldliness, which was to be overcome, by strict adhesion to 
their rules of discipline. The number of his monks was fifty, in the earlier 
period of his foundation; but before twelve years had passed over, that 
number was largely increased. He was always careful to prove well the merits 
of those, who sought admission to his institute. Having been elected Abbot 
by the religious who followed him there, he applied to the faithful discharge 
of those responsible duties devolving on him. Many came from distant 
places to visit St. Dysibod, and these always recommended themselves to his 
prayers and patronage. They declared, also, that as the Almighty had sent 
such a great servant to dwell among them, so was it their duty to make a pil- 
grimage to his solitude, and to honour him in every possible way. The holy 
missioner received from one of the territorial proprietors, near the confluence 
of the Rivers Glan and Nahe, as a provision for future support, and as a 
means to procure temporal necessaries, the gift of a large tract of a high 
wooded mountain. 21 Both the chiefs and people of that district resolved the 
saint and his successors should remain among them. The entire hill and its 
appurtenances were given to the monks, who dwelt there. This was regarded 
as their patrimony, because of the many wonders the Almighty had wrought 
through their instrumentality. As if with one voice, the donors cried out : 
4< Praises be to thee O Lord God, who hath deigned to send this saint among 
us !" While Dysibod gratefully received this gift, he also dreaded, that it 
might prove an impediment to his spiritual well-doing. He fell on his 
knees and prayed, that this gift might be fruitful alone in bringing souls to 

The site of his monastery took the appropriate name of Mount Disibod, 
after the saint ; 22 and at present it is called Dysenberg or Disenberg. 2 3 Its 
later ruined monastery — also called Dissibodenberg — near Staudemheim, 2 * 
rises over the River Nahe. By the French, his place was designated Mont- 
Saint Disibode. 2 s A work, intituled "De Monachorum Profectuin Solitudine 
agentium," lib. i., 2<5 which was intended chiefly for the instruction of his dis- 
ciples, has been ascribed to him. Thomas Dempster, the Scotchman, tells 
us, 2 ? that he saw a fragment of this work. The Rev. Dr. Lanigan 28 seems to 
discredit this statement of Dempster, but he does not state on what grounds. 
Probably, however, it was owing to his natural distrust regarding the honesty 
and veracity of our national saint-stealer. 

Owing to the merits of this holy servant of God, many miracles and signs 

20 It is strange, that the acute and learned on the Continent," sect, viii., Route 100, p. 
Irish historian, Rev. Dr. Lanigan, should 511. 

have fallen into the error of his rule being 2 5 See Les Petits Bollandistes, " Vies des 

tliat of St. Benedict. See "Ecclesiastical Saints," tome viii., viii e Jour de Juillet, p. 

History of Ireland," vol. iii., chap, xviii., 164. 

sect, ix., p. 1 14. 26 See Harris' Ware, vol. i., u Archbishops 

21 See John D'Alton's " Memoirs of the of Dublin," p. 304. 

Archbishops of Dublin," p. 20. 2 7 See " Historia EcclesiasticaGentis Sco- 

22 See Arnold Wion's "Lignum Vitse," torum," tomus i., lib. iv., num. 373, p. 205. 
lib. ix., cap. 58. 2g See his "Ecclesiastical History of Ire- 

23 In Latin, called "Mons Sancti Disibodi." land," vol. iii., chap, xviii., sect, ix., n. 113, 

24 See Murray's " Handbook for Travellers p. 115. 


were wrought through him. Among these are specified his restoring to speech 
a man, whose tongue had been paralyzed, so that he had not the power of 
speaking, and this he intimated by signs to the saint. The latter prayed, and 
then, in imitation of our Divine Lord, he cried out : " In the name of Him who 
said to the mute man, effeta, and he began to speak, I order that thou depart 
from the tongue of this man, which thou hast bound with a chain of infirmity, 
and henceforth never prevent him from speaking," These words were 
addressed to the evil spirit. Immediately the man found words to return 
thanks to God and to his saint. In like manner was a dropsical person and a 
leper healed, although through humility St. Dysibod would wish to conceal 
his agency in those matters, and to refer all such supernatural benefits, not to 
his own merits, but to the omnipotence of God alone. The blind, the lame, 
the weak, as also those possessed by the devil, and persons who had been 
deprived of their senses, came to him from places far and near, and as the 
virtue of the Almighty had been exercised through him, they were healed 
from their several infirmities. 

He led a much stricter life, however, than even the rule demanded, which 
had been established for his monks. Although living in such close proximity 
to them, Disibod, it is said, never removed into their cloisters, nor assumed 
the habits of their order j but, he lived a life more austere and self-denying, 
than that required from his subjects. 2 ^ While spending his days as a hermit, 
he laboured zealously to urge upon them the practice of every good work, 
while he so comforted them, that they desired not to have any other master 
during his lifetime, so gentle and so inoffensive was his method of governing 
them. Although he had suggested to his monks the desirability of electing 
some other superior to fill his place, yet they would not entertain such a pro- 
posal. The fame of his holiness and of his happy disposition spread far and 
wide, so that many persons flocked to his place, even from distant provinces. 
The people of the villages around him were also delighted to act the part of 
good neighbours and of good Christians, while they lent willing and very 
material aid to forward all his enterprises. He thus lived a retired and peni- 
tential life for thirty years, at Dissenberg, watching and fasting, taking only 
the most frugal and coarse food, and using a plain rough garment. He 
imitated the retirement of Blessed Paul, the first hermit, preferring the soli- 
tude of the desert to the towns which are the haunts of men. We are told, 
that he celebrated the Divine office of the Altar, not after the manner of a 
bishop, but according to the custom of poor priests. Always was he cheerful 
in disposition, and his heart was never oppressed with sorrow, endeavouring 
in all ways to imitate the patience of Christ under affliction. 3° 



Having spent a long life in Disenberg, and preached much in the neighbour- 
hood of Mainz, 1 when his multiplied labours there and age had greatly wasted 

'9 Sttibid., sect, ix., p. 1 14. Moguntini, in Germania. Vita auctore S. 

s° See the Bollandists' "Acta Sancto- Hildegrade moniali, cap. ii., iii., pp. 590 to 

rum," tomus i., Julii viii. De S. Disibodo 593. 
Epis. et Confess, in Dysenberg, Territorii Chapter hi.— x See Rev. S. Baring- 


his strength, Dysibod predicted to his brethren that their state of existing pros- 
perity should not always continue, but that the devil, envying their happiness and 
remembering how much they had served to weaken his power, should labour 
to bring on them and on their successors future oppression and temporal 
calamities. However, he consoled them by saying : '* With sighs and sorrow 
of heart, I have hitherto earnestly endeavoured and desired, that I may not 
live to see your tribulation in this world, and I trust in God this shall happen. 
Yet, know you, that as my bodily strength is now failing fast, and as my death 
is near, after you shall have suffered oppression, in later times, better and 
more prosperous events shall take place, so that even your successors shall 
abound in possessions, far greater than those I leave you." When his 
brethren heard him speak thus, they were filled with sorrow, which found vent 
in tears, for they now knew, that his death must soon happen. Soon the 
rumour of his prophecy spread among the neighbouring people, who flocked 
to him as to their chief patron. They were desirous to receive his last 
instructions and blessing. He did not conceal from them the secret of his 
approaching end, but offered up his prayers for them. He then recom- 
mended to them the care of his monastery and the place ; he also gave his 
last admonition and blessing. None knew through what medium he pre- 
judged his near approach to death, except a few religious men to whom he 
revealed it ; some said, he had an angelic admonition, although he concealed 
a knowledge of it from men, lest his virtues should be too greatly extolled. 
All his visitors parted from him, with visible manifestations of grief, because 
they were to see him living for the last time. More owing to labour than to old 
age, sickness fell upon him. Then calling all his brethren together, he 
announced to them who was to be their future superior, and to him he com- 
mended the guardianship of the monks and their place. He was the same 
person, as had been formerly recommended for succession. Then with 
sorrowful voice and in tears, he besought them to lay his body within that 
oratory, where he had spent a solitary life for so many years, and he pointed 
out the exact spot where he wished to be interred. This they promised should 
be done, and in tears, all proclaimed his various good works and holy morals. 
They exclaimed : "Alas ! alas ! what shall become of us, when we lose you, 
the consoler and defender of our souls and bodies !" And, as the thirsting 
stag pants for the living waters, so did the monks desire he should remain 
much longer among them, for his presence was as a light for their eyes, and 
as a balm for their hearts. His illness still increasing, he called them together 
once more, and telling them, that the last hour had come, he calmly expired 
in their presence, in the eighty-first year of his age. Immediately, a delightful 
odour, as of myrrh and frankincense, filled that cell, while other miracles like- 
wise took,place. 

When he had attained that advanced age, he is said to have died, on the 
8th day of July, according to St. Hildegarde's account. This statement has 
been followed by many other writers. However, it is supposed, that this was 
only the feast for a Translation of St. Disibod's Relics, and not the true date 
for his death. 2 The foregoing statement of St. Hildegarde probably rests 
only on some inexact tradition, and as a matter of established certainty, it has 
been contested. 

Everywhere spread the news of his death throughout all that province, when 

Gould's. " Lives of the Saints," vol. vii., corps, ou de sa translation dont Ton faisoit 

July 8, p. 187. la fete du temps de saint Hildegarde." 

2 " II y a apparance que Juillel Baillet's "Vies des Saints," tome hi., 

etoit plutot le jour de l'elevation de son Sept. viii., sec. iii. 


multitudes flocked to assist at his funeral obsequies, and to witness the 
wonders which the Almighty wrought in honour of His faithful servant. For 
thirty days after St. Dysibod's decease a miraculous odour was diffused 
around his grave ; while many lame, blind and deaf persons, as also several 
demented and infirm, received healing by touching even the clay in which he 
was buried. The nun St. Hildegarde observes, that those miracles became 
less frequent ostensibly, because people trusted over much to experience 
them, without merits and good works of their own, while the Holy Spirit 
measures their accomplishment for a purpose different from the expectations 
of men, and even produces hidden miracles of grace in their souls, although 
signs and wonders may not be visible in great physical changes. She adds 
many other useful moral reflections, which, however, may be pretermitted, as 
they have no special bearing on personal details, regarding our saint's 

There are writers who aver, that St. Dysibod having come into Germany « a 
little while after the death of St. Benedicts must have lived there also towards 
the close of the sixth century. While some place his death, so early as about 
the year 580, there are others, who think it took place one hundred years 
later. 6 At the year 639, his departure is noticed by Christopher Brower j7 
other writers calculate it about a.d. 674 ; 8 while Adrien Baillet places it 
towards the year 700.9 The death of St. Disibod occurred, about the begin- 
ning of of the eighth century, according to Trithemius. 10 The exact year, 
however, is not known." 

Several of the ancient and classical Martyrologies pass over St. Disibod 
without notice, viz. : Bade, Florus, Ado, Usuard, and Notker, It seems 
more strange, that Wandelbert, who was a monk in the monastery of Prumiens, 
near Disenberg, should have been silent regarding a saint so well known and 
having so long established a reputation in. Germany. His chief festival is kept 
on this day, July the 8th. The date for his departure is supposed, however, 
to have have been the 8th of September. 12 At this latter day, it is set down 
in the Martyrology of the Blessed Raban Maur. J 3 By him, St. Dysibod is 
noticed, but not as a bishop. 1 * The 8th of July is assigned for his festival, 
and likewise the Abbess St. Hildegarde has it as the date for his death. This 
account is followed, by Wion, 1 * by Dorgan, 16 and by Bucelin. In the addi- 

3 See the Bollandists' " Acta Sanctorum," u See the dissertation on this subject, in the 

tomus ii., Julii viii. De S. Disibodo Epis. Bollandists' " Acta Sanctorum," tomus ii., 

et Confess, in Dysenberg, Territorii Mogun- Julii viii. De S. Disibodo Epis. et Con- 

tini, in Germania. Vita auctore S. Hilde- fessore,"&c. Commentarius Prsevius, sect, 

garde Moniali, cap. hi., num. 32 to 41, pp. ii., num. 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, pp. 584, 585 

593 to 595- I2 A further account of him will be found, 

* This has been stated by Menard in his at that date, 

work "De Oriyine et Incremento Ordinis ' 3 Thus : "Et in surburbanis Moguntia- 

S. Benedicti," p. 860. censis ecclesioe, Natale Sancti Disibothi Con- 

s This occurred a. n. 543. fessoris." He lived two or three centuries 

'See Father Stephen White's " Apologia after the time of our saint, 

pro Hibernia," cap v., p. 66. x4 "Neanmoins le bienhereuxRaban, Arch- 

1 In Annalibus Trevirensibus. veque deMayence,qui etoitde trios cents ans 

8 Supposing that St. Disibod came into plus pres du temps de notre Saint qu'elle, et 
Germany, during the reign of Clodovoeus II., sans doute mieux informe, l'a mis dans son 
who died A.D. 662, according to Labbe, or Martyrologe au VIII. de Septembre, sous le 
as some suppose, at an earlier period, Cointe titre de simple confesseur, sans lui donner 
is of opinion, that the date given in the text 
cannot be far from the true mark. 

9 See " Les Vies des Saints," tome ix., iii., Sept. viii., sect. iii. 

September viii., p. 142. Ed., Paris, 1701, *s Thus : "In Monte, S. Disibodi epis- 

8vo. copi, qui episcopatu relicto, Pater multorum 

~ See " De Viris Illustribus Ordinis S. factus est monachorum, in monasterio dice- 

la qualite d'eveque, comme font les mo- 
dernes." — Baillet's "Vies des Saints," tome 

Benedicti," lib. iii., cap. 288. cesis Moguntinse, comitatus Spanheimensis, 


tions to Usuard, 1 ? at the 8th of July, 18 his feast is set down. Trithemius has 
strangely entered the feast of St. Disibod, at the 8th of June. x 9 Several other 
Martyrologists appear to have followed him, such as Saussay, ao Menard, the 
English Martyrologist John Wilson, 21 Father Stephen White," and the 
Scotch Dempster. Menard also has his feast at the 8th of June 33 — evidently 
a mistake for 8th of July. Henry Fitzsimon enters his feast at the same date ; 
but, in the anonymous list, published by O'Sullevan Beare, we find the name 
of Disibodus, at the 7th of this month. 2 < At this date, likewise, is he entered 
by Camerarius. At the 8th of September, Baillet, in his u Les Vies des 
Saints, 2 * sets down St. Disibod or Disen. 

In certain mediaeval artistic remains, we have illustrations of popular vene- 
ration for many holy persons, nor has the present noble confessor been for- 
gotten in this mode for manifesting devotion towards him. A very interesting 
memorial of St. Disibod had been found by the Jesuit Father Alexander 
Wilthem, and he wrote an account of this to Father Papebrochin 1676. This 
consisted of four brass plates, which joined together formed a square frame. 
On these were various figures and inscriptions. Among the rest are repre- 
sented St. Disibod and his companions Gislialdus, Clemens and Sallust, 
chiefly serving to illustrate the life and acts of the former. It had enamelling 
introduced. This has been reproduced in a copperplate engraving, which has 
been published by the Bollandists, 26 with an accompanying account. There 
are illustrations of Disibod, likewise, in which he is represented, as wearing 
a very low mitre, with an archiepiscopal pallium, 2 7 in a copy 28 of that Life of 
the saint written by St. Hildegarde. 2 ^ 

Some years passed after the death of our saint, and according to his pre- 
diction during life, the calamities and rapine of war, fell upon those Rhenish 
provinces around Dysenburg. Knowing the hill upon which it had been 
built to be a strong and steep defensive position, the chiefs and people of 
that district fled thither and occupied it, much to the discomfort and against 
the remonstrances of the monks. This seems to have happened, when 
Charles Martel, after the death of Chilperic II. 30 invaded Germany, and 
passed over the Rhine, in 725, with a large army. The hill was then forti- 
fied and garrisoned by warriors, who hoped, through the natural strength of 
their cantonments there, as also through the protection of Blessed Dysibod, 

qui locus postea a suo nomine, Mons S. a6 See " Acta Sanctorum," tomus ii., Julii 

Disibodi dictus est, et miraculis clarus in viii. De S. Disibodo Episc. et Confess, in 

pace quievit." Dysenberg, Territorii Moguntini, in Ger- 

16 He has it " S. Disibodi episcopi Trans- mania. Commentarius Praevius, sect, iii., 
latio." pp. 586, 587. 

17 Edition of Lubec and Cologne. 27 It is remarked, by the Bollandist writer, 

18 Thus : "Ipso die, beati Disibodi, epis- that although he is believed to have come 
copi et confessoris." from Ireland in the seventh century, that 

19 Thus: "cujus festum agitur VIII. there were then no archbishops in our 
Junii." — " De Viris Illustribus Ordinis S. Island. 

Benedicti,"lib. iii., cap. 288. 28 This is assigned to the twelfth century, 

20 In " Martyroloyium Gallicanum." and the figures of this saint, repeated in six 

21 In his " Martyrologium Anglicanum." different places, are supposed to represent 

22 See " Apologia pro Hibernia," cap. iv., pretty accurately the episcopal habit of that 
p. 44. period. 

^ 2 3 Thus : " In Monte S. Disibodi, deposi- 2 * The Bollandists give a copperplate en- 

tio ejusdem Disibodi episcopi, qui relict© graving, representing St. Disibod, in three 

episcopatu, factus est monachorum Pater in different attitudes. In one, he is laid in an 

dicecesi Moguntina." ornamented coffin or tomb. See "Acta 

24 See " Historic Catholicae Ibernise Com- Sanctorum," tomus viii. Propylaeum Maii. 
pendium," tomusi., lib. iv., cap.xi., xii., pp. Conatus Chrono-Historicus ad Catalogum 
SO, 53. Pontificum, pars i., p. 209. 

25 See tome iii., Sept. viii., pp. 67 to 69. 3 ° This crent occurred a.d. 720. 


that they might be saved from the fury of a cruel tyrant. Not over scrupulous 
in his greed for spoil, Charles Martel plundered the monastery, and divided 
a good portion of its accumulated lands among some of his adherents. How- 
ever, it was not possible for the congregation of monks to remain there in 
the peaceful and unfettered practice of their religious services. It was 
resolved, with the advice of the chiefs and people, that, with the exception of 
a few perfect and self-sacrificing men, who should remain at the tomb of their 
holy Patron, the rest ought to divide themselves and seek places of residence 
in more distant places. It pleased God, that those evils of war did not endure 
for a long time, and the province was again freed from its former enemies and 
oppressors. Accordingly, the exiled monks were brought back, when all 
that had been built on the mountain was restored to them ; and, in addition, 
they obtained more ample endowments in land, than they had at first. Thus 
seemed literally to be fulfilled the prophecy pronounced by St. Dvsibod. To 
the wickedness and barbarous habits of men at this time is ascribed the 
decline of miracles at the saint's tomb. Only occasionally were these wonders 
wrought. Wherefore, the chief persons of that district, lay and ecclesiastic, 
took counsel together, and requested St. Boniface, then Bishop of Mayence, 
that a solemn Translation of St. Dysibod's relics should take place. His con- 
sent having been obtained, and a day being named for that ceremony, a great 
conflux of people came to meet St. Boniface, who solemnly officiated on the 
occasion. To prevent those precious relics from passing out of their hands, 
with those portions of their territory that were not consecrated directly to 
God, the monks approached the tomb and reverently lifted the bones of 
Disibod from their first resting place in the oratory, and then laid them in 
the Kloster Kerche, on the top of the hill, and looking westwardly. The 
lifting and re-interment took place in 754. These ceremonies were conducted 
with extraordinary ecclesiastical magnificence, in presence of St. Boniface^ 1 
all present singing Psalms and Hymns. The body was deposited in a suita- 
ble shrine. On this occasion, likewise, great miracles were wrought, and 
again the supernatural fragrance was experienced by all those who were pre- 
sent. Wherefore, the annual return of that day was regarded as one of great 
devotion throughout the whole province, and crowds of people visited the 
tomb of St. Dysibod, bringing with them oblations, while they engaged in 
prayer. The monks afterwards lived for many years in peace, preserving a 
great reverence for their patron and serving God. They were greatly loved 
by the people, and as a result, large presents and endowments were made to 
the monastery, so that the inmates were enriched with worldly goods and 

This state of affairs continued for a long lapse of years, but disturbances 
once more took place, in that part of the country. The chiefs and princes 
there began to hanker for some of the monastic lands, and began to question 
the monks' validity of title, while they represented to Charlemagne, then 
wielding supreme power, that oppressed as the nobility had been in bearing 
the brunt of war and the heavy charges thereon, they had neither money nor 
means to serve the kingdom nor to render themselves useful as his subjects. 
They insinuated, likewise, that as the monks should serve God and not the 
world, they had a superfluity of riches, which might better be distributed. 
Accurately divining their motives for this complaint, the politic and just king, 
with hardly dissembled sarcasm, replied, that what the faithful had span- 

s' He had been already appointed by Pope 3 2 This was Otho I., whose reign dates 
Zachary to the See of Mainz, as its first from A.D. 961. 
Archbishop, A. d. 751. 3 t This was Hatto II.— at first abbot of 


taneously given to those monks, in the shape of lands or other goods, he had 
no right to take from them. This pronouncement from so powerful a monarch 
was a reproof they well understood, and accordingly, if their covetous desires 
were not repressed, their action to give them effect altogether failed. 

The Norman Invasion followed, about 880. Then, Kreuznach and the 
palace of the Frankish kings, as also Mainz, Worms, Odernheim, and all the 
surrounding country, were taken and laid in ashes. About the year 900, 
still more ferocious hordes of Hungarians broke into the Empire. These laid 
waste Alsace, Neustria, and more particularly the Rheinland, with a horrid 
cruelty, the monkish chronicles can hardly find words to depict, in sufficiently 
lurid colours. 

After a long lapse of time, and under another German Emperor,3 2 descen- 
dants of the aforesaid chiefs, who had importuned Charlemagne, addressed 
their complaints to the sovereign, and asserted, that the monks of Disenberg 
possessed the lands and properties of their ancestors, and they knew not 
by what right. He lent a ready ear to their assertions, and appointed a 
commission of enquiry. Understanding what should please the Emperor and 
the chiefs, the commissioners soon managed to obtain much false and con- 
cocted testimony ; while, as might be expected, their interests and prejudices 
urged them to frame a report, which pronounced, that the monks held lands 
without Imperial charter or concession. It is stated, that the Bishop of 
Maintz33 was an accomplice in this proceeding. Accordingly, the courtier 
judges unjustly deciding, and the imperial decree having gone forth, the 
monks of Disenburg were deprived of their lands and finely cultivated farms. 34 
Borne down with the weight of this cruel and wicked persecution, as also 
having their possessions ravaged through the devastation caused by the past 
and impending wars, while bemoaning their destitute condition, the plundered 
monks were obliged to leave their beloved monastery and to wander else- 
where as exiles. To prevent them from ever returning, the aforesaid unjust 
invaders of their rights levelled their habitations to the ground, excepting 
only the consecrated church in which the bones of St. Dysibod had been laid 
after their Translation. Notwithstanding, lest that place should be left without 
the Divine offices celebrated, one priest was appointed to look after that church 
and the spiritual interest of those people attending it. Out of its former 
ample revenues, even he was not awarded a decent allowance for his support. 
Thus, for a long time, the place seemed abandoned to desolation. This 
wretched provision for religious services continued, until a certain noble and 
rich Count of that province and named Liuthard, seeing that steep and 
charming mountain abandoned as it had been, conceived a desire to do 
honour to its holy Patron, by making a provision for three priests to reside 
there. 35 Afterwards, in the year 976,36 a certain Bishop of Maintz, named 
Willigisus,37 pious, humble and contrite of heart, having made a pilgrimage 
to the tomb of St. Dysibod, began to restore the place to something like its 
former splendour. He resolved to give back some of those farms, which formerly 
belonged to the monastery, and which he then held in possession. He had 

Fulda— who did not long continue Bishop, 3* This spoliation took place about the 

as Serarius shows, and who died a.d. 970, year 968. 

according to Marianus Scotus. He was re- 35 To about the year 970, this partial en- 

markable for his extreme avarice and unpopu- dowment may be referred. 

larity. See "Nouvelle Biographie Gene- & This is the date given by Marianus 

rale," tome xxiii., cols. 541, 542. He is said Scotus. 

to have been devoured by rats. This legend 37 See Mabillon's " Annales Ordinis S. 

is related in Rev. S. Baring-Gould's " (Juri- Benedicti," tomus i., lib. xvi., sect, xliv., 

ous Myths of the Middle Ages," Second p. 523. 

Series, pp. 182 to 205. 3* Under this year, Trithemius places the 


another project in view, to serve that place. The monastery church of St. 
Disibod was afterwards erected into a Collegiate Church of Canons, in the 
diocese of Mentz, and that bishop raised the number of servitors to twelve, 
so that they should be regarded as an Apostolic College. 

But further benefits and glories were destined for Disenberg, when 
another prudent and worthy Bishop of Maintz, named Ruthard, resolved to 
establish the discipline and rule of St. Benedict there. He provided else- 
where for the secular canons, and thus arranged matters for the mutual satis- 
faction of both communities. He selected Burchard, Abbot of the great 
monastery of St. James at Maintz, to become first superior over the new 
monastery, which was to be founded at Disenberg. The first stone of the 
great church ot' this monastery was laid on the 30th of June, and it was built 
by Archbishop Ruthard, as stated, from a.d. 1108 3 8 to n 12. It was in the 
form of a cross — the principal entrance to the west — at the east end arose 
the high altar, with two smaller altars, beside it.39 These with the transepts 
formed the cross. The nave contained a double row of pillars, supporting 
the vaulted roof. Towards the north-east side of the great church stood the 
Mary chapel — probably the oldest portion of the ruins. Over against it was 
a range of buildings, comprehending the refectory and cells of the monks. 
To find space for these buildings, they had to construct a double vaulting, 
on the slope of that hill, on which the buildings themselves rested.* Beyond 
the church, and towards the north, was a passage,* 1 by which the monks 
came from the cloisters in procession on great occasions. To the right of 
this are the remains of the chapel-house/ 2 Beyond that was the Kloster 
garden. <3 To the west lay the abbot's apartments." To the right stood the 
high church of the monastery.^ Before entering at the old door of the 
monastery, a little chapel is on the outside.* 6 

The country about here is described as covered with impenetrable forests, 
tangled with thorns and brambles, during the early and middle ages. Here 
and there were desert tracts, while human habitations were far asunder, and 
travelling through it was difficult. Thus it became a great object with the 
monks of Disibodenbcrgto facilitate attendance at public worship. At what 
seem to be very short intervals, they built little forest chapels, the attendance 
at which they undertook, as a service in connexion with their order. Those 
good fathers had many vineyards along the sunny slopes of the Nahe, espe- 
cially at Monzigen, at Nahrhenn, and at other places. Most probably, these 
spots owe their strong and lively wines of to-day to the assiduous culture of 
their vineyards by the monks of Disibodenberg. Brambles, too, were in 

restoration, in his "Chronicon Hirsaugien- 4a In which are gravestones belonging to 

sis. " some of the Abbots. 

39 There were ten altars or chapels round ** In the middle of it was a cistern, into 
that church, founded by the nobles and which water was brought by pipes from the 
Ritterschaft of the surrounding country. In Kloster mills higher up the Glan, and at the 
return for these foundations, they received southern foot of the hill. 

family burial-places in the area of the church, 44 These commanded from the abbey bal- 

as the many existing gravestones show. cony a splendid outlook down the Nathe- 

40 Further east are the remains of the abbey thai. 

smithy, and of other useful buildings with a 4 * There is a little chapel remaining still — 

second cistern. The rain-water from the probably the mortuary chapel. 

Kloster buildings was collected into a sub- * 6 About its origin or purposes no accounts 

terranean vault with a double coating of ce- can be given. The threshold of the old gate 

ment, and after settling there, it was led into is still observable. 

this cistern for use. Somewhat behind this * It is recorded, they made from these a 

there is a subterranean cell. jelly for table use, as also cordials for the 

41 There are still many gravestones of the sick. 

monks all along this passage. 4 " They drew whatever they could get, n 


request.** Even in such a wilderness, they lvd tithes of certain products.* 8 
To their credit be it told, moreover, the Benedictines in Disibodenberg were 
great cultivators of letters. 4 ' 

While Conon,s° the fourth Abbot ot this new foundation ruled there, a 
transference of our saint's relics was resolved on; and accordingly, Dom. 
Gerard, Abbot of St. Maximinus, and Dom. Bernhelm, the first Abbot of 
Spanheim, with all his congregation, having been summoned for the occasion, 
on the Parasceve of the Pasch, and on the Kalends of April, in the year 1 138, 
the grave of Disibod was opened, in that old monastery, where his remains 
had been deposited by Archbishop Willegis. The following year, 11 39, on 
the Kalends of November, and by the same Abbot Conon, his relics were 
transferred to the new church, built in Disibodenberg, by Archbishop 
Ruthard. Four years afterwards, a.d. 1143, 51 the new monastery and its 
principal altar were solemnly dedicated, by Henry, Archbishop of Mentz, in 
honour of our Lord Jesus Christ, and of His glorious Mother, as also of the 
Blessed John the Evangelist, and of the Most Holy Father Disibod, confessor 
and pontiff. On the same day and year, in the vestibule of that monastery, an 
altar was dedicated by the aforesaid Archbishop, in honour of the Most Vic- 
torious Cross and of St. John the Baptist. On the iii. of the October Kalends, 
the same Prelate had the remains of St. Dysibod collected into two little 
leaden caskets, 52 and he deposited them in a marble sarcophagus," which 
rested on pillars behind the high altar. During the centuries that have elapsed 
since the time of our saint, a large portion of the history of Disibodenberg 
oscillates between the nobles and ritters robbing the monastery of its lands, 
and their bestowing renewed donations for its support. However, the sar- 
cophagus of the saint and its caskets have disappeared, while the sacred dust 
of Disibod has long been blown about the world. For more than three 
hundred years after the time of St. Disibod, the Benedictines held possession 
of this monastery at Disenberg ; but, in the fifteenth century, it had fallen into 
the hands of the Cistercians. 54 

The Reformation period of its history is also full of incidents. 55 The 
Kloster itself was not free from the new heresy. 56 But the commencement 

the shape of pitch and resin, which were em- S3 A stone with an inscription formed part 

ployed in lighting their churches. They pro- of this sarcophagus. 

cured beeswax for which they found many 54 go states John of Trittenheim —born 

ecclesiastical uses, and wild honey, with there 1st of February, 1462, and who died 

which they made many kinds of confec- Abbot of St. James, at Wurtzburg, 27th of 

tionery, and also corrected the acidity of their December, 15 16 — in his work, " De Viris 

wines. Illustribus Ordinis S. Benedicti," lib. iii., 

4 » They boasted of one name, that is not cap. 288. 

even yet forgotten, by those who take an in- ss Johannes Schwebel, the re$>rmer of the 

terest in the history of mediaeval literature, Zweibrucken country, found refuge there, 

viz., Petrus a Roberiis, or Peter of Retiborn. when driven from his native town of Pfors- 

While only a common monk of Disiboden- heim, between Mannheim and Banden. 

berg, on account of his great learning, he had With the celebrated Franz von Sickingen, 

been elevated by Pope Boniface IX. to the at Ebernburg, he spent a whole year. There, 

Bishopric of Samaria. too, were TJlrich von Hutten, Bucar, Aquila, 

'•He departed this life on the vi. of the and CEcolampadius, engaged mainly in study- 
July Nones, A.D. 1155, according to Dode- ingtheBible, bythe light of Luther'snewdoc- 
chinus, and he was succeeded by the Abbot trine. Franz sent him with a letter of re- 
Helinger, who urged the Abbess Hi Idegarde commendation to Duke Ludwig II., of 
to write the Acts of St. Disibod. Zweibrucken. Not long after, the Zweib- 

SI Dodechinus states it, "Hoc anno, In- rucken Duchy, with its Duke, became Pro- 

dictione VI. v testant. 

s * Dodechinus states: "altero eorum, s 6 The whole of the monks left it except 

scilicet minore, ossa continente, altero ma- the abbot and one monk. In 1559, the abbot 

jore cinires." surrendered it, with all its belongings, to the 


of the Thirty Years' War saw its old possessors reinstated by the Marquis 
Spinola. In 1631, the monks were driven out again by the Rheingraf Otto 
Ludwig, under the wing of Gustavus Adolphus. At the peace of Westphalia, 
Disibodenberg again reverted to the Catholics. 

In their turn, the Cistercians lost possession of Disenberg, and in the 
seventeenth century, secular Canons are found to be in occupation, 5 ? which 
state of things prevailed in the early and middle period of the last century.s 8 
During the French Revolution, that establishment was consficated to the 
Republic, and sold by auction for a few hundred francs, to the ancestors of 
its present possessors. 5 ? The ruins of the ancient monastery of Disiboden- 
berg lie near the little town of Staudernheim, a railway station some forty 
minutes distant from Kreuznach, and just on the confines of Rhenish Prussia 
and the Bavarian Palatinate. The line of boundary posts, between the two, 
crosses that road which leads from Staudernheim, on the Prussian territory, 
to Disibodenberg, which is on the Bavarian side. The ruins are situated on the 
flat top of a hill, which rises out of the level land, and which occupies the 
angle, formed by the Nahe. At this point, the river flows from west to east, 
and the Glan, one of its tributaries, flows in a direction, a little to the east of 
north. The greater part of the flat hill-top must have been occupied by 
buildings and by courts, during the last century, although we can find few 
accounts of its condition at the time, probably owing to the fact, that the 
ecclesiastics who served there lived in quiet and retirement, thus passing an 
uneventful career. During the troublous times which preceded and followed 
the French Revolution, the buildings were torn to pieces by the inhabitants 
of the surrounding district, who made Disibodenberg a quarry for dressed 
stones. 60 Gradually its buildings came to a state of complete ruin. The 
cloister bells went partly to Odernheim, and partly, including the great bell 
cast in 1382, to the church of Meisenheim, in Glanthal. 61 The remains of 
Disibodenberg are still considerable, and they show, that it must in its prime 
have been of great extent. 62 

The view from different points around Disenberg is various and charming. 
On the north-west, the Nahe pours itself down in picturesque windings 
through the hills into the valley. From the south, comes the Glan to meet 
it, at the eastern foot of the hill. Right opposite towers Lemberg in majestic 
repose — monarch of the landscape — with the hamlet of Duckroth at its feet. 
Farther to the north rises the Gangelsberg. 6 3 Towards the south side of the 
Abbey, there is a magnificent view. You look westward into the pleasant 

Duke. He dedicated it, together with the it a favourite place for excursions, among 

Klosters of Hornbach, Wersweiler, and the strangers who come to Kreuznach. 

Offenbach to the public worship in Zweib- ^ The new piers of Staudernheim Bridge 

rucken, to the establishment of schools at were built out of its spoils. All the houses 

Hornsbach, and to other like purposes. He at that period in Odernheim, Standernheim, 

was a little more conscientious in dealing and even as far as Brockelheim, were built 

with the windfalls of Church property, out of the wrecked Disibodenberg monas- 

which the Reformation brought into his tcry. 

hands, than were the English, Irish and il This is an old church, where the Stalz- 

Scotch nobles of the Reformation. graten of the Rhei and many noble families 

s? See Mabillon's " Annales Ordinis S. are buried. It is worth a visit, on account 

Benedicti," tomus i., lib. xvi., sect, xliv., of the tower of its church, which is a beauti- 

p. 523. ful specimen of architecture. 

s" See the Bollandists' " Acta Sanctorum," 62 Indeed, the lordly list of its possessions, 

tomus ii., Julii viii. De S. Disibodo Epis. and the bead-roll of its benefactors for cen- 

et Confess, in Dysenberg, Territorii Mogun- turies, might lead one to expect such a con- 

tini, in Germania. Commentarius Praevius, dition. 

sect, i,, pp. 581 to 583. 63 On it stood a signal-tower, when this 

59 These have done a great deal to make part of the country belonged to the French. 


Nahethal. Staudernheim, with its romantically situated mills, lies below. 
Westward appears Sobernheim, 6 * and further on the old town of Monzi^en. 65 
On the right bank of the Nahe, and resting on the mountain side, is the 
hamlet of Middersheim ; and, where the valley closes, Merrheim, not far 
from the stately ruins of the Schloss Dhaun. On a clear day, these can be 
distinctly made out, and crowning their wooded height. These, too, carry us 
back to the early Wildgrafen 66 and Nahgangrafen — almost coeval with the 
foundation of Disibodenberg. In the middle of the valley, on the Nath, are 
clustered the mills and barns of Sobernheim. From another point, you have 
a view up the valley of the Glan, so far as the ancient town of Odernheim. 
Nearer still are the old Kloster mills. Such is the scenery, with which the 
modern tourist often renders himself familiar, and it is intimately associated 
with St. Dysibod's name and missionary labours. 

Article III. — St. Diarmaid, Bishop of Gleam-Uissean, now Kille- 
SHIN, Queen's County. That Gleann-Uissean had been a place of impor- 
tance in pagan history is not improbable ; and, at the present time, a remark- 
able artificial and cone-shaped mound is to be seen on the sloping upland, 
which gradually ascends to the summit of Clogrennan mountain. It rises on 
the south side of the road, which leads from the town of Carlow to the collie- 
ries, in the Queen's County. On the opposite side of the road are the ancient 
cemetery and ruined church of Killeshin, also rising high over the same road, 
which winds through a deep cut beneath. At a lower level still, and bound- 
ing the cemetery on the northern side, is a rapid stream, which falls through 
a very romantic glen, and in a succession of small cascades, almost buried 
from view, unless the pilgrim desires to clamber down into that ravine, where 
the water has hollowed out its course. The situation is still surrounded with 
natural charms ; but, we know not at what remote date in Christian times, it 
had been selected as the site for a religious foundation. It seems to be well 
established, however, that the present holy man, St. Diarmaid, must have pre- 
sided as Abbot there, probably before the eighth century. Were we to accept 
one statement, 1 his rule should be referred to the commencement of the sixth 
century. Still, we cannot discover on what authority Colgan makes this 
saint the first Abbot over Gleann-Ussein monastery. 2 He seems, however, to 
have followed some genealogical or other historic account ; yet, perhaps, it 
has been inferred from notices, in two of our earliest preserved calendars. 3 
Thus, in the Feilire * of St. iEngus, at the 8th of July, the feast of this saint 

64 Around it, tobacco is extensively culti- 2 See " Acta Sanctorum Hiberniae," xxvii. 

vated. Februarii, Vita S. Comgani, and nn. 8, 9, 

63 The vicinity is well known for produc- pp. 417, 418. 

ing an excellent quality of wine. 3 These known as the Martyrology of Tal- 

66 To its feudal lords, in the early middle lagh and the Feilire of St. ^Engus, coin- 
ages, it gave the title of Wildgrafen. These nosed originally in the eighth, or at latest 
were distinguished as Comites Salvagii, or early in the ninth century. 
Comites Silvestres, meaning "Counts of the 4 From the Leabhar Breac copy the fol- 
Wildwood." owing stanza, translated by Whitley Stokes, 

Article hi.— « That of Colgan, he sup- LL.D., has been extracted :— 
posing the St. Comgan referred to in the 

Acts of St. Ita — who died on the 15th of Sab-Air 5 brxocan pcjubtiiT) 
January, a.d. 569 — to have been St. Com- SAepbuAit) cenAch cuifel 
gan, Abbot of Gleann-Ussen. The latter La , OiA|MnAic tjepb Ia|ja^ 
therefore is thought to have died before St. Stuan gel Sl/itroe h Uiffen. 
Ita, and it is asserted, that Diermait pre- 
ceded him, in the government of that monas- " Brocan the scribe won a noble victory with- 
tery. out any fall, with Diarmait a sure flame, 



[July 8. 

Diarmait is commemorated. In the commentary attached, he is called My- 
Dimdc in Ui-Bairrche, and we are informed, that he was formerly in Glenn 
Uissen, before Comgan.s Again, we learn that veneration was given, on this 
day, according to the Martyrology ofTallagh, 6 to Diarmait, of Glinne hUisen. 
This place is identical with the present Killeshin, about two miles west of 
Carlow town, and in the Queen's County. It has been stated, that St. Diar- 
maid sprung from the race of Cathaoir M6r, of the Lagenians. His father is 
named Sibrseus, the son of Dalian, son to Ere, son of Bracan, son to Fieg, 
son of Daire, surnamed Barrach, who was son to the celebrated Cathair the 
Great,? who had been monarch of Erinn. The Rev. John Francis Shearman, 
who with some change of spelling, very closely follows the foregoing genea- 
logy, gives Diarmaid the alternative name of Momedoc, 8 and places him also 

Moat of Killeshin, Queens Comity. 

before St. Comgan, as Abbot of Glenuissin. We have already alluded to tins 
place, and to its historic associations, in more than one instance.* I* or a 
succession of ages, Killeshin had been regarded as a religious centre, and its 
history can be traced very fairly through the ninth, tenth and eleventh cen- 
turies, from various entries in our Annals, and which prove it to have been a 

bright sun of Glenn Uissen."— "Transac- 
tions of the Royal Irish Academy," Irish 
Manuscript Series, vol. i., part i. On the 
Calendar of Oengus, by Whitley Stokes. 
LL.D., pp. cix., ex. 

5 See ibid., p. cxvii. 

6 Edited by Rev. Dr. Kelly, p. xxviii. 

' According to the Genealogic Sanctilogy 
of Ireland, Dist. vii., cap. i. 

8 See " Loca Patriciana," No.ix., No. 10. 
The Genealogy of the Ui Bairrche, p. 180. 
In this Genealogical chart, the Rev. Mr. 
Shearman has one additional grade in the 
pedigree of our saint. 

9 See the First Volume of this work, at 
January 27th, Art. viii., and the Second 
Volume, at February 27th, Art. i. 

10 The accompanying sketch by the author, 
and drawn on the spot, September, 1889, 
was taken from an opposite point of view to 
that presented in a previous illustration, 
given at the 27th of January. The present 
sketch represents the large moat in the fore- 
ground, and beyond the travelled road, the 
east gable of Killeshin old church in the dis- 
tance. This sketch has been transferred by 
William F. Wakeman to the wood, engraved 
by Mrs. Millard. 


place of considerable ecclesiastical importance. A city or town appears to 
have grown around the church ; but, it is difficult now to determine the 
monks' quarter, which, however, according to a prevailing Irish usage, was 
quite convenient to the church. Again, as in so many other instances we have 
found throughout Ireland, the large circular moat was in close proximity with 
the religious establishment ; 10 yet, whether erected for purposes of defence, 
or to serve a different end, we have not been able to determine, and an 
examination of such an antiquarian problem must continue to exercise the 
research and ingenuity of ecclesiastical and secular historical investigators. 
It seems very probable, that the St. Diarmaid, commemorated in our Calendars 
at this date, had been the original founder of a church and monastery 
here, 11 and that he presided over both as the first Abbot." His period, how- 
ever, has eluded inquiry ; nor are the incidents of his incumbency known. 
Some writers think this saint flourished as early as the sixth century, and 
that he preceded St. Comgan^ — who died before 570 14 — in the 
government of Gleann-Ussein monastery.^ This is also the opinion of 
Sirinus, as communicated to the Bollandists, who have notices ofDiermetiiis 
of Gleann-Ussein, at the 8th of July. 16 Although the day for St. Diarmaid's 
feast has been assigned to the 8th of July, yet the year when it occurred does 
not appear to have transpired. The present saint can hardly be identical 
with that Diarmaid, Abbot of Gleann-Uissean, whose death is'recorded, at 
the year 874 ;•» unless, indeed, we could imagine some interpolations in the 
Martyrology of Tallagh, or in the Feilire of St. ^Engus. It is evident, more- 
over, that the last-named Diarmaid had not been the first Abbot over Kille- 
shin. The fullest and most exact account of this locality and of its history 
is that given in the very learned and valuable work of the Most Rev Michael 
Comerford, 18 at present Coadjutor Bishop of the diocese of Kildare and 
Leighlin. 1 ^ The earliest annalistic account of this place, we find, is at a.d. 
843, when Aedhan of Gleann-Uisean died.* The existing ruins denote that 
class of structure, known as Irish Romanesque, with incised mouldings on 
the west door, 31 and these date probably to the eleventh century ; the pre- 
vious oratory having been broken down in 1041 by Mac Moylnerao, when 

11 Of late, the ruins have been repaired and he adds, that this saint must be distin- 
but hardly well restored, by the Irish Board guished from Diermit of Inisclothran. See 
of Public Works. " Ecclesiastical History of Ireland," vol. ii., 

12 We have already seen, that a local tra- chap, x., sect, xiv., p. 76, and n. 244, p. 78, 
dition assigned the foundation of Killeshin to ibid. 

M'Dermott-r-very significantly referring to l6 These writers add : " Utcumque fuerit, 

Diarmaid. certus est Comgani cultus, ut vide xxvn. 

13 The festival of this holy Abbot is refer- Februarii, non ita hujus Diermitii : nisi idem 
red to the 27th of February, at which date sit cum eo, qui in nostris Sanctorum Hiber- 
are some observations regarding him, in the norum Catalogis refertur II, et in. Augusti." 
Second Volume of this, work, Art. i. Think- — "Acta Sanctorum," tomus ii., Julii viii. 
ing him to have lived later than a Diarmaid, Among the pretermitted saints, p. 533. 
Abbot of Gleann-Uissean, whose death is set 1? See Dr. O'Donovan's " Annals of the 
down in Dr. O'Donovan's " Annals of the Four Masters," vol. i., pp. 520, 521. 

Four Masters," at A.D. 874, vol. i., pp. 520, l8 See "Collections relating to the Dio- 

521 ; we have deemed that Comgan to have ceses of Kildare and Leighlin.'' Third Series, 

been his successor at no particular date, but Diocese of Leighlin, pp. 241 to 248. ' 

possibly in the ninth century. Now, as both I9 Consecrated, New Year's Day, 1889, by 

the Diarmaid and Comgan of our early Most Rev. Archbishop of Dublin, William 

Calendars, and mentioned in them, must have J. Walsh, D.D., in the cathedral of Carlow. 

flourished before they had been written, both 20 See Dr. O'Donovan's "Annals of the 

should be assigned to a still earlier date. Four Masters," vol. i., pp. 464, 465, and n. 

14 See Colgan's " Acta Sanctorum Hiber- (y), ibid. 

niae," Februarii xxvii. Vita S. Comgani, pp. 2I Portions of these are set forth in beauti- 

417, 418. ful engravings, in Miss Stokes' "Early 

l ? Dr. Lanigan follows such a statement, Christian Art in Ireland," y. 187. 


he seems to have burnt the town in revenge of Fernamor. Afterwards, Gleann- 
Uisean, with its yews, was burned, a.d. 1077, Dut the monastery appears to 
have survived the many vicissitudes of those years. In the beginning of the 
last century, about 40 feet of the eastern part aa had been converted into a 
modern little church for Protestant services. 3 3 Under the head of Glenn 
Uissen, Duald Mac Firbis enters Diarmuid, bishop of Glenn Uissen, at July 
8th, as the date for his festival. 24 His name occurs, also, in the Martyrology 
of Donegal, 2 * at the same date. There he is entered, as Diarmaid, Bishop, 
of Gleann Uissein, in Ui-Bairrche. If these entries be correct, he would seem 
to have united in his person the episcopal and abbatial functions. 

Article IV. — St. Summiva, Sunnifa, Sumniva, or Sunneva, an Irish 
Virgin, Patroness of Bergen, in Norway, and her Companions, 
Martyrs. Some proofs of Irish Christian influences on the northern coun- 
tries in Europe are shown from the account, that Summiva or Sunneva, who 
was born in Ireland, must have visited Norway at a later period. She was 
probably connected with the Norwegians by descent, or by alliance. In the 
Norwegian Calendars, she is variedly called Sunnifa, Summiva, Sumniva, 
Suniva and Sunneva. The monk Oddr records her legend. 1 In Hermann 
Greven's additions to the Martyrology of Usuard, her name seems to have 
been first published, 3 and at this date. Molanus, Canisius,3 Ferrarius, and 
the more recent Martyrologists, borrowed their notices of her, from the fore- 
going accounts. Claude Castellan has her name in the General Index * to 
his work, the Universal Martyrology. Her history is little known ; but, if we 
are to credit the statement of Rev. S. Baring-Gould, there is not the smallest 
foundation for this story, it being only a Scandinavian version of the Legend 
of St. Ursula and the Eleven Thousand Virgins.s At the 8th of July, the 
Bollandists 6 have a few brief notices of this holy virgin and of her com- 
panions. These writers found, on consulting certain northern muniments,? 
that under the name of Suniva, herself and her companions had been formerly 
honoured in Sweden, with an ecclesiastical office. In an old Swedish Missal, 8 
there is a Calendar prefixed, in which the name of St. Suniva occurs, at the 
8th of July, and in it there is a Mass for her, with this title, De Sancta 
Suniva Officium.9 Nor is it to be supposed, that Greven derived his state- 

23 This portion is shown in the accompany- of St. Sumniva, has " Sociorum," and not 

ing engraving. ' ' Sociarum. ' ' 

23 See "Collections relating to the Dio- 4 There he implies a want of certainty, for 

cese of Kildare and Leighlin," Third Series. the introduction of Summiva among his 

Diocese of Leighlin. By the Rev. M. Comer- Martyrs. 

ford, M.R.I.A., p. 244. Annexed is a beau- 5 See "Lives of the Saints," vol. vii., July 

tiful drawing of the west door of Killeshin 8th, pp. 195 to 197. 

old church, by Rev. E. O'Leary, litho- 6 See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus ii., 

graphed by Morison & Co., Dublin. Julii viii. De S. Summiva Virg. et Martyre, 

2 + See " Proceedings of the Royal Irish cum Sociis vel Sociabus, in Norvegia, p. 

Academy," Irish Manuscript Series, vol. i., 649. 

part i., pp. 112, 113. 7 There is a Latin fragment of the Church 

:ted by Drs. Todd and Reeves, pp. Office and Lections regarding these Virgins 

i£8, 189. and Martyrs, in " Scriptores Rerum Danica- 

Article IV. — ' In the Saga of King rum," tomus vi., pp. 3, 4, and 14 to 22. 

Olaf, the younger Olafs Saga Tryggvasonar, 8 It is distinguished as Missale Votivale. 

chap. 106-8. and 149. The writer flourished This was printed towards the close of the 

in the twelfth century. fifteenth or beginning of the sixteenth cen- 

2 Thus : " Sumnivse virginis et sociorum tury. 

ejus martyrum : qui de Hibernia egressi, in » Some extracts from it are furnished, by 

Norbegia coronas martyrii assecuti sunt." the Hollandists. 

J Canisius, in alluding to the companions ,0 See Rev. S. Baring-Gould's " Lives of 


ment solely from this authority. The age and acts of St. Summiva and of her 
companions do not appear to be known, with anything which approaches to 
certainty. However, a sort of tradition records, that she was a beautiful Scottish 
virgin, and the daughter of a king who lived in Ireland, in the days of Earl 
Hako. With seven other pious virgins, she had been captured by the tyranni- 
cal and pagan Northmen, who invaded Ireland. By these pirates, they were 
taken as captives, and brought into Norway. According to the Legend, 
Sunnifa was endowed with wealth, beauty and great Christian piety ; but, a 
northern viking hearing of her charms and accomplishments became 
enamoured, resolving to go in quest of her. That viking landed on the coasts 
of Ireland, and he sought the king, who hesitated to accept his suit for the 
hand of Sunnifa. The tyrant thereupon harried the whole country, and he 
set flames to every house. At last, to save her native island from devastation 
by the cruel suitor, the princess expressed her determination to leave Ireland. 
The Saga has it, that her brother Alban(?) and a multitude of virgins joined. 
All sailed away eastwards, and trusting to the guidance of Divine Providence. 
They came ashore on the Island of Selja,in Norway, and finding it uninhabited, 
they settled in the caves, and lived upon fishes. However, the islet served 
as a pasture for cattle in summer. When the farmers on the mainland saw 
those people on that island, they appealed to Earl Hako to protect their cattle. 
Gathering some armed men, Earl Hako rowed to the island. The Christian 
maidens fled into the caves on his approach. They prayed God to preserve 
them. Accordingly, the rock closed upon them, and they came forth no 
more alive. 10 In Norway, according to another account, St. Sunnifa and her 
companions were greatly distinguished for their innocence of life, for their 
love of chastity, and, it is even said, for their miracles. It is related, likewise, 
that through their good example and holy conversation, some Norwegians 
had been converted to Christ. 11 Their Legend states, that during the reign 
of Olaf Tryggvason, a farmer found a human head on the Island of Selja, 
and it was surrounded by a phosphoric light. This emitted an agreeable 
odour. He at once took it to the king, who submitted it to Bishop Sigurd. 
Both recognised the evidences of sanctity, and then they went together to 
the island. There, they discovered the cave filled with the bones I2 of the 
saintly refugees. How they found out, that those were Irish, that their leader 
was named Sunnifa, and her brother Alban, we are not informed. Two 
churches were then erected in Selja ; one of these was dedicated to St. Sun- 
nifa, and the other to St. Alban. Various miracles afterwards confirmed the 
popular belief, that they were glorious saints. Their death occurred in Norway, 
where it is said they suffered martyrdom, but under what circumstances seems 
not to be known. However, St. Sunnifa and Alban are regarded as the 
proto-martyrs of Norway. In the first edition of Father Henry Fitzsimon's 

the Saints," vol. vii., July 8, pp. 195, 196. number of companions. 

11 Such was a statement conveyed to the I4 A curious Legend was current, that in 
Bollandists through Father Stephen White, the extreme parts of the north of Europe, and 
as found among the Manuscript collections among the Scritefings, seven men lay sleeping 
of the Irish Franciscans at Louvain. in a certain cave beside the ocean. Opinions 

12 The Rev. S. Baring-Gould remarks : differed regarding them, some holding, these 
" The bones discovered were probably those sleepers should awake and preach to that 
of some shipwrecked foreign rovers, massa- people before the end of the world. But, 
cred in Earl Hako's reign. And the legend others said they were some of the eleven 
that grew up around them is a distant echo thousand virgins whose company separated, 
of the legend of St. Ursula." — " Lives of the and some of these had been wrecked on that 
Saints," vol. vii., July 8, p. 197. rock. There, too, miracles were wrought. 

13 He cites Canisius as an authority, but See Pertz's " Monumenta Germanise Histo- 
neither he nor Greven specifies the exact rica," tomusix., p. 302. 


11 Catalogus aliquorum Sanctorum Hiberniae," there is no mention of these 
holy virgins and martyrs ; but, in the second edition enlarged, he notes at 
the 8th of July St. Summiva with seven companions in Norway. *3 We are 
told, that in 1170, the relics of St. Sunnifa were brought from Selja to Ber- 
gen, by the Bishop Paul, chaplain to King Eysteinn. 1 * Dempster falsely 
cites Canisius, for the seven female companions of St. Summiva, virgin. 
The body of St. Sunnifa is alleged to have been deposited in a large and hand- 
some shrine, over the high altar of Christ Church, in Bergen. On the 8th 
of July — probably the day of St. Summiva's demise — the Norwegians 
annually celebrated Mass in her honour. 1 ' 

Article V.^-St. Trega, Virgin and Patroness or Ardtrea Parish, 
County of Londonderry. {Fifth Century '.] St. Tiega had a feast on this 
day, in the place and parish called after her Ardtrea, partly in the barony of 
Dungannon, County Tyrone, but chiefly in the barony of Loughinsholin, and 
county of Londonderry. 1 The parish of which she was patroness lies on the 
north-west border of Lough Neagh, 2 the largest inland lake of Ireland. It 
seems to have been Colgan's intention to treat about her,3 on two different 
days consecrated to her memory, viz. : on the 8th of July, and on the 3rd of 
August. The Bollandists have a notice, at the present date, regarding St. 
Trea of Ard-Trea. 4 St. Trega, Treha or Trecha was daughter to Carthennus, 
the minor dynast of that country, called Hy-Tuirtre, 5 near Slieve Gallion, 
and on the borders of Lough Neagh. This prince was son to Ere, son to 
Eochad, son to Colla Huaish, 6 the monarch of Ireland, in the year of Christ 
326.7 The mother of this saint was named Mugania, descended from Fear- 
gus the Great, prince of Dalaradia. Her father and mother, with their house- 
hold, embraced the faith of Christ. They were baptized by St. Patrick, 8 
when he passed Toome ford, and entered the country of Hy-Tuirtre. Car- 
thennus was named the Minor, to distinguish him from an elder brother, 
bearing a similar name, called Carthennus Major. This latter would not em- 
's See J. J. A. Worsaae's "Account of the 122 to 125. 
Danes and Norwegians, in England, Scot- 7 Duald Mac Firbis thus traces the origin 

land and Ireland," sect, v., p. 333. of this family : — " CoUIa UAip cjva t>a iiiac 

Article v. — * A description of it may be rhAice. bAif .1. eAj\c y jma SLiad a cuai-6 o 
found in the "Parliamentary Gazetteer of ccAi-umec CappcAinn locA|:eAbuilpAcr\A 
Ireland," vol. i., pp. 66, 67. Cope fro SbiAb a n-'oeAf o ccait> in 

a A curious legend of its origin is to be Cuir\c r\e Acup pp. ti, acur- pn Luij\c, Acur* 
found, in Caxton's "History of England, U1 tTlAC Uai|\ Ay Ler-itie ceAtmA t>eA|MiAt> 
Wales, Scotland, and Ireland," printed cor\c§AbAil ConAille mui|\ceinne (cope 
a.d. 1497. 'ono Ainm no gAbAil) &c." The following 

3 See " Trias Thaumaturga," Sexta Vita is a translation of the Irish: " Colla Uaishad 
S. Patricii, n. 97, p. 113. two goodly sons, viz., Earc on the North of 

4 They add : "de qua ait Sirinus, viden- the Mountain, from whom descend the Mac 
dum diem in. Augusti : sed et hrec aliis Ka- Cartains of Loch Feabhail [Foyle], and 
lendariis prsetcrita est." — " Acta Sancto- Fiachra Tort on the South of the Mountain, 
rum," tomus ii., Julii viii. Among the pre- from whom descend the Hy-Tuirtre, and the 
termitted saints, p. 533. Fir-Li, and the Fir-Luirc, and Hy-Mac Uais. 

5 The descendants of Fiachra Tort, son to It was by him [Fiachra] that Conaille 
Colla Huaish, were called U1 Cuir\Cj\e. Muirthemne [Louth] was first appropriated — 
From him the territory which they occupied Tort being a name for seizure," &c. See 
received its name. Rev. Dr. Reeves' "Ecclesiastical Antiqui- 

6 This monarch with his two brothers de- ties of Down, Connor and Dromore," Ap- 
feated the Ultonians at the battle of Cain- pendix BB, pp. 292, 293. 
Eacha-lethderg, A.D. 331. He assumed the 8 See an account of this incident, in the 
sovereignty of Ireland in the year 323, and Third Volume of this work, at the 17th of 
he held it until 326. See Dr. O'Donovan's March, Art. i. Life of St. Patrick, chap. 
"Annals of the Four Masters," vol. i., pp. xv. 


brace the Gospel, but rather he treated St. Patrick with insult and reproach, 
driving him forth from the country in which he ruled. This joined the terri- 
tory of his younger brother. Hereupon, St. Patrick predicted, that the 
younger Carthennus should one day enjoy the tyrant's inheritance. He had 
unjustly expelled the prince from his dominions, lest this junior might succeed 
to any portion of his paternal possessions. The journey of our Irish Apostle to 
this part of the country is thus minutely described in theTripartiteLife; from the 
territory of Dalaradia his travels lay through Fersait-Tuama,* in the district of 
Hi-Tuirtre, and for forty days he remained in a place called Finnabhuir, 10 
wishing at that beautiful site " to establish his cathedral See." It is described 
as having been near the mountain Callann towards the east and Lough 
Neagh towards the west. This seems, however, to have been an accidental 
reversal of the proper order. St. Trega was born at the time when St. Patrick 
baptized her father's household. 1 * She received her name and the sacrament 
of regeneration, likewise, through the instrumentality of that great Apostle. 
He predicted, at the same time, the future sanctity of the child, and the con- 
secration of her virginity to God, at a subsequent period. The people of Hy- 
Tuirtre region, moved by the example of their dynast, and enlightened by 
Divine grace, received the faith of Christ at the same time, from our Irish 
Apostle. By pious exhortations and labours, he endeavoured to strengthen 
the foundations thus laid, and to nurture germs of salvation, already planted 
in the minds of his neophytes. The father of St. Trega was distinguished for 
piety and devotedness to all his Christian engagements, and for the munifi- 
cence with which he built and endowed churches. Seven m of these are parti- 
cularly noted, as having been commenced by St. Patrick. ■• Some of these 
churches have been identified. 16 Thus, the Domnach-Fainre is known to be the 
present Donaghenry, 1 ? a parish in the county of Tyrone, near Lough Neagh. 
Domnach-Riascaigh is the present Donaghrisk, 18 a townland in the parish of 

9 This denomination signifies "the cross- have existed besides those of Clonmacnoise, 
ing of Tuaim." It is identical with Toome Glendalough, Clonenagh, &c, There were 
Bridge over the River Bann, in the parish seven churches founded by St. Patrick in 
of Duneane. By the Irish Annalists, it is Keenaght, of which Boith- Domnach, now 
called Uuaim, and it gives name to a barony. Bandony, was one. See Colgan's "Trias 
This passage of the Bann is at the issue of Thaumaturga," Vita Tripartita S. Patricii, 
the river, where it leaves Lough Neagh. pars, ii., cap. cxix., p. 145. 

10 It is rendered " albus compus," in ** " Unde in regione ilia septem basilica- 
Latin. See Colgan's "Trias Thaumaturga," rum jecit fundamenta : quarum prisca voca- 
Sexta Vita S. Patricii, cap. xciv., p. 87. bula erant Domnach Fainre, Domnach - 

11 There were several places bearing this Riascaigh, Domnach-Fothairbe, Domnach- 
name of Fionnabhair in Ireland. One of Righdhuinn, Domnach-Brain, Domnach- 
these was near the Abbey of Mellifont. See moelain, et Domnach-libeir." See ibid., 
O'Donovan's " Annals of the Four Masters," cap. cxxxviii. to cxl., p. 148. 

vol. ii., p. 1043, an d n - ( e ) 5 a l so PP- II2 4» l6 By Rev. Dr. Reeves in his invaluable 

1 125, n. (m). There is also one near Clogher, historical and topographical work, intituled 

which is thus described by Colgan : "Collis " Ecclesiastical Antiquities of Down, Connor 

Finn-abhuir in Lemania, quae est regio cam- and Dromore," Appendix BB, p. 294, n. (b). 

pestris Tironiae, dicecesis Clocharensis, vulgo Ijr It was formerly within Domnaghfenre 

Maglemna aliis clossach, dicta." — "Trias and Dompnachfionnray, in the ancient regis- 

Thaumaturga," Septima Vita S. Patricii, ters of Armagh. 

cap. iv., p. 149 and 184, n. II. ,8 In the Taxation of Armagh diocese A.D. 

" See Rev. Dr. Reeves' "Ecclesiastical 1291, Donagheresca occurs as the name of 

Antiquities of Down, Connor and Dromore," an independent church. In the ancient 

Appendix BB, p. 293, n. (x). Registra of the diocese, it is called the rec- 

13 See Colgan's " Trias Thaumaturga," tory of Domnaghreasca and Downaghryeske. 
Vita Tripartita S. Patricii, pars, ii., cap. cxl., The Dungannon Inquisition of 1609 repre- 
p. 148. sents Donaghreiske as a chapel, with two 

14 There are other instances in Ireland, balliboes of Erenagh land thereto belonging, 
where we hnd groups of seven churches to Its ancient cemetery was the burying-place 


Desertcreat, which joins the former parish on the west. Donnabaran, in the 
deanery of Tullaghoge, washerenach land, and it resembles the name Dom- 
nach-Brain. T 9 The Rev. Dr. Reeves was unable to identify the modern names 
of the remaining churches. 20 Callann is the same as Slieve Gallion, a high 
ridge of mountain at the south-west of Loughinsholin barony, in the county 
of Derry; whilst Ethach is identical with the present Lough Neagh. When 
her father had been restored to his territory, St. Trega received the veil from 
St. Patrick f 1 and, afterwards, she became greatly distinguished for fervour 
and fidelity to engagements with her Divine spouse. In all probability, she 
founded a religious establishment, in the present parish of Ardtrea, on the 
north-west border of Lough Neagh. This parish reaches to Toome, and it 
was situated within the ancient territory of Hy-Tuirtre. 22 The festival of our 
saint was celebrated, likewise, in Ardtrea parish, on the 3rd of August.^ 
Whether this had been the date for her death, or the 8th of July, has not 
been determined. 

Article VI. — St. Brogan, of Maethail-Bhrogain, now Mothil, 
County of Waterford, or Secretary to St. Patrick. The identity 
of St. Brocanus has been questioned. While some writers deem him to have 
been the nephew of St. Patrick, and also his scribe ; others hold a 
different opinion. In the Feilire of St. ^Engus, 1 at the 8th of July, Brocan 
the Scribe is invoked, and with a special panegyric. The commentator 
states, that he was of Moethail Broccain, in Desi, of Munster; but, he has 
an alternative supposition, that Broccan, Patrick's scribe is meant here ; and, 
if such be the case, Brechmag in Ui-Forta was his church. 2 In the Martyr- 
ology of Tallagh,3 at the 8th of July, the name of Broccan, Scribuid, is 
inserted. According to the Kalendars of Cashel and of Marianus O'Gorman, 
he was the nephew of St. Patrick, the constant companion in his missions, 
and travels, as also his secretary. If we consider him to be St. Patrick's 
nephew, he is alluded to by Jocelyn, where he introduces the Bishops Bro- 
chadius, Brochanus, Mogenocus and Loman, as having come from Britain, to 
labour with their uncle, the Apostle of Ireland, in the missionary field, where 
he sowed the seeds of the Gospel. 4 The feast of that St. Brochan is referred 
by Colgan, to the 8th of July .5 According to Cathal Maguire, he was either 

of the O'Hagan sept. county of Tyrone, and Loughinsholin in the 

x « According to the Armagh Register of county of Derry. See Rev. Wm. Reeves' 

Swayne, fol. 60. "Ecclesiastical Antiquities of Down, Connor 

20 He says, there is not any approach to and Dromore," Appendix BB, p. 293. 
them in the lists of parishes, contained in 33 " Trecha sive Trega, filia Carthennii, 
the Armagh Registra. filii Erci, filii Eochadii, filii Collae Huassii 

21 According to the Irish Tripartite Life, colitur in Ardtrea, 3. Augusti." — Colgan 's 
as translated by William M. Hennessy for " Trias Thaumaturga," Septima Vita S. 
Miss M. F. Cusack's "Life of St. Patrick," Patricii, n. 232, p. 183. 

angels brought this veil from Heaven, and Article vi. — x See "Transactions of 

placed it on her head down over her eyes, the Royal Irish Academy," Irish Manu- 

when Patrick began to raise it up. "Why script Series, vol. i., part i. On the Calen- 

is it not good to bear it as it was placed ?" dar of Oengus, by Whitley Stokes, LL.D., 

asked Trea. " It is good, indeed," answered pp. cix., ex. 

Patrick. She never saw anything during her 2 See ibid., p. cxvii. 

life except what she saw through that veil. 3 Edited by Rev. Dr. Kelly, p. xxviii. 

Part ii., p. 446. * See Colgan's "Trias Thaumaturga," 

22 Not being of the Ruderician or old Sexta Vita S. Patricii, cap. 1., p. 76. 
Ultonian stock, the Hy Tuirtre territory ori- 5 See ibid., n. 51, p. no. 

ginally lay on the west side of Lough Neagh, 6 See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus ii., 

and comprehended a considerable portion of Julii viii. Among the pretermitted saints, 
the modern baronies of Dungannon, in the p. 533. 


Brocan of Maothal-Brogain, in the Decies of Munster, or Brogan, scribe of 
St. Patrick. The Bollandists 6 have some notices of St. Brocan, the scribe, 
at the 8th of July. We are told, that an abbey for Canons Regular of St. 
Augustine had been founded in the sixth century by a St. Brogan.7 It stood 
in Mothill parish, county of Waterford ; and, at the dissolution of monasteries, 
it was granted to the celebrated Sir Walter Raleigh in fee-farm. 8 Some few 
remains of this foundation were traced near the parish church, in the last 
century.9 Others deem the foundation to have been for Cistercian monks. 
A St. Brochanus, bishop, is mentioned in St. Patrick's Acts ; 10 but, he appears 
to be a different individual from the present saint, in the estimation of some 
persons. At the same date, the Martyrology of Donegal " records Brogan, 
scribe, of Maethail-Bhrogain, in Deisi Mumham. This holy bishop is entered 
in Henry Fitzsimon's Calendar." He was venerated in Scotland, as we learn 
from the Calendar of Drummond, 1 * at the 8th of July. 1 * 

Article VII.— St. Condmac or Connmach, of Ath-Blair, or Atha 
Stlain. In the Martyrology of Tallagly at the 9th of July, a festival is re- 
corded in honour of Condmac, of Atha Silain. The place of this saint is 
differently denominated, in a later Calendar. The Martyrology of Donegal, 2 
at the same date, enters the name as Connmach, of Ath Blair. Under either 
name, the place of this holy man has not been identified. 

Article VIII. — Festival of Saints Totnanus and Colmanus, 
Martyrs. The various Usuard Codices, according to the Bollandists, 1 have 
their Festival entered, apart from that of St. Kilian, Martyr, at Wurtzburg; 
however, as they were his companions in suffering, all that can be known 
regarding them has been already given in his Life — the first at this day. 

Article IX. — Reputed Feast of St. Adelinus, Martyr. In the 
Scottish Menology of Dempster, the name of Adelinus, Martyr, and com- 
panion of St. Kilian, has been introduced, at this date. The Bollandists " 
merely notice this entry, and refer to their previous commentary on the Acts 
of St. Kilian for their opinion regarding this statement of Dempster. 

Article X. — Reputed Festival of St. Erwaldus, Arnwal, or 
Arnualis, Disciple of St. Kilian. Owing to the confusion of name, 

7 See Archdall's " Monasticon Hiberni- Catholicse Ibernise Compendium," tomus i., 
cum," for an interesting record of this Abbey, lib. iv., cap. xii., p. 53. 

its rulers, and its possessions, pp. 696, 697. I3 Thus entered : " viii. Idus Apud Hiber- 

8 See Harris' Ware, vol. ii., "Antiquities niam Natale Sanctorum Confessorum Bro- 
of Ireland," chap, xxxviii., p. 226. Theassig- cain et Diarmata." 

nee was the Earl of Cork. I4 See Bishop Forbes' " Kalendars of 

9 See Smith's "Ancient and Present State Scottish Saints," p. 17. 

of the County and City of Waterford," chap. Article vii.— x Edited by Rev. Dr. 

iii., p. 91. Kelly, p. xxix. 

10 See Colgan's "Trias Thaumaturga," 2 Edited by Drs. Todd and Reeves, pp. 
Vita Sexta S. Patricii, cap. ii., and n. 51, 190, 191. 

p. 100. Article viii.— T See "Acta Sancto- 

11 Edited by Drs. Todd and Reeves, pp. rum," tomus ii., Julii viii. Among the pre- 
190, 191. termitted feasts, p. 531. 

12 See " Catalogus aliquorum Sanctorum Article ix. — » See " Acta Sanctorum," 
Ibernise," in O'Sullevan Beare's " Historice tomus ii., Julii viii. Among the pretermitted 


different Martyrologists assign the feast of this reputed disciple of St. Kilian 
to various days. Thus, it is at the 19th of January, at the 15th of February, 1 
at the 8th of July, and at the 2nd of October. Whatever may be the truth of 
that statement regarding his having been the companion of St. Kilian — whose 
Life is already given on this day — such companionship is not noticed in his 
Acts, as relating to Franconia or to his martyrdom. The Bollandists, who 
notice him, at this day, state, that he is undoubtedly one and the same, who 
has been referred, in the Irish and Scottish Calendars, to the 2nd of 

Article XI. — Reputed Feast of St. Giswald. The Bollandists, 1 at 
the 8th of July, have a notice of Giswald — said to have been a companion of 
St. Disibod — by Camerarius. 3 About him or his cultus nothing more is 
known, than what has been already" recorded, in the Life of St. Disibod, 
already given on this day. 

Article XII. — Reputed Feast of St. Alganus, Archbishop and 
Martyr. In the Carthusian Manuscript Martyrology at Bruxelles, and at 
the 8th of July, is entered an account of St. Alganus, Archbishop, of the 
Island Hibernia, who was martyred among the Umbrani. Nothing more 
seems to be known regarding him, and the Bollandists, who have inserted 
the foregoing account for this day, 1 are at a loss to know whence it had been 
derived, as Fitzsimon has it not in his catalogue of Irish Saints, nor has 
Dempster or Camerarius any similar entry in their Scottish Kalendars. 

Article XIII. — Reputed Feast of St. Kilian, Dux, and Uncle to 
St. Ursula. This feast of St. Kiliamis, Dux, uncle to St. Ursula and father 
to the holy Brigid, Helena and Sapientia, is entered by Gelenius, as having 
been celebrated at Cologne, on the 8th day of July. The Bollandists insert 
this notice, at the same date, and distinguish this St. Kilian from the Martyr 
so called at Wurtzburg. 1 However, finding nothing more definite regarding 
him, and desiring further information, they defer to the 21st of October any 
subsequent notice, when they should have an opportunity of treating about 
St. Ursula and her companions. 

Article XIV. — St. Ribianus, Bishop. Floratius and Henry Fitzsimon, 
at the 8th of July, enter a festival for St. Ribianus, a Bishop. 1 This is to be 
found, likewise, in the " Menologium Scoticum " of Thomas Dempster. 2 In 

saints, p. 531. 'In his Scottish Kalendar, Giswaldus is 

Article x. — ' See an account of him, placed at the 26th of June. 

under the various titles of Eruald, Erwald, Article XII. — ' See" Acta Sanctorum," 

Arnwal and Arnual in Franconia, at the tomus ii., Julii viii. Among the pretermitted 

date given, and in the Second Volume of .saints, p. 531. 

this work, Art. v. Article xiii.— l See ''Acta Sancto- 

a See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus ii., rum," tomus ii., Julii viii. Among the pre- 

Julii viii. Among the pretermitted feasts, termitted saints, p. 534. 

p. 1534. Article xiv. — ■ See O'Sullevan Beare's 

Article XL — x See " Acta Sanctorum," " Historic Catholicse Iberniae Compen- 

tomus ii., Julii viii. Among the pretermitted dium," tomus i., lib. iv., cap. xii., p. 56. 

saints, p. 531. a See Bishop Forbes' " Kalendars of 

July 8.] 



his larger work on Scottish Ecclesiastical History, there is nothing referring 
to him. 

Article XV. — St. Burchardus, First Bishop of Wurtzburg. 
Floratius, the Chronica Mundi, and Henry Fitzsimon, insert, at the 8th of 
July, the feast of St. Burchardus, Bishop. 1 The Bollandists 2 notice this entry, 
at the same date, but they refer to his principal feast at the 14th of October. 

Article XVI. — Reputed Festival of St. Aidus, Abbot and Martyr. 
[Ninth Century']. Our Irish Annals relate, that Aidus was Abbot of Tir-da- 
Ghlas x and of Cluain-Eidhneach, 2 in the earlier part of the ninth century. 

Ruined Fortress of Dunamase, Queen's County. 

He is called the son of Dubhdachrich.3 It would seem, that he was obliged 
to fly from the Northman devastations to Dun-Masg,* which was a strong 
fortress at the time. A fine castle, with a circumvallation on the upper sum- 
mit, and strong outworks around the lower level — accessible only on the 

Scottish Saints," p. 205. 

Article xv.— l See O'Sullevan Beare's 
"Historian Catholicae Iberniae Compen- 
dium," tomus i., lib. iv., cap. xii., p. 53. 

2 See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus ii., Julii 
viii. Among the pretermitted feasts, p. 534. 

Article xvi. — * Now Terryglass, in 
the county of Tipperary. 

2 Now Clonenagh, in the Queen's County. 

3 The Annals of Clonmacnoise, as trans- 
lated into English, render his name Hugh 
mac Duffedachrich, and they place his death 
atA.D. 842. 

4 Now Dunamase, near Maryborough, 

Queen's County. On this isolated rock for- 
merly stood a cashel or strongly fortified 
stone enclosure. 

s For an excellent and accurate illustration 
of the Barbican of Dunamase we are indebted 
to the pencil of Samuel Lover, R.H.A., the 
well-known Irish poet, novelist and painter, 
in the "Irish Penny Magazine," vol. i., No. 
3, p. 17. The historical article accompany- 
ing it is from the pen of John D'Alton, also 
celebrated for his valuable local histories of 
various parts of Ireland. 

6 These have been very inaccurately 
sketched and engraved in the works of Grose 


eastern side — had been erected on the site of the older Irish fortress, by 
William de Braosa, Lord of Brecknock, in the beginning of the thirteenth 
century. The following age, in 1325, it was seized by Lysach O'More, and 
afterwards it had a varied history.s The extensive and romantic ruins of that 
old castle 6 are to be seen there at present. 7 The old fortress of Dunamase 
was plundered by the foreigners, a.d. 843, and Aedh was there taken 
prisoner. He was thence carried into Munster, where he suffered martyrdom, 
for the sake of God. 8 It is added, in the Bollandists' work,' that this hap- 
pened on the 8th of July, 10 when they note this commemoration, although it 
appears to have been omitted, by the Irish Calendarists. 

Article XVII. — St. Colman Imramha or Iomhramha, of Fahan 
Beg, County of Donegal. A festival to honour Colman Imramha was 
celebrated at the 8th of July, as we find it entered in the Martyrology of 
Tallagh. 1 He is called Colman Eirmer, by Marianus O'Gorman. The Bol- 
landists 2 have notices of St. Colmanus Iomramha — interpreted Remex seu 
de remigio — at the 8th of July ; but, they pretend not to distinguish him 
further, among the many saints, called Colman, and entered in the Irish 
Calendars. He belonged to the race of Cairpre Riada, son to Conaire, who 
sprung from the race of Heremon. Fahan Beg, of Inis Eoghain, was his place. 
It lies on the eastern shores of that fine expanse of water Lough Swilly, in the 
barony of Inishowen, and county of Donegal. His name appears, 
likewise, in the Martyrology of Donegal,3 at the same date, as Colman 

Article XVIII. — Reputed Festival of St. Boisil, Prior of Mel- 
rose, Scotland. In the Kalendar of Herdmanston, 1 a later hand has in- 
serted a festival for St. Boisil, Prior of Melrose, at the 8th of July. 2 His Acts 
have been already epitomized, at the 23rd of February.3 

and Ledwich. 2 See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus ii., 

7 The accompanying illustration is from a Julii viii. Among the pretermitted saints, 

drawing taken on the spot, by William F. p. 533. 

Wakeman, and by him drawn on the wood, 3 Edited by Drs. Todd and Reeves, pp. 

engraved by Mrs. Millard. 190,191. 

"See Dr. O'Donovan's "Annals of the * "The more recent hand adds in Irish 

Four Masters," vol. i., pp. 464 to 467, and characters :" Colman Eirmer Mor." But 

n. (a), ibid. M'Curry's copy of the Brussels MS. reads, 

9 See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus ii., Colman crniep tmpairiA no tiALeb("Col- 
Julii viii. Among the pretermitted feasts, man, the Cimmerian wanderer, I invoke.") 
p. 533- A note by Dr. Todd. 

10 According to their version of the Annales Article xviii.— x Thus: "viii. Idus. 
Dungallenses. This date is omitted, however, Sancti Bosilii." 

in that work, as edited by Dr. John O'Dono- 2 See Bishop Forbes' " Kalendars of Scot- 
van, tish Saints," pp. 42, 281. 

Article xvil— « Edited by Rev. Dr. * See the Second Volume of this work 

Kelly, p. xxviii. Art. x 


#fttt& IBap of 3ulj?* 



THE present holy man lived contemporaneously with St. Patrick. 1 At 
the 9th of July, the Martyrology of Tallagh a mentions, that venera- 
tion was given to Broccaid. The name of his father was Gollit, according to 
received accounts. 3 It has been stated, that Broccaidh, of Imleach-Broc- 
cadha, in Maigheo, had Darerca, sister of St. Patrick, for his mother. Jocelyn, 
however, makes Tygridia his mother.* It is said, by O'Clery, that Gallit, 
sister s of Patrick, was the mother of Loman. But, this writer here mistakes, 
regarding what is said in the Tripartite Life, Gollit, being the father of Saints 
Loman, Munis, Broccaidh and Brogan or Broccan. 6 In another place,? a 
similar mistake has been committed, by the O'Clerys, in their Calendar. The 
Latin Tripartite Life of Patrick states, 8 that Broccaidh of Imlach Each, in 
Ciarriaghe, of Connaught, was a brother to Loman, of Ath-Truim. He was 
a bishop, according to received accounts. The Tripartite Life states, at 
another place,? that Broccaidh, of Imleach Each, brother to Loman, of Ath 
Truim, was along with Patrick at Magh-Sealga, in Connacht. The only 
place in Mayo known as Emlagh, at present, was formerly called Imleach- 
each, i.e., " Strath " or " Marsh of the Horses." It is situated, in the barony 
of Costello, and County of Mayo. 10 This place is described as being in 
Kierragia, a region of Connaught," and where a church had been erected by 
St. Brocadius. He was identical with the present saint, and his memory in 
connexion with it appears to have given a name to that place subsequent to 
his departure from this world. Archdall has erred in placing it within the 
county of Roscommon. 12 , There were no less than three different places, 
called Ciarraighe or Kierraga,^ in Connaught. St. Brochad I4 accompanied 
St. Patrick on his mission to Magh-Selga in Connaught. The Imleach to 
which this saint belonged, was a church in the deanery of Siol-Muiredhuigh, 
Elphin diocese, according to a Catalogue of Churches belonging to this dio- 

Article 1. — * See his Life, in the Third and nn. 8, 106, pp. 173, 177. 

Volume of this work, at the 17th of March, 9 Chapter Twenty-two is quoted. 

Art. i. I0 See Dr. O'Donovan's " Annals of the 

2 Edited by Rev. Dr. Kelly, p. xxix. Four Masters," vol. i., n. (d), pp. 359, 

3 See Rev. Dr. Todd's "St. Patrick, 360. 

Apostle of Ireland," Introduction, Appendix " See Colgan's "Acta Sanctorum Hiber- 

B, p. 260. niae," xvii. Februarii, Vita S. Lomani, cap. 

* See Colgan's "Trias Thaumaturga," iii., p. 362. 

Sexta Vita S. Patricii, cap. 1., p. 76, and n. " See " Monasticon Hibernicum," p. 

51, p. 100. 610. 

s See Rev. Drs. Todd and Reeves' J 3 See Dr. O'Donovan's "Leabhar na 

" Martyrology of Donegal," pp. 190, 191. g-Ceart, or the Book of Rights," pp. 100 to 

6 See Colgan's " Trias Thaumaturga," 103, n. (f). 

Quinta Appendix ad Acta S. Patricii, cap. ** Colgan mentions this saint, as one of 

iv., p. 226. those venerated in the church of Mayo. "S. 

7 At the 1 8th of December. Brochadius de Imleach Brochaidh, in Mageo, 

8 See Colgan's "Trias Thaumaturga," 9 Julii." — "Acta Sanctorum Hibernise," 
lib. ii., cap. ii., p. 129 ; also cap. Iii., p. 136, xiii. Martii, Appendix, cap. iv., p. 605. 


cese, which had been sent to Colgan, by the Very Rev. Boetius Egan, brother 
to the Bishop of Elphin.'s It was situated in the present parish of Kilkeevin, 16 
of Castlereagh Barony and Roscommon County. We are enabled to dis- 
cover the exact situation of St. Brocaidh's place, from crown grants,^ the 
rolls l8 and other documents. This parish of Kilkeevin is bounded on the 
north, by Tibohine and Baslick parishes- on the east, by this latter parish 
and that of Ballintober ; on the south, by Kiltullagh parish, a part of Galway 
County, and part of Drumatemple parish in Roscommon County ; and on the 
west, by Kiltullagh parish and part of Mayo County. 1 * The Rev. Dr. Todd 2 ° 
has incorrectly identified the church of Broccaide with Imliuch or Emleach Each 
or the " Horses' Marsh," in the barony of Costello and county of Mayo. 
The three Kierragas of Connaught are thus more particularly denominated by 
Irish historical writers : Ciarraighe Locha na n airneadh, Ciarraighe Uachtair, 
and Ciarraighe Aoi, otherwise called Ciarraighe Mhic Ceithearnaigh. The last 
of these is comprised in the present county of Roscommon, and the other 
two in that of Mayo. 31 The present barony of Costello comprises two terri- 
tories, namely, Sliabh Lugha, the ancient patrimony of O'Gara, and Ciar- 
raighe Locha na n airneadh. The boundary between them is defined by that 
of the diocese of Achonry with that of Tuam. The territory of Ciarraighe 
Uachtair comprises the entire of the present barony of Clanmorris, with the 
exception of the Termon of Balla, which comprised 24 ballys or ancient Irish 
townlands, and which belonged to the territory of Ceara. The parish of 
Balla was added to the territory of Ceara, and it made the remaining part 
of the barony of Clanmorris the same as the territory of Ciarraighe Uach- 
tair. 22 This saint's name is found entered on Henry Fitzsimon's list. 2 *- The 
Martyrology of Donegal 2 * records him, at this same date. Under the head 
of Imlech Brochada or Brochaid, 25 in Magh-Eo Magh Ai, Duald Mac Firbis 

'S See Colgan's "Trias Thaumaturga," ar On the Map of ancient Mayo, Mr. 

Septima Vita S. Patricii, lib. ii., nn. 104, O'Donovan has both the districts of ce<in- 

106, 107, p. 177. f»Aije, situated in this county thus bounded. 

16 "There is an old church at Emlagh in On the north, the ancient territories of 541- 

this parish, at which there springs a very lean^A and Sliab U15A ; on the east, Ros- 

sacred fountain, where patterns were held common County ; on the south the county 

on the 15th and 28th of August ; but strange of Roscommon, and the ancient territory of 

to say it has no name but cobap An lml/15. Conmaicne, in Mayo ; and on the west, the 

This is the Imlach Brocadb (Each) of Col- ancient territory of Ceaj\A in Mayo, 

gan." — " Letters containing Information 23 " The authorities for these boundaries 

relating to the Antiquities of the County have already been given in the Mayo Letters, 

of Roscommon, collected during the Pro- but I thought it necessary to add the fore- 

gress of the Irish Ordnance Survey in the going remarks on the manner in which I 

year 1837." Mr. O'Donovan's Letter, dated laid down the territories on the ancient Map, 

Castlereagh, July 10th, 1837, vol. i., p. 170. that it may be seen how far the boundaries 

'7 See one of these to Richard, Earl of are proved." See "Letters containing lnfor- 
Clanrickard, dated 8th April, 1662, grant- mation relating to the Antiquities of the 
ing him several parcels of land and tithes, County of Mayo, collected during the Pro- 
formerly belonging to the absorbed parish of gress of the Irish Ordnance Survey in 1841." 
Termon Kelline, alias Termonbeg. One o( paper headed, " Of the Ancient Territories 
those was Imlaghbrocowa, now in the pre- constituting the County of Mayo, in the pro- 
sent parish of Kilkeevan, which contains vince of Connaught," signed, John O'Dono- 
the town of Castlerea, County Roscom- van, May 15th, 1 84 1. See vol. ii., pp. 503, 
mon. 504. 

18 See Dr. O'Donovan's Supplement to * See " Catalogus aliquorum Sanctorum 

O'Reilly's " Irish Dictionary," voce Imlach ; Ibetniaj." O'Sullevan Beare's " Historic 

and Patent Roll of 35th of Queen Elizabeth, Catholicae Iberniae Compendium," tomus i., 

part 2. lib. iv., cap. xii., p. 53. 

*» See Ordnance Survey Maps of the 3 * Edited by Drs. Todd and Reeves, pp. 

County of Roscommon. 190,191. 

30 See " St. Patrick, Apostle of Ireland," a * Now Emlech, barony of Costello, county 

Introduction Appendix B, p. 260. of Mayo. William M. Hennessy's note. 


enters Bishop Brochad, at July 9th, and in two distinct places. 26 In the Irish 
Calendar, belonging to the Royal Irish Academy, we find this saint's 
name referred to,*? at the vii. of the July Ides, corresponding with the 9th 
of July. 

Article II. — St. Onchon or Onchu, of Clonmore, County of Carlow, 
or of Rath-Blathmac, now Rath, County of Clare. Earthly power and 
decay have been able to obliterate vestiges of ourformer saints with the memory 
of their names and places, in particular districts of our Island. But, although 
ruin and loneliness characterize the sites of their ancient churches; however, 
some glimmering lights may help to brighten the shadows. A few doubtful 
inferences only can be drawn in reference to the present holy man. In the 
" Feilire" of St. ^Engus, 1 the Festival of St. Onchon is found at this date, 
with a panegyric, and an encomium on the efficiency of his intercession. It is 
difficult to determine, whether or not this holy man had been identical with 
St. Onchuo 2 of Clonmore, in the county of Carlow; but, an Irish poem 3 
seems to favour the affirmative conclusion. However, the scholiast offers an 
opinion, that Onchu was a priest, and the son of Blathmac of Raith Blath- 
maic, in the upper part of Dal-cais.* On this conjecture alone appears to rest 
the conclusion of Colgan and the O'Clerys. In the Martyrology of Tallaght, 5 
we find but the simple entry, Onchon, at the 9th of July. He is noticed, 
also, by Marianus O'Gorman. 6 As already, at the 8th of February, the 
Calendar of St. ^Engus contains an entry of Hua or Hoa, without designating 
his place, but calling him a splendid descendant of the sage, and stating that 
his speech was of Christ, so the panegyric of Onchon at the present day leaves 
it possible, either that they may have been distinct persons, or one and the 
same having two different festivals. If he were identical with the patron of 
Clonmore, sufficient has been stated regarding him at the 8th of February; 
if lie be distinct, we may probably seek for a more distant locality. His 
place is now known, it is said, as the old church of Rath, in the barony of 
Inchiquin, and county of Clare. Dr. O'Donovan states, that the festival of 

26 See " Proceedings of the Royal Irish 3 It is thus translated into English : — 
Academy," Irish Manuscript Series, vol. i.. 

part i., pp. 112, 113, and at pp. 122, 123. " Dear the two who are at rest 

27 Thus: OnogAio Irntech bnocAOA 1 At the cross with relics in the south 
ITU115 eo, Common Place Book F, p. 62. Onchu who loved not a despicable 
Irish Ordnance Survey Copy. world, 

Article ii. — ' In the "Leabhar Breac" . Finan the Leper, hand of the bene- 

copy we have the following rann, translated fits. 

thus into English by Whitley Stokes, The poet's son Onchu, a forceful 

LL.D. : — man, 

A poet vigorous in quelling tribes. 

<Arlon , ou , o An Onchon At the place where the tree falls, 

Ittofcic each nounAile It is not easy to carry off its top." 
pncnirc cAnAir leni 

j^rvoAn cAm Cmn^ocrAiLe. Seethe Scholion, ibid., cxviii. The Com- 
mentator adds, that the membro, i.e., the 

" A spendid declaring of Onchu : well fares relics of Finan the Leper and of Onchu are 

every one who entreats him : he loved dili- in one place, i.e., in Cluain Mor. 

gence as to Christ, Garban the fair of Cenn- 4 It is observed, likewise, that in one 

saile." — "Transactions of the Royal Irish religious sepulchre he was with Finan. See 

Academy," Irish Manuscript Series, vol. i., ibid., p. cxvii. 

On the Calendar of Oengus, p. ex. s Edited by Rev. Dr. Kelly, p. xxviii. 

2 See an account of him in the Second 6 See Colgan's "Acta Sanctorum Iliber- 

Volume of this work, at the 8th of February, nice," viii. Februarii, Vita S. Onchuonis, n. 

Art. i. 2, p. 277. 



St. Blathmac 1 was celebrated there, on the 9th day of July. Blathmac's 
name is still remembered at the church, but his festival is no longer cele- 
brated. 8 According to Colgan, this saint was venerated at Killonchon, Cor- 
comroe territory, on the 9th and 14th of July. 9 The Bollandists take no 
notice of him, at the 9th of July. The Martyrology of Donegal IO records 
him, however, at this date, as Onchu, son of Blathmac, in Dalg-Cias, i.e., of 
Rath Blathmaic. The meaning of this word is Blathmac's Fort. The time 
of this saint cannot be determined, but it seems to have been during or before 
the eighth century. 

Article III. — St. Garbhan, of Kinsealy, County of Dublin, or 
of Kinsale, County of Cork. In a previous article, at this date, as we 
have already seen, there is mention made of Garbdn by our earliest pre- 
served Martyrology — that of St. ^ngus the Culdee. 1 He is there eulogized 
for his diligence in the service of Christ, and he is characterized as the fair 
of Cennsaile. Whether or not the latter description have reference to his 
complexion or to the qualities of his mind may be questioned. The name of 
Garban, priest, Cinntsaile, occurs in the Martyrology of Tallagh, 2 at the 9th 
of July. In the Calendar of Cashel, this saint has been commemorated, as 
likewise, in other Martyrologies. His parents appear to have been Lugad, 
the father, and Canneria, his mother. 3 This couple had six sons, besides St. 
Garbhan. 4 It is thought to be probable, that this was the holy man, men- 
tioned in the Life of St. Kevin,* Abbot of Glendalough, and who lived near 
Athcliath, which lay in the northern part of Leinster. Colgan 6 seems to 
identify this saint with that one mentioned in the Life of St. Kevin, and who is 
said to have lived near Dublin. It was called Dubh-lein ? — now Dublin — in 
the Scottish or Irish tongue. Its Latin signification is said to have been 
Nigra thermae, or in English " blackbath." 8 The situation of Kinsealy, near 
Dublin city, would appear to favour such a conjecture.9 If so, he was a 
contemporary and a disciple to St. Kevin. In the Martyrology of Donegal, 10 
at this same date, he is recorded, as Garbhan, priest, of Ceann-saile, on the 
west side of Surd, or in the west of Erin. This means, that the author was 
not sure to which Ceann-saile he should refer St. Garbhan, whether to Kin- 

7 Probably Dr. O'Donovan meant, Onchu, 6 See ** Acta Sanctorum Hiberniae," xxvi. 
son of Blathmac. Martii. De S. Garvano Abbate, nn. 2, 3, 4, 

8 See Dr. O'Donovan's "Annals of the p. 751. 

Four Masters," vol. v., n. (x), pp. 1574, 7 A Manuscript thus describes it: " Et 

1575. ipsa civitas potens et belligera est, in quo 

» See "Acta Sanctorum Hiberniae," viii. semper habitant viri asperrimi in proeliis, et 

Februarii, Vita S. Onchuonis, n. 2, p. 277. peretissimi in classibus." 

10 Edited by Drs. Todd and Reeves, pp. 8 See Walter Harris' " History and Anti- 

190, 191. quities of the City of Dublin from the 

Article hi. — x See "Transactions of Earliest Accounts," chap, ix., pp. 164, 165. 

the Royal Irish Academy," Irish Manuscript He quotes a Latin passage, transcribed from 

Series, vol. i. On the Calendar of Oengus, the Manuscript called Codex Kilkenniensis, 

p. ex. cap. 30. This is probably the well known 

a Edited by Rev. Dr. Kelly, p. xxix. copy thus denominated, and preserved in 

3 According to ^Engus the Culdee, in his Marsh's Library. 

attributed "Opuscula," lib. iv., cap. 66. 9 There is an engraving of Kinsealy old 

4 With this statement, the Sanctilogium church by George A. Hanlon, from a sketch 
Genealogicum, cap. xx., accords. See Col- by John J. Sloane, C.E. The latter gentle- 
gan's "Acta Sanctorum Hiberni*," xxvi. man also furnishes a description of it in his 
Martii. De S. Garvano Abbate, nn. 2, 3, 4, Antiquarian Rambles in the County of 
p. 751. Dublin. See "Irish Literary Gazette," 

5 See his Life, in the Sixth Volume of this vol. ii., pp. 243, 244. 

work, at the 3rd of June, Art. i. I0 Edited by Drs. Todd and Reeves, 

July 9.] 



sealy, at the west of Swords, or to Kinsale, in the west — but rather in the 
south — of Ireland. If we are to understand, this latter had been the place, the 
town and parish so called 11 are situated in the barony of Kinsale, in the county 
of Cork, East Riding. A part of the town is in Ringcunan parish." There 
a prominent rock advances far out in the Atlantic Ocean, and it is known as 
the Old Head of Kinsale. The isthmus connecting it with the mainland 
had been blocked by a strong castle x 3 and its fortifications, now in ruins. 1 * 

De Courcey's Castle, Old Head of Kinsale, County Cork. 

These appear to have been erected by John de Courcey, 15 who inherited the 
circumjacent country, owing to intermarriage with the family of Cogan, who 
are deemed to have obtained the lands by right of conquest from the Irish. 16 
However, it is said to have had a more ancient repute as a royal residence of the 
Irish kings, and to have been known as Duncearma. 1 ? The present town of 
Kinsale is at the mouth of the Bandon River, 18 where the sea meets it, and 
furnishes a good harbour. It is also picturesquely situated, x 9 and it is stated 
to have had an ancient history connected with it. According to Colgan, 20 
a disciple of St. Ailbe — called a good master and named Goban— is said to 
have had a monastery dedicated to him at Kennsaile. It has been assumed, 

pp. 190, 191. 

" They are shown, on the "Ordnance 
Survey Townland Maps for the County of 
Cork," sheets 112, 125. 

13 See ibid., sheets 97, 98, ill, 1 12, 125. 

13 Its dimensions with a wood engraving 
may be found in " The Irish Penny Maga- 
zine, " vol. ii., No. 2, January, nth, 1834, 
pp.9, 10. 

14 The accompanying illustration from an 
approved drawing has been sketched by 
William F. Wakeman on the wood, en- 
graved by Mrs. Millard. 

15 See " Parliamentary Gazetteer of Ire- 
land," vol. ii., p. 569. 

16 A very full and an interesting account 

of the Barony, Parish, Town, and Old Head 
of Kinsale, may be there found. See ibid., 
pp. 566 to 570. 
1 See ibid., p. 570. 

18 Its position is well defined in Dr. 
Charles Smith's "Ancient and Present 
State of the County and City of Cork." See 
County Map attached, vol. i., book i., 
chap, i., p. 15. 

19 A copperplate engraving of this town 
from the Old Fort in 1750 is to be found in 
the work just quoted. See book ii., chap, iii., 
p. 215. 

20 See "Acta Sanctorum Hibernise," xxvi. 
Martii. De S. Gobano Abbate de Airdne 
Dairinnsi, p. 750. 


that this place should be in Cork; yet, it must be a matter still left for conjecture. 
There was also a St. Melteoc or Eltin" connected with the church ofCluain, 
between the mountains of Crot and Mairge, and who is said to have been 
buried at Kennsaile, a maritime town in southern Munster. 22 The references 
to these historic statements have been misunderstood and obscured by Arch- 
dall ; 2 3 and no less so by Dr. Charles Smith, who makes St. Multeoc or Eltin 
the same as a supposed female saint Multosia or Multos, to whom the parish 
church of Kinsale is stated to have been dedicated in the fourteenth cen- 
tury. 2 '* Here, too, it is related, that there had been an Abbey for Carmelites 
or White Friars in that century, founded by Robert Fitz-Richard Balrain, a.d. 
1334, a part of the ruins remaining on the north end of the town. 2 * The 
prior, Stephen Prene, obtained a quarter of land in Liscahan, a.d. 1350, 26 
from the founder. The Protestant church at Kinsale 2 ? has been modernized, 
and it occupies the site of the fourteenth century structure. The history of 
this town is fraught with considerable interest. 

Article IV. — Reputed Feast of a St. Molruan. The Bollandists 
notice a certain — or rather an uncertain — St. Molruan, Archbishop and 
Legate in Ireland, at the 9th of July, 1 on the authority of Father Henry Fitz- 
simon. A sort of Life had been given to them, but partaking of a legendary 
character in their estimation. He is said to have been a holy man, to have 
undergone persecutions and accusations, to have gone to Rome so that he 
might exculpate himself from some charges, to have returned again to Ireland, 
where full of years and of merits he passed to the rewards of eternal life, on 
the 9th of July. The Bollandists sought eagerly for accounts of him in 
various Irish and Scotch Calendars, at this date, but in vain. It seems to 
us, he must have been confounded with St. Maelruan of Tallagh, already 
noticed, at the 7th of this month. Afterwards, the Bollandists notice an 
entry of the names Germanus, Kilianus, Ribianus, Totnanus and Brocardus, 9 
as having been placed in the extended Kalendar of Father Henry Fitzsimon. 
Among the foregoing, Dempster alone notes, Ribianus as a Bishop, but, the 
Bollandists desire to have further knowledge before including them on their 
list of saints. 3 There is a Brocadius, no doubt, mentioned by Colgan,* in his 
Acts of St. Patrick, but the Bollandists cannot readily admit, that all the 
Irish Apostle's relatives had been classed among the saints. 

•Article V. — St. Condmac or Connmach, of Ath-Blair, or Atha- 

21 His feast has been assigned to Decern- Dublin Penny Journal," vol. ii., No. 90, pp. 

ber nth. 297, 298. 

"See ibid., x. Martii. De S. Sedonio Article iv.— ■ See " Acta Sanctorum," 

Episcopo S. Senani Discipulo, p. 573, and tomus ii., July ix. Among the pretermitted 

n. 4. saints, p. 668. 

2 3 See " Monasticon Hibernicum," p. 74. 2 They state " Bcllandm alicubi legit pro 

2 * See " Ancient and present State of the Germano et Bibiano, Rimanus et Mul- 

County and City of Cork," vol. i., book ii., tonus;" yet, however their names be 

chap, iii., p. 219. changed, none of these belong to the pre- 

2 s See ibid. sent day. About Germanus they treated at 

86 According to Sir James Ware's Manu- the 3rd of July, and about Kilianus and 

scripts, vol. 34, p. 108. See Archdall's Totnanus on their proper day, the 8th of 

"Monasticon Hibernicum," p. 74, and July. 

n. (p). 3 See "ActaSanctorum,"tomus ii.Julii ix. 

2 7 There is a woodcut representing this Among the pretermitted saints, pp. 668, 669, 

building, with some historic notices, in "The 4 See Colgan's "Trias Thaumaturga," 


silain. In the Martyrology of Tallagh, 1 at the 9th of July, a festival is 
recorded in honour of Condmac, of Atha silain. The place of this saint is 
differently denominated in the later Calendar. The Martyrology of Donegal, 8 
at the'same date, enters the name as Connmach, of Ath Blair. We have not 
been able to identify his place under either denomination. 

Article VI. — Reputed Feast of St. Germanus, Bishop, and of 
others. The various compilations of Floratius, Molanus, 1 and Henry Fitz- 
simon, 2 enter St. Germanus, Bishop, at the 9th of July.3 The Bollandists 
notice him, at this same date, but only the authority of Greven's additions to 
the Martyrology of Usuard ; yet, they know not who that saint can be, if not 
the Germanus, whose commemoration has been already treated of, at the 
3rd day of July/ Jocelyn has some account of him, in his Acts of St. 
Patrick,* and as stated, we have recorded whatever can be known about him. 6 

Cent!) JBap of 3ulp* 


AFTER the Church of Christ had been founded, and when Christians 
were redeemed through his precious blood ; then her illustrious chil- 
dren, whether as Martyrs, Apostles, Doctors, Virgins or Confessors, began to 
exhibit those virtues and labours, which served to extend her sway over the 
hearts of men. Several holy missionaries banded together for this purpose, 
and left the shores of Ireland for more distant countries. Among those was 
Etto, and he became a saint illustrious for his apostolic zeal and miracles. 
The particulars of his Acts are only to be gleaned from popular tradition, 
nor do we know that any very ancient written accounts regarding him are to 
be found. No doubt, there are several inaccuracies that have been incor- 
porated with the more authentic accounts, yet even for those incorrect state- 
ments, reasons may be assigned, and allowances must be made. 

A Life of this saint has come down to us, but it does not appear to be a very 
ancient one. The date of its composition is uncertain, and it is supposed 
to have been the composition of a monk at Liesse. 1 It has a Prologue of the 

Quinta Appendix ad Acta S. Patricii, cap. * See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus ii., 

iv., p. 230. Julii ix. Among the pretermitted saints, pp. 

Article v.— ■ Edited by Rev. Dr. 667, 668. 

Kelly, p. xxix. s See Colgan's "Trias Thaumaturga," 

2 Edited by Drs. Todd and Reeves, pp. Sexta Vita S. Patricii, cap. xcii. 

190, 191. 6 In the present volume, at July the 3rd, 

Article vi. — ■ In Vita S. Eloquii. Art. i. 

3 See "Catalogus aliquorum Sanctorum Article 1.— ■ In the Latin language, 
Iberniae. this town is written Lsetiae or Letia, in Han- 

3 See O'Sullevan Beare's "Historice nonia or Nerviorum. It is generally known 

Catholicse Iberniae Compendium," tomus i., at present among the French-speaking 

lib. iv., cap. xii., p. 54. people as Liessies or Liessy, in the diocese 


Author, and then follows a narrative of public events, connected with the 
period of Etto's arrival on the Continent, as also the subsequent traditional 
accounts, regarding his mission and career. His offices and the Martyrologies 
hardly serve to throw any additional lights on his history. In French, this 
saint is called Z€ ; but, in the ancient Lives, his name is written Etto or 
Ethon. Sometimes, too, he is named Hetto. 3 It was Colgan's purpose to 
have published his biography, at the ioth of July.3 In the " Natales Sanc- 
torum Belgii,"* there are some notices of St. Etto, as also in Miraeus.s The 
Bollandists have special accounts of this holy man. 6 A commentary 7 pre- 
cedes his Acts. These follow, with the author's prologue, in two chapters 
and seventeen paragraphs. His Acts have been published from a Manu- 
script, 8 belonging to the Abbey of Marchiennes. This has been collated with 
two other Codices ; one of these having been in the hands of D. Prued- 
homme, a Canon of Cambrai, and another belonged to the collection at 
Alnensis. In the " Acta Sanctorum Belgii,"? Etto is particularly commemo- 
rated. Some notices of him are to be met with, in the work of Bishop 
Challoner. 10 The Petits Bollandistes also have an account of St. Etton or 
Z£, at this date." There is a notice of St. Etto, likewise, in Rev. S. Baring- 
Gould's " Lives of the Saints.'' 12 

St. Etto was a native of Ireland ;*3 but, regarding his family descent, and 
earlier years, we have no account. He was probably born in the early part 
of the seventh century. There he was instructed in a knowledge of the Scrip- 
tures, and trained in the principles of virtue. ** This holy person is said to 
have been in Britain, to confer with many saints, that then flourished in these 
Islands ; but, whether he joined St. Fursey I5 there or in Ireland is not 
known. 16 As we have already seen, in the Life of St. Fursey, 1 ? that a certain 
Count named Madelgarius, 18 surnamed Vincent, and who had gone to 

of Cambrai. Here there was a celebrated I3 See Bishop Challoner's " Britannia 

Abbey of Benedictines. It is situated on the Sancta," part ii., p. 31. 

River Helpra, not far distant from Avesnes. I4 See Les Petits Bollandistes, "Vies 

See Hadrianus Valesius, " Notitia Gallia- des Saints," tome viii., x e Jour de Juillet, 

rum," p. 260. p. 238. 

■ As by Mirseus, and byBaldericus, Bishop IS See his Life, in the First Volume of 

of Toumay and Namur. this work, at the 16th of January, Art. i. 

3 This we find, from the posthumous list l6 Mabillon merely alludes to him in a 
of his Manuscripts. passing manner, and adds: " De beato 

4 In two paragraphs, at the loth of July, Ettone nudum fere noraen nobis relictum 
pp.147, !48. est." — " Annales Ordinis S. Benedicti," 

s See "Fasti Belgici et Burgundici," pp. tomus i., lib. xiv., sect, iv., pp. 411, 412. 

391 to 394. ' 7 See the First Volume of this work, at 

6 See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus iii., Julii January 16th, Art. i., chap. v. 

x. De S. Ettone Ep. et Conf. Leetiis in l8 According to the Acts of our saint, 

Belgio, pp. 48 to 62. Madelgarius was born in Hibernia of noble 

? In five sections, and forty-three para- parents, and he came to Fiance, where he 

graphs. married Waldetrude, daughter of the noble 

8 This had been sent to the Bollandists in Walbert, and for a long time he served in the 
1636, by D. Christian le Roy. It has been wars of King Dagobert. He had been urged 
composed in a diffuse and careless historic by the pious Waldetrude, to separate from 
fashion. her, and to lead a religious life, which she 

9 See vol. iii., at the loth of July. At most earnestly desired for herself. He 
Lrctiis, in Hannonia. There is a Historico- affected to yield to her wishes, but leaving 
critical commentary, by Cornelius Smet, in her, he returned to Ireland, where he in- 
three sections, pp. 666 to 682. tended to take another wife. Learning this 

10 See "Britannia Sancta," part ii., pp. purpose, Waldetrude followed her husband 
31, 32. to Ireland, with some companions, where 

11 See "Vies des Saints," tome viii., she exhorted him in such moving words, 
x e Jour de Juillet, pp. 238, 239. that he firmly resolved on returning with her 

12 See vol. vii., July ioth, p. 261. to Prance, where both of them afterwards 


Ireland, 1 ? waited upon that celebrated missionary in England, and succeeded 
in persuading him to visit Gaul, where he afterwards founded the monastery 
of Lagny. At this period, that country was just beginning to recover from 
the devastations of the Huns and Vandals, with other barbarous invaders. 20 
With his brothers Foillan 2I and Ultan," as also with Mimbolus, a 3 Eloquius, 2 * 
Bertuin, 2 s Fredegandus, 26 Adalgisus 2 ? and Gobban, 28 disciples ofSt. Fursey, 3 ? 
Etto was one of those apostolic preachers, who, in the seventh century, went 
forth to spread the Gospel on the Continent. 2 * They are said to have accom- 
panied Madelgarius 3I and his wife St. Waldetrude, 32 when these returned to 
France. The great desire of the holy missionaries was to visit Rome, in the 
first instance ; most probably to receive the necessary jurisdiction and 
approval, for the tasks which they had proposed to accomplish. About the 
middle of the seventh century, they arrived in France, and Etto thence made 
a pilgrimage to Rome, but whether in company with St. Fursey or not seems 
to be uncertain. While he was visiting the tombs of the Apostles, it is said, 
that he received episcopal consecration. 33 By Molanus, he is styled 
" Hiberniensis Episcopus." 3 * Afterwards, he returned to France. With St. 
Fursey, it is stated, that Etto lived for a time at Lagny,35 and that he carried 
the word of God afterwards into the Low Countries. He passed into those 
parts with six other companions, and in the company of St. Waldetrude. 
Among the holy men, who went to preach in the Low Countries with St. Etto, 
or about the same time, was St. Bertuin, a Bishop. He built an oratory, at 
Maloigne, 36 upon the Sambre. After his return from Rome, Etto chose for 
his abode a solitary place, near the little river Corbriol. Like many of the 
primitive saints, he had a Divine inspiration, that he was destined to evange- 
lize the people, in that part of the diocese of Cambrai. St. Etto settled on a 
little stream at Thierache, near the town of Avesnes. There he cleared away 
the brambles, and built a cell for his occupation. 

At first, he experienced some difficulties and opposition, owing to a man 
named Jovinus, who laid claim to the land, he being unwilling that a stranger 

entered the religious state. a6 On the 17th of July, his festival occurs 

x » The writer of St. Etto's Life thus de- s ? See his Life, at the 2nd of June, 

scribes it positions and states : " Est autem 28 His feast is not correctly known. 

Hyberniaproxima Britannia? Insula, spatio 29 See Colgan's "Acta Sanctorum Hiber- 

terrarum angustior, sed situ fcecundior. Hsec niae," xvi. Januarii, Appendix ad Acta S. 

ab Africo in Boream porrigitur, cujus partes Fursaei, cap. vi., p. 96. 

priores ab Hibernia et Cantabrico oceano 3 ° We are not to take in a too literal sense 

includuntur." the statement of some writers that all the 

20 At a.d. 407, Miraeus writes, "in- foregoing were brothers of St. Fursey, ex- 
numerabiles et ferocissimae nationes univer- cept in a religious sense. Even the writer 
sas Gallias occuparunt. Quidquid inter of our saint's Acts, alluding to persons 
Alpes et Pireneum est, quod Oceano et named in the text, observes, " licet de omni- 
Rhodano includitur, Quadus, Vandalus, bus non simus certi, utrum fuerunt carnali 
Sarmata, Alani, Gepides, Heruli, Saxones, nativitate germani," &c. 
Burgundiones, Alemanni et hostes Pannonii 3I See further notices of him, at July 14th 
vastarunt." — "Rerum Belgicarum Chroni- — his feast-day— in the present volume, 
con, ab Julii Caesaris in Galliam Adventu, 32 See her Life, in the Fourth Volume of 
usque ad vulgarem Christi Annum 1636," this work, at the 9th of April, Art. i. 

&c. Antverpiae, 1636, fol. 33 See Les Petits Bollandistes, " Vies des 

21 His feast occurs, at the 31st of Octo- Saints," tome viii., x e Jour de Juillet, 
ber. p. 238. 

22 At the 1st of May, his feast is com- 34 See "Natales Sanctorum Belgii," at 
memorated. Julii x. 

33 His festival is held, on the 18th of 35 See Rev. Dr. Lanigan's "Ecclesiastical 

November. History of Ireland," vol. ii., chap, xvi., sect. 

I 3 * His Acts are at the 3rd of December. x., p. 462, and n. 98, p. 464. 

25 His feast is on the nth of Novem- 3 * Also called Maconia, in the territory of 

ber. Liege. 


should take possession of it. Jovinus railed at the holy man, nor would he 
enter upon any terms of compromise, until convinced by a miracle, that he 
should yield, and make an humble apology to Etto. There our saint erected 
a church, under the patronage of St. Peter, chief of the Apostles. He used to 
visit the Abbey of Hautmont, where under St. Ansbert, 3 ? Madelgarius lived j 
and there he niet St. Amandus,3 8 St. Wasno, and St. Humbert.39 There, too, 
St. Ursmar <° and his assistant bishop Erminus -* 1 met him ; as also St. 
Wasnulph,* 2 St. Gissen/3 St. Aldegunde,^ and St. Gertrude/s Besides these, 
St. Foillan and St. Ultan came to meet him from the monastery of Fosse,* 6 
as likewise many other celebrated fathers of the Church, who were living in 
France during his time. 

Throughout all that region, St. Etto zealously laboured to spread the 
Gospel seed. As a light placed on a pedestal cannot be hidden, so did the- 
fame of his virtues spread on all sides. To the place of his abode came 
numerous visitors, to ask his counsel in spiritual affairs, as also to obtain the 
succours of religion. But, Etto was exceedingly humble in his own estima- 
tion, nor could he bear that others should think highly concerning him. One 
of the miracles recorded of our saint is that one day, and while walking in a 
field, he saw a mute cow-herd sleeping. Touching him gently with a staff, 4 ? 
the man arose, and immediately found the use of speech. Fiscau or Fescau, 48 
afterwards a priory, and depending on the Abbey of Liessy, near Avesnes, in 
Hainault, was the place noted in connexion with St. Etto's demise. Here he 
lived for a considerable time, constantly engaged in prayer, and crucified to 
the world. Daily did he offer the Holy Victim in Sacrifice to the Lord. 
He became a father of the poor, a protector of the widow, an aid of the 
orphan, a consoler of those in sorrow and tribulation, aransomer of captives, 
and an intercessor for all who were reduced in circumstances. Finding his 
last days on earth about to close, St. Etto called his disciples to him, and 
then gave them special instructions, to observe the precepts of charity and 
peace towards one another, as also to fulfil with great care the duties of a 
Christian and a religious life. Receiving from him an intimation, that he 

3 7 This holy bishop has a festival at the " Mutus ad haec coeptis instabat talia 
9th of February. dictis : 

38 His feast occurs at the 6th of February. Quid mirando stupes? metritis quid 
From him the town of St. Amand in Flan- vero perhorres, 

ders has been Darned. Muta tuis tacitas si fudit lingua loque- 

39 See Rev. S. Baring-Gould's "Lives of las? 

the Saints," vol. vii., July 10, p. 261. Numne recordarisDominantis, Sancte 

40 His feast has been assigned to the 18th fidelis 

of April, Angelecis tremefacta minis quia fatur 

*' He has a feast at the 25th of April, but asella 

it does not seem probable, he could have Sessori per verba suo ; linguaque 

been a bishop, during the lifetime of St. rudenti 

Etto. He died in the year 737. Edidit humanas animal pecualeloque- 

42 His feast occurs on the 1st of Octo- las? 

ber. Immemor es rerum, quoniam Sapien- 

43 His festival is at the 9th of October. tia mutum 

44 Her feast is at the 30th of January. Saepius os reserare solet, puerisque 
4 s Her festival is held on the 17th of disertas 

March. Efficiens linguas, cogit depromere 

46 The fiollandists remark, that all the laudes ? 

holy persons named in the Latin Acts of Talia fante viro, gratulans venerabi- 

our saint, as published by them, may be com- lis Etto, 

bined whether as contemporaries or as Congrua pro facto referebat munia 

locals. Christo." 

4 ? This anecdote is thus introduced, where 

related in St. Etto's Acts, and in Latin *'~ This place is situated on the confines 

hexameter lines: — of Picardyand Artois. 


should soon leave this world, his monks were moved to tears, and they 
naturally gave way to sorrow. However, they felt consoled when Etto 
imparted a special blessing on them. For immediate preparation, to meet 
death, the holy man redoubled his prayers and vigils, fasting with still greater 
strictness and giving alms most bountifully. The night before his departure, 
Etto had a vision regarding the place of his sepulture ; and, on waking, he 
desired one of his friends to meet another, who was then in an adjoining wood, 
preparing a coffin, although he knew not for whom it was destined. This 
coffin that man was engaged in bringing away on a cart, drawn by a bullock. 
The coffin was brought to Etto, who had desired to see it. Afterwards, he 
devoutly received the Body and Blood of our Lord in the Holy Sacrament. 
Then, in the presence of his disciples, who were standing round, his soul 
passed away to the company of the Holy Angels and Saints.* He is said to 
have departed, in the sixty-fifth year of his age. His death has been assigned 
to about a.d. 670.5° 

On the 10th of July, various ecclesiastical authors commemorate St. Etto. 
His feast has been noted, in the Belgian, Gallican and Benedictine Martyr- 
ologies. Thus, Saussay,* 1 Molanus, 52 Miraeus,53 Ferrarius,** Wion, Dorgan, 
Menard, Bucelin,55 Castellan,5 6 and Baldericus, have notices of him. In 
Convaeus' list, at the same date, we find Etto set down, as " Epis. Fasciaci et 
Laetiarum patronus."57 He is noticed, likewise, by Thomas Dempster^ 8 
His festival was celebrated on this day, with a proper office, in the church of 
Buinvilliers.59 There is extant, likewise, an office with Eight Lessons, 60 and 
these profess to give the Acts of St. Etto, but some of them are only foolish 

The forty-second Bishop of Cambrai, Nicholas, in 1162, issued a diploma, 
whereby certain possessions were confirmed to the abbacy of Leisse, with a 
provision for the maintenance of so many monks as might be required to serve 
the church of Dompierre, and a prohibition against removing the body of 
the saint from that place. 01 Other donations to Dompierre are on record. 02 
The monastery of Fiscau, was in the village of Dompierre. 6 3 There and in 
all the surrounding country, St. Etto's name was held in very special rever- 

49 See the Bollandists' "Acta Sancto- per aliquot annos ibidem haeserat, ML. F." 
rum," tomus iii., Julii x. De S. Ettone Ep. —Bishop Forbes' " Kalendars of Scottish 
et Conf. Lsetiis in Belgio, Vita, &c, pp. Saints," p. 205. 

59 to 62. S9 A copy of this was sent to Father John 

50 See Les Petits Bollandistes, " Vies des Boland by Rev. D. Luytens, sub-prior and 
Saints," tome viii., x e Jour de Juillet, p. master of novices at Liesse, in the month of 
239. November, 1637. This has been published 

s* In " Martyrologium Gallicanum." in all its chief parts by Father John Pinius, 

s 2 In " Natalibus Sanctorum Belgii." who has edited the Acts of our saint, in his 

53 In Fastis Belgicis et Burgundicis. Previous Commentary, sect. ii. 

54 In " Catalogus Generalis Sanctorum." 6o These were copied from an old Manu- 
ss In their several Benedictine Martyrolo- script Codex belonging to the Monastery of 

gies. St. Lambert, at Liesse, and they were sent 

s 6 In his Universal Martyrology. to Father Rosweyde, by Father Peter Lorig- 

57 See O'Sullevan Beare's " Historic nairt, Librarian and monk of that place. 

Catholicse Ibernias Compendium," tomus i., See ibid., sect. i. 

lib. iv., cap. x., p. 48. 6l Allusion is made to this charter in the 

s 8 In his " Menologium Scoticum " thus : Chronicon Lretiense. 

" Laetiis Ettonis episcopi et confessoris, 62 See the Previous Commentary to St. 

Germanise infcrioris Apostoli, qui in Hiber- Etto's Acts in the Bollandists' "Acta Sane- 

niamad regenda monasteria concessit, et inde torum," sect. iii. 

in Belgium eductus per Maldegarum Han- 63 Now a commune, and town of France, 

nonise comitem, qui Sanctorum albo ad- in the Department of Nord, canton of 

scriptus Vincentius dictus, et Hirlandiae Avesnes. See "Gazetteer of the World," 

gubernator destinatus ab aula a rege Pipino, vol. v., p. 43. 

1 86 LIVES OF THE IRISH SAINTS. [J uly i o. 

ence. 6 « However, the disturbances occasioned by the new Reformation 
caused his body to be removed to a place of greater security. His relics 
were translated to Mons, 6 * with those of other saints, during the wars about 
the middle of the sixteenth century. They were temporarily placed in a 
house of refuge, belonging to that Abbey. 66 Afterwards, when order had 
been restored, St. Etto's remains were removed to the Abbey of Liesse, or 
Liessies, 6 ? a suitable receptacle having been prepared for their reception, 
while the coffin or shrine was newly decorated and restored, as time's effacing 
traces had begun to show marks of fading and decay. Other smaller reliqua- 
ries of the saint were repaired at the same time. To this resting-place, St. 
Etto's body was translated, by Louis de Blois, then its Abbot, and placed in 
the church of his monastery, on the 22nd day of June, a.d. 1559. 68 This 
establishment was subsequently an abbey of Canons Regular. There the body 
was kept, with great veneration, and St. Etto's feast has become a great solem- 
nity, on the anniversary of his death, iothof July. In like manner is he com- 
memorated, in the priory of Fiscau. 6 ^ On that day, the people assembled in 
great numbers, and assisted at Mass, while a vast procession on foot and on 
horseback accompanied a shrine containing the relics of our saint. On that 
day, too, the people abstained from servile works, regarding it as a superior 
feast. The office of his Natalis was recited in the'parish, and it was sung in 
the monastery of Leisse, during the entire octave.? However, in the church 
of Dompierre, the body of St. Etto is now preserved, and there is a tomb on 
which he is figured with a mitre, a cross in his hand, and clothed in episco- 
pal vestments. At some distance from the church, there is a fountain, which 
bears the name of St. Ze'.? 1 In the parish of Dompierre, for many ages past, 
as also in that of Buinvilliers, diocese of Arras, a confraternity has been 
established in honour of St. Ze\ The latter was ordered to be erected, by 
the bishop of Arras in a letter, written June 16th, 1630; but, its inauguration 
was deferred, owing to the fact of two churches being in the same town — 
the congregation of each contending for their respective church as being the 
parochial one. An arm-bone of St. Etto is preserved at Buinvilliers, near 
Arras.? 3 St. Etto is represented with oxen at his feet, as he is invoked 
by cow-herds and cattle-drivers. 73 A copperplate engraving of this character 
has been inserted in his Acts, as furnished by the Bollandists.74 

Since the time St. Etto departed from this life to our Lord's happy inherit- 
ance, in the seventh century, the people who lived after him had great faith 
in his intercession. Those who had been afflicted with various diseases were 
taught to believe, that through a devout invocation of his patronage, the 
Almighty would be pleased to remove their ailments and to prolong their 

6 * See Les Petits Bollandistes, "Viesdes ?° See the Bollandists' "Acta Sancto- 

Saints," tome viii., x e Jour de Juillet, p. 239. rum," tomus iii., Julii x. De S. Ettone Ep. 

65 See Rev. S. Baring-Gould's " Lives of et Conf. Laetiis in Belgio. Commentarius 

the Saints," vol. vii., July 10, p. 261. Pircvius, sect, iii., num. 16, p. 53. 

•J 6 See Les Petits Bollandistes, " Vies des n See Les Petits Bollandistes, " Vies des 

Saints," tome viii., x e Jour de Juillet, p. Saints," tome viii,, x e Jour de Juillet, p. 

239. 239. 

6 ? Now a commune and town, in the De- ? 2 See Rev. S. Baring-Gould's "Lives of 

partment of Nord, France. See " Gazetteer the Saints," vol. vii., July 10, p. 261. 

of the World," vol. v., p. 730. 73 See Very Rev. Dr. F. C. Ilussenbeth's 

68 The Bollandists give a detailed account " Emblems of Saints," edited by Rev. Dr. 
of the foregoing general statements in their Augustus Jessopp, p. 73. 

Previous Commentary to the Acts of our 74 See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus iii., 

saint, sect. iv. Julii x. De S. Ettone Ep. et Conf. Lcetiis 

69 See Les Petits Bollandistes, " Vies des in Belgio. Commentarius Prsevius, sect, ii., 
Saints, "tome viii., x e Jour de Juillet, p. 239. p. 52. 


lives. Even he was supposed to hear the prayers of country people, who 
intreated him to avert distempers from their cattle and other animals. 

Article II. — St. Cuain or Cuan, of Airbhre, in Hy Kinsellagh. 
At the 10th of July, the festival of Cuan is found in the "Feilire" of St. 
^Engus. 1 A commentary annexed states, 2 that he was Cuan Airbre in Ui- 
Cennselaig, and he is the same as Cuan of Maethail Broccain in Desi of 
Munster. This latter place, as we are told, 3 was in the deaconate of Kill- 
barrimedin, in the diocese of Lismore, and where there was a church and a 
well dedicated to St. Cuan. The Martyrology of Tallagh < registers a festival 
at the 10th of July, in honour of Cuain of Airbir, in h Cendselaigh. The 
Martyrology of Marianus O'Gorman has a similar identification, according 
to Father O'Sheerin, when furnishing some particulars regarding the present 
saint to the Bollandists,* who allude to him at the present date. We are 
informed by Dr. O'Donovan, that Kilquan, in the county of Wexford, takes 
its name from a church dedicated to the present holy man. Tobar Cuan 
was situated five chains south-west from the ruins of Kilcowanmore, as we 
learn from the same gentleman. Notices of a religious man named Cuan are 
introduced in the Acts of St. Fintan of Dunbleisque, and Colgan thinks he 
must be identical with the present saint. 6 At this date, in the Martyrology 
of Donegal,? is recorded Cuan, of Airbhre, in Ui Ceinnsealaigh, in 
Leinster ; and he is the same, we are told, as Cuan, of Maethail Brogain, in 
Deisi Mumhan. Among many other saints bearing the same name, he is 
mentioned by Colgan. 8 His place has been identified 9 with Cuain Airbhre, 
in Hy Kinsellagh, a place now called Ballybrennan, at Kilcowanmore, 
barony of Ban try, and county of Wexford. This part of Ireland, it would 
appear, formerly abounded in silver. 10 The Kalendar of Drummond " has 
notices of St. Cuain, at the 10th of July. 

Article III. — Deacon Aedh, of Cuil-Maine, now Clonmany, County 
of Donegal. Veneration was given, at the 10th of July, to Aodh Deochain 
in Crichmaine, according to the Martyrology of Tallagh. 1 Elsewhere this 

Article ii. — x In the " Leabhar Januarii, Vita S. Fintani Abb., cap. ix., 

Breac" copy is the following rami rendered and n. 17, pp. IX, 13. 

into English by Whitley Stokes, LL.D. :— * Edited by Drs. Todd and Reeves, pp. 

192, 193. 

Slti-irco cejwo tni.rnb|AAich|\e 8 See "Acta Sanctorum Hiberniae," Feb- 

"OiAtnbo epoch Cpifc capcAip ruarii iv. De S. Cvanna sive Cvannacheo, 

Cuan ttlAj\ce morxfofCAn n. 2, p. 251. 

"Da tti. mile mArvCAp. ' By William M. Hennessy. 

10 In Fraser's " Statistical Survey of the 

" Declare the suffering of seven brethren County of Wexford." part i., p. 16, the 

unto whom Christ's cross was a dungeon, author tells us, he saw a Manuscript in the 

Cuan, Mark, a great rest : twice six archiepiscopal library at Lambeth, and in 

thousand martyrs." — "Transactions of which there was a statement to the effect, 

the Royal Irish Academy," Irish Manu- that during the times of the Danes or 

script series, vol. i., part i. On the Calendar Ostmen, and when they possessed the sea- 

of Oengus, p. ex. coasts of Wexford County, such abundance 

2 See ibid., p. cxviii. of silver was found there, that a mint was 

3 By Father O'Sheerin. erected, and silver coins were formed to a 

4 Edited by Rev. Dr. Kelly, p. xxix. considerable amount. 

5 See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus hi., " Thus: vi. Idus. In " Hibernia Sancti 
Julii x. Among the pretermitted saints, Confessoris Cuain." — Bishop Forbes' "Ka- 
p. 3. lendars of Scottish Saints," p. 18. 

6 See "Acta Sanctorum Hibernne," iii. Article hi. — * Edited by Rev. Dr. 



[July io. 

record styles him Mac Maine. 3 Marianus O'Gorman remits his feast to the 
31st of August, as the Bollandists,3 who notice him at the 10th of July, 
observe. At the the same date, an entry appears in the Martyrology of 
Donegal,* regarding Deacon Aedh, of Cuil-Maine. This was the ancient 
name of the parish of Clonmany, in the north-western part of the barony of 
Inishowen, and county of Donegal. s This church was served by a vicar, to 
the close of the fifteenth century. 6 The village here 7 is pleasantly situated 

Clonmany, County of Donegal. 

on a small rivulet, which rising in the adjoining mountains 8 finds its course 
to the Atlantic Ocean. Another festival, in honour of the present saint, seems 
to have been observed, on the 31st of August. 

Article IV. — St. Senan. The name of Senan is set down in the 
Martyrologies of Tallagh x and of Donegal, 2 at the 10th of July. With other 
saints of this name, Colgan notes him,3 but without any further distinction. 4 
The Bollandists have an entry, at this date, regarding him.s 

Kelly, p. xxix. 

2 See at the 31st of August. 

3 See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus iii., 
Julii x. Among the pretermitted saints, 

P- 3- 

4 Edited by Drs. Todd and Reeves, pp. 
192, 193. 

5 It is described on the "Ordnance Sur- 
vey Townland Maps for the County of 
Donegal," sheets 3, 4,9, 10, 11, 18, 19. 

6 See Dr. O'Donovan's "Annals of the 
Four Masters," vol. iv., n. (k), p. 1249. 

7 The accompanying illustration is from a 
Photograph by William Lawrence, Dublin, 
and drawn by William F. Wakeman from 
the wood, engraved by Mrs. Millard. 

8 See "Parliamentary Gazetteer of Ire- 
land," vol. i., pp. 452, 453. 

Article iv. — • Edited by Rev. Dr 
Kelly, p. xxix. 

2 Edited by Drs. Todd and Reeves, pp. 
192, 193. 

3 See "Acta Sanctorum Hibernian," viii. 
Mai tii, Appendix ad Acta S. Senani, cap. i., 
p. 541 (recte) 537. 

4 In the Irish Calendar, preserved in the 
Royal Irish Academy, at the vi. of the Ides 
of July (July 10th), I find only a simple entry, 
"Seanan." Ordnance Survey Office Copy 
formerly, and noted "Common Place Book 
F," p. 62. 

5 They state De Senano semper virgine 
idem dixeris, qui facile ad Servanum seu 
Sernanum reducetur." — "Acta Sanctorum," 
tomus iii., July x. Among the pretermitted 
feasts, p. 3. 


Article V. — St. Ultan. According to the Martyrologies ofTullagh 1 
and of Donegal, 2 veneration was given to St. Ultan, at the 10th of July. 
There appears to be no further record to distinguish him. The Bollandists 3 
have a mere notice of his name, at this same date. 

Article VI. — Festival of St. Felicitas and of her Seven Sons, 
Martyrs, in Rome. In the " Feilire" of St. yEngus, at the 10th of July, 
the feast of seven brothers, Martyrs, and to u whom Christ's cross was a 
dungeon," we find commemorated. 1 These were the sons of their noble 
mother Felicitas, the companion of their martyrdom, as stated in a gloss to 
the same Calendar. 2 Their glorious triumph was obtained during the reign 
of the Emperor Antoninus — probably Aurelius Antonius who was a persecu- 
tor of the Christians — however, there is much difficulty experienced in 
discovering the true facts of their history. The seven sons are stated to have 
been executed, before their mother was condemned to die. The Bollan- 
dists 3 give their Acts in full,* at this same date, and for particulars to these we 
must refer. 

Article VII. — Reputed Feast of Twelve Thousand Martyrs. In 
the "Feilire" ©f St. ^Engus, 1 at the 10th of July, there is a festival set down 
for the veneration of Twelve Thousand Martyrs. However, this appears to 
have reference, in some old Martyrologies connected with Oriental churches, 
to the insertion of Ten Thousand Pseudo-Father Martyrs mentioned by 
some ancient writers, 2 and as favouring the heresy of Origen. Theophilus, 
bishop of Alexandria, is falsely charged with being the author of their 
pretended deaths, as the Bollandists 3 and other writers show. The calumny 
against that zealous bishop has been founded on the fact, that he ejected 
certain solitaries suspected of Origenism from their cells in Egypt, having 
destroyed and burned these cells, while there is no authentic record existing to 
show that he even took one of their lives.* Wherefore, it must have been in 
ignorance of these facts, and without sufficient examination, that St. ^Engus 

Article v. — * Edited by Rev. Dr. unknown anthor, as also Apocryphal Acts in 

Kelly, p. xxix. three chapters and thirty paragraphs, with 

2 Edited by Rev. Drs. Todd and Reeves, Analecta de vn Martyribus, in four chapters 
pp.192, 193. and forty- eight paragraphs. Several valuable 

3 See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus iii., notes are appended to these documents. 
Julii x. Among the pretermitted saints, Article vii. — x See "Transactions of the 
p. 3. Royal Irish Academy," Irish Manuscript 

Article vi. — ' See the "Leabhar Series, vol. i., part i. On the Calendar of 

Breac " version in "Transactions of the Oengus. By Whitley Stokes, LL.D., 

Royal Irish Academy," Irish Manuscript p. ex. 

Series, vol. i., part i. On the Calendar 2 Thus : " Decern millium Patrum Marty- 

of Oengus. By Whitley Stokes, LL.D., rum Memoriam," at the 10th July maybe 

p. ex. seen in the Menaea Ambrosiana and other 

2 See ibid., p. cxviii. ancient Synaxaria. 

3 See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus iii., Julii 3 See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus iii., Julii 
x. De Sanctis Septem Fratribus MM., x. Among the pretermitted saints, pp. 3, 4. 
Januario, Felice, Philippo, Silvano, Alexan- There reference is made to what had been 
dro, Vitale et Martiale, et S. Felicitate, previously stated in their Tome for June 5. 
eorum Matre, Romoe, pp. 5 to 28. In Traciatu Chronico-historico de Patriar- 

4 A Previous Commentary, in three sec- chis Alexandrinis, p. 52. 

tions, and thirty-three paragraphs, by Father 4 Reference is made to the French work 

John Pinius, critically introduces their of Father Louis Doucin, " Histoire de 

Passion, in five paragraphs, written by some l'Orige'nisme," Paris, 1 700, i2mo. 

1 90 LIVES OF THE IRISH SAINTS. [J uly 1 0. 

introduced those supposed Twelve Thousand Martyr Fathers into his 
" Feilire." 

Article VIII.— Reputed Feast of St. Mark. In the "Feilire" of 
St. yEngus, 1 there is a feast of St. Mark, set down at this date. A scholion 
suffixed states,* that he was St. Mark the Evangelist. 3 In the Bollandists, 
at the 10th of July, there is no notice of such a festival. 

Article IX. — Reputed Feast of St. Rumold. In his general 
Catalogue of Saints, as the Bollandists x notice at the present date, Ferrarius 
has placed Rumold, Bishop of Dublin and Martyr. He is venerated as 
patron of Mechlin in Belgium, but his true feast is at the 1st of this 
month. 3 

Article X.— Reputed Feast of St. Kunegunde, Virgin. The 
Bollandists ■ observe, that Camerarius in his Scottish Martyrology, at the 
10th of July, notes this holy woman, but refers to the history of the Ursulines 
for further particulars. At the 21st of October, their Acts are to be found. 

Article XI. — Reputed Feast of St. Gildas, Confessor. The 
Bollandists, 1 at the present date, remark, that in Manuscript additions to 
Greven, by the Carthusians at Bruxelles, there is a festival for Gildas, 
Confessor, at July 10th, but incorrectly, as he is no other than Gildas the 
Wise, Abbot in Aremoric Britain, and whose true feast belongs to the 29th 
of January. 2 

Article XII. — Reputed Feast of Donatus, Martyr and Patron 
of Franconia. This is an entry of Camerarius at the present date in his 
Scottish Menology, as understanding Donatus to have been among the com- 
panions of St. Kilian. 1 This, however, was only while the latter saint had 
been in Ireland, as the Bollandists 3 remark, at the 10th of July, nor do we 
know, that there is any warrant for placing him on the Calendar. 

Article viii. — x In the " Leabhar Article x. — ■ See "Acta Sanctorum," 

Breac" copy. See "Transactions of the tomus iii., Julii x. Among the pretermitted 

Royal Irish Academy," Irish Manuscript feasts, p. 4. 

Series, vol. i., part i. On the Calendar of Article XI. — ■ See " Acta Sanctorum," 

Oengus. By Whitley Stokes, LL.D., p. ex. tomus iii., Julii x. Among the pretermitted 

9 See ibid.y p. cxviii. feasts, p. 2. 

3 His chief feast is held, on the 25th of 3 See the First Volume of this work for 

April. a Life of him, at that date, Art. i. 

Article ix. — ■ See "Acta Sanctorum," Article xii. — x His Acts have already 

tomus iii., Julii x. Among the pretermitted appeared in the present volume, at the 8th 

feasts, p. 2. of July, Art. i. 

3 At that date, in the present volume, his a See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus iii., Julii 

Life may be seen, Art. i. x. Among the pretermitted "saints, p. a. 

J uly 1 1 .] LIVES OF THE IRISH SAINTS. 1 9 1 

(Klebentl) JBaj) of %\\\^ 







IT is exceeding difficult to form any decided opinion concerning this saint, 
whose place of birth, origin, and period, have been alike disputed. It 
seems very uncertain, therefore, "as to whether or not Hildulph, Archbishop 
of Treves, had been a native of Ireland. According to some accounts, he 
is represented as having been a Belgian, and according to other writers, he 
was a Bavarian. With such discordant statements, we are obliged to tread a 
labyrinth of doubt, in reference to this special biography. 

It was Colgan's design to have published a Life of St. Hildulphus, at the i ith 
of July, as appears from the list of his Manuscripts, which was published by 
Charles MacDonnell, Esq. The Acts of this holy man have been written by 
various persons, and at different periods. Thus, there are Acts of St. Hildulph, 
compiled about 964, and these were taken from an earlier Life, 1 now lost. Of 
this, various Manuscript copies remain ; two or three being in possession of 
the Bollandists, while a copy had belonged to the church of St. Maximinian 
at Treves. There was another kept in the monastery of Moyenmoutier, but 
defective towards the end. 2 Again, there is a condensation of the former 
Acts, in a second Life,3 taken from a Utrecht Manuscript procured by Father 
HeribertRosweyde,* and also published by Surius, but with some verbal changes. 
This work of an anonymous writer leaves us uncertain as to when it had been 
written. There is a third and more recent Life 5 of St. Hildulph, taken from a 
Manuscript of Moyenmoutier, 6 and this biography is of some length. 7 The 

Article 1. — * When a certain Count 4 The Bollandists had two codices of this 

Hillin possessed the monastery of Moyen- Life, while Father John Baptist Soller, S J., 

moutier, about the year 897, he instituted had sent a copy to Father Dom. Humbert 

there an order of Canons, when a Life of Belhomme, Abbot over Moyenmoutier 

St. Hildulph was written, and at very great monastery. 

length. However, it was deemed necessary s Dom. Edmund Martene considered, 

to abridge it, and certain scholars engaged however, that this was the more ancient 

on the task. Throughsome negligence on the Life of our saint, which Mabillon had sought 

part of the Moyenmoutier monks, the Life for, but could not obtain. See " Thesaurus 

was again lost. See Joannes a Bayono, in Anecdotorum," tomus iii. However, in this 

his Prologus to " Historia Mediani." Also opinion he was mistaken, 

in lib. ii., cap. xvi., xxv., xxvii. 6 This Mabillon had seen, when he 

2 In his "Thesaurus Anecdotorum," visited the monastery of Moyenmoutier the 

tomus iii., Dom Edmund Martene considered second time in 1696. See " Annates Ordinis 

it to have been seven hundred years old. S. Benedicti," tomus i., lib. xv., sect, xv., 

s It also follows the chronological and p. 462 ; also tomus ii., lib. xix., sect, xxxvii., 

other data of the first Life. p. 18. He even cites this Manuscript, in 



[July ii. 

chronology in these various Acts needs correction, as it is misleading. The 
Bollandists 8 have published these old Acts 9 regarding him, together with 
various other illustrative comments, at the nth of July, the day for his 
festival. We have notices regarding St. Hildulph, by Father Stephen White, 10 
by Laurence Surius," by Rev. Dr. Lanigan," by Dom Calmet, 1 * by TAbbe" 
Guinot, T 4 and in Les Petits Bollandistes. 1 * Also, the Rev. S. Baring Gould l6 
has some notices regarding St. Hildulph. 

That he lived before the times of Charles Martel, that is before 714, has 
been maintained by Mabillon. 1 ? Nor have we a distinct account of any very 
distinguished person of this name, as living about that period, except 
Hildulph, Bishop of Treves. Yet, Baronius l8 and other writers, followed by 
Colgan 10 — who has a learned dissertation on this subject — place him about 
the middle of the eighth century. By some biographers, St. Hildulph is stated 
to have been born among the Nervii. 20 These were a people of Belgium, 21 
inhabiting the country about Tournay, or as some think, Haynault. 22 In one 
of those Lives, Bollandus found Nierniorum, 2 3 instead of Nerviorum. There- 
fore, he thought it might have been a mistake for Hiverniorum, representing 
Hibernorum. According to other published Lives, 2 - 1 Hidulf, was a native of 
Noricum 2 * or Bavaria f 6 and, he is said to have been born at Ratisbon, of a 
noble family. 2 ? Many German writers adhere to this opinion. 28 It is also 
the one set forth in his Acts, as published by the Bollandists ; yet, on what 
good foundation seems to be extremely uncertain. 

The present saint was a native of Ireland, 20 according to a Life of St. 
Florentius,3° two Lives of St. Erard, 31 an office of this saint from the Breviary 

tomus ii., sect, xxxv., p. 17. 

7 In it the writer not only interpolates the 
previous Acts of St. Hildulph, but he even 
corrects their chronology. 

8 See " Acta Sanctorum," tomus iii., Julii 
xi. De S. Hildulfo, Confessore, Primum 
Archiepisco Trevirensi, deinde Abbate Me- 
diani Monasterii in Vosago. Item de sancto 
ejus discipulo Spinulo, etduobus aliisgerma- 
nis fratribusjoanne et Benigno, pp. 205 to 238. 

9 These have a Commentarius Praevius, 
auctore Reverendo admodum Patre Dom. 
Humberto Belhommeo, ejusdem monasterii 
abbate, in six sections and seventy-one para- 
graphs. Father John Baptist Soller hns an 
editorial Preface, while notes are attached 
to the Acts. 

10 In " Apologia pro Hibernia," cap. iv., 

P- 37- 

11 See "De Probatis Sanctorum I Iistoriis," 
tomus iv., pp. 181 to 183. 

12 See "Ecclesiastical History of Ire- 
land," vol. iii., chap, xviii., sect, vii., and 
nn. 87 to 92, pp. 104, 105, 106. 107. 

13 See " Histoire de Lorraine." Vie de 
Saint Hildulphe. 

M See " Saints du Val de Galilee." 

'5 See "Vies des Saints," tome viii., 
xie Tour de Juillet, pp. 250 to 253. 

"'See "Lives of the Saints," vol. vii., 
July nth, pp. 278 to 280. 

'7 See "Annales Ordinis S. Benedicti," 
at a.d. 667, tomus i., lib. xv., sect, lx., Ixi., 
pp. 488, 489. 

,8 In " Annales Ecclesiastici," A.D. 754, 

tomus ix., sect, x., p. 187. 

19 See "Acta Sanctorum Hibernian," 
Januarii viii. Vita S. Erardi, Appendix, 
cap. iii., pp. 35 to 37. 

20 See " Acta Sanctorum," tomus i., viii. 
Januarii. De SS. Episcopis Erardo et 
Alberto, sect. 6, p. 534. 

21 They are alluded to by Strabo, lib. iv., 
and by Julius Caesar in his commentaries 
"De BelloGallico,"lib. vi. 

23 Their geographical position has been 
defined by Cluverius, in " Gei mania Anti- 
qua," lib. ii., cap. xxii. 

23 According to a Paderborn Manuscript. 

24 See "Acta Sanctorum Ordinis S. 
Benedicti," Speculum iii., pars ii. 

25 The bounds of ancient Noricum have 
been set forth by Ptolemy in " Geographic." 
lib. ii., cap. xiv. Also by Jacobus Carolus 
Spener, in " Notitia Germanise Antique," 
lib. vi., cap. xi. 

=* See Hugo Menardus, in his " Martyro- 
logium Benedictinum," Julii xi. 

2 7 See Les Petits Bollandistes "Vies des 
Saints," tome viii., xi« Jour de Juillet, p. 250. 

28 See Christopherus Browerus, " Annales 
Trevirensis," lib. vii., num. 157, and 
Richerius Senoniensis, lib. i., cap. xi. 

29 This is stated by Brunner, in " Annales 
Boicorum," pars i., lib. v., a.d. 749. Velser 
in " Rerum Boiar," lib. v., a.d. 743, and 
Hundius in Metropoli Salisburg, tomus i., 
make him a Scot. 

30 In all probability, the author of this 
alluded to St. Hildulph of Treves. 


of Ratisbon, and some German histories.3 2 If it be true, that he was a 
brother of St. Erard, Missionary at Ratisbon 33 — as has been very generally 
stated 34 — it appears to follow, as a matter of course, that he was an Irishman 
by birth. He is also called the son of an Irish King.35 However, this may be, 
all of his biographers state, that he was of noble descent. The people in the 
Vosges Mountains have been accustomed to call this saint Idou, in their 
common speech. His original name is supposed to have been Hilduf or 
Hiduf, and it may have been metamorphosed into Hildulph on the Continent. 
He is likewise called Hidulf, Hildulf,Idulf, Idolf, Ildolfus and Hildolfus. This 
saint is called a prince, an illustrious doctor, and a bishop of Treves or Triers, 
in Germany, in that list of Irish Saints furnished by Convoeus, and his festival 
is assigned to the present date.3 6 This is stated, likewise, in two Breviaries 
of Augsburgh, and in one of Wurtzburgh.37 Eberhard or Erhard is said to 
have been brother to Hildulph.3 8 This is positively stated, likewise, in the 
Lives of Erard, and in his office, so that there are apparently fair reasons for 
claiming this holy man as a native of Ireland. Elsewhere, it is suggested, 
that perhaps he may have been the same as Erard, bishop of Ratisbon. This 
was probably a mistake, however, and founded on the false supposition, that 
St. Erard — who in that Life is represented as having been a brother — had 
been a native of Ratisbon. Perhaps, Hildulph had a brother named Eber- 
hard or Erhard. Still, it may be doubted, whether or not he had been the 
same as Erard of Ratisbon. 39 It is also to be observed, that Erard of Ratis- 
bon is never called Eberhard, - * which circumstance implies an additional 

In youth, Hildulph preserved the innocence he had acquired in baptism. 
He was free from every inclination towards vice, and on the contrary, he 
practised every virtue. He renounced every deceitful allurement the world 
presented. His noble disposition urged him to aid the poor and the afflicted. 
He is said to have been educated at Ratisbon/ 1 with his brother Erard. 
There, too, he received Holy Orders, and he became a cleric of Ratisbon. 
Having heard one day those words of our Saviour applied to him : " He that 

31 See the First Volume of this work, at 4I The three Acts of our saint published 
January 8th, Art. ii., for his Life. by the Bollandists have this statement in 

32 See " Acta Sanctorum Hibernise," viii. common. The Third Life relates, that 
Januarii. Vita S. Erardi, Appendix, cap. Garibaldus governed the same Noricum or 
iv., pp. 37, 38. Bavaria, at the time, and that his daughter 

33 If Hildulph had a brother, Dr. Lanigan Teudolinda married Agilulph, King of the 
thinks he was different from Everard of Lombards. It also states, that Theodobert, 
Ratisbon. son of Childebert and Brunechilde, was then 

34 In the Lives and Offices of the Saint. King of Austrasia. 

35 In Father Stephen White's "Apologia 42 His feast occurs, on the 7th of No- 
pro Hibernia," cap. ii., p. 15, cap. iv., p. vember. 

37, cap. v., p. 64. 43 See "The Popular Encyclopedia; or 

36 See "Historic Catholicse Ibernise Conversations Lexicon," vol. vi., Art. 
Compendium," tomus i., lib. iv., cap. x., Strasburg, p. 421. 

p. 47. 44 See Ferguson's " History of Gothic 

37 See Colgan's "Acta Sanctorum Hiber- Architecture," vol. i. 

niae," viii. Januarii. Vita S. Erardi, pp. 4S The accompanying view is from an 

32, 33. approved engraving, and drawn by William 

38 See Mabillon's "Annates Ordinis S. F. Wakeman, on the wood, engraved by 
Benedicti," tomus i., lib. xvi., sect, xv., Mrs. Millard. 

p. 507. 46 He was born a.d. 652, and he died 

3 » See Rev. Dr. Lanigan's " Ecclesiastical a.d. 679. Grimoald, mayor of the palace, 

History of Ireland," vol. iii., chap, xviii., caused his head to be shaved, after the 

sect, vii., pp. 104, 105. manner of a monk, and he sent the young 

40 This appears from records, where the prince secretly to Ireland, in 659.. See M, 

etymologies of his name are given. Le Dr. Hoefer's " Nouvelle Biographie 

Vol. VII.— No. 4. 





shall leave his home, and who shall depart from his father, his mother, his 
brothers and sisters for my sake, shall receive an hundred-fold, and shall enjoy 
eternal life." Whereupon, St. Hildulph resolved to leave his family and 
native place, so that he might truly labour to gain souls for Christ. 

Hidulf or Hildulph is 
said to have gone with 
Florentius,* 2 from Ire- 
land to Alsace, about 
the year 670. This 
latter afterwards became 
Bishop of Strasburgh, 
now a noble city on the 
River Rhine, remarkable 
for the majestic cathedral 
begun there about 10 15, 
but not finished until 
1365.43 It is one of 
the most distinguished 
specimens of Gothic 
architecture now exist- 
ing,^ while its tower, 
474 feet in height, built 
of hewn stone, is most 
graceful and imposing in 
effect/ 5 He was appa- 
rently that Hildulph, 
who had accompanied 
Florentius ; and it can 
scarcely be doubted, but 
that the latter and our 
present saint were con- 
temporaries. However, 
it is possible, that Hil- 
dulph emigrated to 
France, when its King 
Dagobert II.* 6 left it, or 
at least, that he arrived soon after that particular time. We are informed, that 
about this period, in the city of Triers or Treves,47 certain religious men had 
spread in the mostdistant places the fame of their good works and virtues. This 
was doubtless in the monastery of St. Maximin.48 Accordingly, our saint took 
his course from Sicambre or Gueldres for that city, where he joined a monas- 
tic order, and not dreading the rigours of penance, this soldier of Christ became 
one of the monks. Among these he led a most fervent life. His piety was 
so admired, that he was held in reverence both by his superiors and equals.** 
It is supposed, that he lived there for many years in the practice of every 

Cathedral and City of Strasburgh, on the River Rhine. 

Generale," tome xii., cols. 772, 773. 

47 Anciently it was known as Augusta 
Treviroium, and formerly it was regarded as 
being among the most important as it was 
among die most ancient cities in Germany. 
Its Archbishop was the oldest there, and it 
is now a city in the Prussian province of the 
Lower Rh'ine. 

48 His feast is held there on th.e 29th of 

May, on the>Othof June, and on the 12th of 

49 See Les Petits Bollandistes, " Vies des 
Saints," tome viii., xi e Jour de Juillet, p. 

Chapter, ii. — r The writer of the first 
Acts knowing the date for Milo's death, 
placed Hildulph after him, thinking the 
latter flourished in the time of Pepin, son to 




It has been stated, that Milo, son to St. Leodwin, and who was bishop of 
Treves, had died a.d. 753, and that he had been immediately succeeded in 
the bishopric by St. Hildulph. 1 We are told, likewise, that Pepin, 2 father to 
Charlemagne, had been king, at that time, when he assisted in the election 
of St. Hildulph. But, it seems most likely, that the former writers of our 
saint's Acts mistook Pepin of Herstall, mayor of the palace, for Pepin, son to 
Charles Martel. The former flourished at an earlier period than the latter. 
At the time when Hildulph had been a monk, St. Numerian 3 presided over 
the See of Treves, and learning how distinguished the humble religious had 
became through his merits and perfect manner of living, the bishop drew him 
away from the monastery, and decreed, that he should be an assistant in the 
discharge of pastoral duties. These offices were performed with such zeal 
and piety, that the holy prelate resolved Hildulf should succeed, when his 
own career on earth had closed. Accordingly, when St. Numerian, 4 Bishop 
of Treves, died, Hildulph was spoken of by the people as his successor, so 
greatly had his talents and virtues impressed the public mind. But, he had 
no inclination to assume such responsibility, although strongly urged on his 
acceptance. Our saint took the alarm, however, and he fled to a solitary 
place,* near the River Danube. 6 Here he thought to have remained in 
solitude and obscurity. The place of his retreat was discovered, nevertheless, 
and he was brought to Treves. There he was unanimously elected Bishop, 
about the year 666.7 His appointment was likewise confirmed by the king, 
who was doubtless Childeric II. 8 

The holy prelate lived a life of singular mortification and asceticism, 
and macerated his body, so that it should be subjected to the spirit, while he 
engaged in active pastoral duties. An enquiry has been instituted by the 
Bollandists, as to whether or not he had been bishop of Treves, because his 

Charles Martel. The two other writers of some writers, his death has been assigned to 

the Acts succeeding followed that account, A.D. 657. See Les Petits Bollandistes, 

without further examination. " Vies des Saints," tome viii., v e Jour de 

2 He reigned from A.D. 751 to a.d. 768. Juillet, p. 47. 

Consequently he could not have been king, s The writer of his First Life states, that 

at the time of St. Hildulph's advancement to he withdrew into Istria, but this is mani- 

the bishopric. festly absurd. 

3 Although the writers of our saint's Acts 6 It was called the Ister, and hence the 
have stated that Milo was then Archbishop ; mistake of stating that Hildulph went to 
yet, the Bollandists prove, that such a state- Istria. 

ment is incorrect, and that Numerian was 7 According to Fleury's " Histoire Eccle- 

the prelate then living. See " Acta Sane- siastique," tome viii., liv. xxxix., sect, xl v., 

torum," tomus iii., Julii xi. De S. Hildulfo, p. 524. 

Confessore, primum Archiepiscopo Tie- 8 He governed Austrasie from A.D. 660 to 

virensi, deinde Abbate Mediani Monasterii 670, when he became King of France. He 

in Vosago. Commentarius Prsevius, sect, i., was assassinated A.D. 673. See CEuyres 

num. 8, and sect, iii., pp. 209, also pp. 210 Completes de Bossuet, tome x. Abrege He 

to 216. l'Histoire de France, liv. i., cols. 1 1 79, 

4 His feast occurs, on ihe 5th of July. By 11 80. 


name has been omitted from one or two of the ancient catalogues recording 
its prelates, as also on the ground, that his name has been placed immediately 
after that of Milo ; but they show, to the first objection, it may be replied, 
that in several instances, omissions of bishops, who undoubtedly lived and 
who discharged the duties of their episcopacy, have left blanks in prelatial 
lists of their Sees,? while this was especially the case, when bishops retired 
during their own lifetime; and again, we find on consulting old histories, that 
writers have often confused the order of events, and this appears especially to 
have happened in the instance of St. Hildulph, whose earlier Acts seem to 
have been interpolated by injudicious compilers of subsequent versions. The 
charity of this holy bishop towards the poor was especially most wonderful, 
and he possessed no earthly thing, that he did not most willingly share with 
them. The care of his diocese and of souls was an object that called for 
his most earnest solicitude. He laboured by his preachings, his exhortations, 
his reprimands, his visits, and his good example. Each day he offered most 
devoutly the Holy Sacrifice of the Mass. He was greatly devoted, more- 
over, to the exercises of prayer and meditation. 

Among his episcopal functions, we are informed, that St. Hildulph trans- 
lated the relics of St. Maximin, 10 having built a chapel in his honour. This 
happened in the year 667." A monastery to commemorate that holy man 
had been founded in the fourth century. After the year 666, our saint intro- 
duced there the Order of St. Benedict. Hildulph augmented its revenues, 
and procured great regularity of discipline in that house. 12 St. Paulin,^ the 
Bishop, had been buried at Treves, under a tomb of uncommon massiveness, 
which it was found very difficult to remove. This task was accomplished, 
however, by St. Hildulphe, who found the remains of his predecessor beneath, 
and having caused a shrine of cypress-wood to be made, he removed the 
relics, which were placed in it with much solemnity, and to a position he 
had destined for their reception. He built and endowed a monastery, like- 
wise, in that same place. *4 

For some time, Hildulf discharged all the duties of a vigilant and zealous 
Bishop. 15 However, he had long desired, that another should fill his place, 
so that he might retire into the monastery of St. Maximin. According to 
some accounts, he selected St. Veomade, Abbot of that house, for such a 
charge ; while others state, that St. Basin succeeded. Quitting his See, 
Hildulph resolved to seek perfect retirement; but, he soon found, that it 
could not be obtained, within the limits of his own diocese. The people 
entreated — but in vain — that he should continue among them. The holy 
man sighed for more perfect tranquillity. He resolved on retiring to the 
Vosges Mountains, to serve God in solitude among its forests and wilds, then 
almost in a state of nature. 16 In 671, he had resigned his See, 1 ? and not long 

9 This has been manifestly proved by u See Les Petits Bollandistes, " Vies des 
Dom. Edmund Martene, a most diligent in- Saints," tome viii., xi° Jour de Juillet, 
vestigator of ecclesiastical antiquities and p. 251. 

history. I5 Mabillon doubts whether he had been 

10 According to a Life of that saint, a bishop or a chore-episcopus at Treves. He 
written in 839, this translation happened, also states, that it is difficult to fix there the 
before the times of Milo and of King Pepin, period of his episcopacy. See "Annalcs 
father to Charlemagne. Ordinis S. Benedicti," tomus i., lib. xv., 

" Such is the date found in the Previous num. lviii., p. 487. 
Commentary to our saint's Acts in the Bob ,6 See Rev. S. Baring-Gould's " Lives of 

landists' work, sect, iv., num. 54. the Saints," vol. vii., July II, p. 279. 

13 This Abbey was destroyed during the ,; According to the writer of the Life of 

French Revolution. Si. Deodatus. See Mabillon's "Annales 

'3 His feast occurs, on the 31st of August. Ordinis S. Benedicti," tomus i., lib. xvi., 


afterwards, he secretly removed to the frontiers of Lorraine, to chose a suitable 
place for his habitation. Whether in the first instance he took with him monks 
does not appear from his Acts, although it seems to be established, that a 
numerous community soon formed under his direction. 18 Hildulph is stated 
to have retired about 676 to the Vosges, an extensive range of mountains in 
the east of France. It is probable, however, that his retirement might be 
assigned to an earlier date. We are told, that a wild boar, had there killed a 
son of Dagobert II. J 9 The youth had been brought to life again by St. 
Arbogast. 20 Hildulph settled at a place — afterwards called Moyen-Moutier 2I 
or the Middle Monastery — where he founded a religious community. Its 
denomination was obtained from the circumstance, that it lay between 22 the 
monasteries of St. Die Bon-Moutier, Senones and Estival. At Moyenmoutier, 
likewise, Hildulph built two churches; one in honour of the Blessed Virgin, 2 3 
and another in honour of St. Peter. 2 * At a later period, he erected a third 
without the monastic enclosure, for use of pilgrims and infirm persons, who 
came to visit him and his monks ; this he dedicated to St. John the Baptist. 
He erected a fourth church, likewise, which he dedicated to St. Gregory. 
This latter he placed on a hill, southwards from the monastery, and in the 
middle of a ground-plot, which he had chosen to be a cemetery for his com- 

It is said, St. Erard of Ratisbon lived for some time with Hildulph, 2 5 when 
he retired in the Vosges. 26 There he had founded his monastery. 27 St. Erhard 
is also said to have built a monastery near Schelestad in Alsace, and it was 
called Ebersheim, as supposed, because its name was taken from Erhard or 
Eberhard. 28 It meant the mansion of Eberhard, in the opinion of Mabillon. 2 ? 
This monastery 3° was founded by Duke Etico, Ethic 3I or Atticus 3 2 of Elsass, 
who was father of St. Odilia.33 The latter was baptized when an infant, by 
St. Erard, while St. Hildulph is said to have assisted at the ceremony. 

Notwithstanding his retirement, Hildulph did not cease to receive among his 

num. xiv., pp. 506, 507. 23 This is said to have been dedicated on 

18 Richarius states, that owing to the con- "viii. Kalendas Martii," in St. Hildulph's 

flux of clerics and laymen to his place, St. Third Life. 

Hildulph was obliged to construct different 24 This is said to have been dedicated on 

cells not far from his monastery: " nempe "xvii. Kalendas Novembris." — Ibid. 

ad septem abietes, ad sanctum Joannem de 2S Nothing of a reliable character is said, 

Hurimonte, apud Orbacum, apud sanctum however, about their having been brothers. 

Projectum, apud Visivallum, ad Altam 26 See the Lives of St. Erard and St. 

petram, quae monasterio supereminet, ad Albert at the 8th of January, in the First 

locum in summitate montis, qui Roberti Volume of this work. 

fons dicitur, denique ad Begonis cellam, quae 2 ? See Fleury's " Histoire Ecclesiastique," 

nunc sanctus Blasius vocatur. Fratres vero, tome viii., liv. xxxix., sect, xlv., p. 524. 

qui in praedictis cellis sub regimine S. Hil- 28 Another account states, that Ebersheim 

dulfi habitabant, aestimantur quasi numero signifies the boar's habitation, 

trecenti." — " Chronicon Senoniensis," lib. i., 29 See " Annales Ordinis S. Benedicti," 

cap. xii. tomusi., lib. xv., sect, lx., pp. 487, 488. 

' 9 Son to Sigebert, King of Austrasie. He 3 ° In the second half of the seventh cen- 

was killed in an insurrection of the nobles. tury, this religious house is thought very 

See L. P. Anquetil's "Histoire de France." generally to have been founded. 

Premiere Race dite des Merovingiens, sect. 3I His signature is to be found affixed to 

v., p. 54. charters and grants of Chilperic II. and 

20 See his Life, at the 2 1 st of July. Thierry, from a.d. 652 to a.d. 691. See 

21 This was a commune of France, in the Rev. S. Baring-Gould's "Lives of the 
Department of the Vosges, eight miles north Saints," vol. vii., July II, p. 279. 

of St. Die, and on the left bank of the 32 Atticus was the husband of Bereswinda, 

Ravodoh. See " Gazetteer of the World, " a daughter to the sister of St. Leodegar. See 

vol. ix., p. 408. Andreas Chesnius, " Scriptorum Historic 

22 See Rev. S. Baring- Gould's " Lives of Francise," tomus i. Fragmentum Histori- 
the Saints," vol. vii., July 1 1, pp. 279, cam Alberti Argentinensis Chronico prse- 
280. fixum, p. 782. 


disciples many persons, distinguished as well by their birth as by their virtues. 
Soon his monastery was like to a hive filled with honey, and diffusing around 
a religious flavour. The Almighty had conferred on him the gift of miracles. 
Wherefore, many crippled and indisposed persons came to ask the favour of 
his prayers, and to be relieved from their respective maladies. He also 
exorcised possessed persons.34 Even many seculars built houses around the 
monastic precincts, so that they might rejoice in spiritual and temporal 
bene fits ; wherefore, a spot which had been heretofore deserted and lonely 
soon became populous. Among those who came to live under him was St. 
Spinule or Spinulus,35 who had the gift of working miracles, but who died a 
long time before his superior. However, as we are told, fearing the crowds 
of people there arriving should interfere with regular monastic discipline and 
prevent the exercises of a contemplative life, Hildulph, prostrating himself 
before the disciple's tomb, prayed with tears in his eyes and even commanded 
him to cease from working such miracles. To prove the still greater virtue 
of monastic obedience, the blessed Spin obeyed the order of his former 
superior, nor were such wonders afterwards wrought. 36 Among his disciples, 
St. John and St. Benin or Benignus 3 ? were also distinguished. In fine, the 
reputation of St. Hildulph spread so well, that he. was regarded as a man 
specially sent from Heaven ; while princes and seigneurs liberally endowed 
Moyen-Moutier and other religious houses founded by him, in that part of 
the country. 

Through a motive quite similar to that of our saint, Deodatus 3* or 
Dieudonne had left his See of Nevers to live in solitude. He went to the 
Val du Galilee, where he built the monastery of Jointuress since called St. 
Die, as also was the town which afterwards grew around it. It was about 
two leagues distant from Moyen-Moutier. For St. Deodatus — afterwards 
called St. Die — abbot of Jointures, our saint is said to have formed a warm 
attachment ; and, once each year, both Abbots met to enjoy the sight and 
conversation of each other. *° On that day chosen for this visit, both Abbots 
left their respective houses at the same hour. Wherever they met on the road, 
both went on their knees and prayed, giving each other the kiss of peace, and 
then engaging in conference on the obligations of a spiritual life. This holy 
friendship lasted for eight years, until St. Deodatus died, a.d. 677 + 1 — accord- 
ing to other accounts a.d. 679. By the expressed wish of St. Deodatus to 
his monks before his departure, the charge of both monasteries devolved on 
St. Hildulph. Nor would the religious of Jointures have any other Abbot. 
He lived, however, at Moyen-Moutier, while he appointed a vicar, who dis- 
charged the functions of prior, at the monastery of Jointures. Both houses 
were thus united, in the strictest bonds of fraternal charity. In memory of 
their former affectionate meetings, St. Hildulph allowed the monks of Join- 
tures and those of Moyen-Moutier to visit each other once a year for religious 

33 Her feast occurs, on the 13th of Decern- 37 These survived him, and long after the 

ber. She was a native of Strasburgh, and death of St. Hildulph, they died on the same 

abbess of Hohenbourg in Alsace. day, 2nd of the August Kalends, and they 

3* In art, he is represented exorcising a boy. weie buried in the same tomb in the oratory 

Iconographie. See Very Rev. Dr. Husen- of St. Gregory, where their relics had been 

beth's ' ' Emblems of Saints, " Third Edition, long preserved, 

p. 102. 38 j^is feast occurs, on the 19th of June. 

35 See Mabillon's "Annales Ordinis S. 39 it was so called, because the rivulet Rath- 

Benedicti," tomus i., lib. xvi., num. xiv., bach here joined the River Meurthe. 

p. C07. 40 See Rev. S. Baring-Gould's " Lives of 

3« See Les Petits Bollandistes, "Vies des the Saints," vol. vii., July II, p. 280. 

Saints'' tome viii., ix e Jour de Juillet, 4I This is stated in a Life of St. Deodatus, 

p. 252. published by the Bollandists in their " Acta 




For twenty-eight years after the death of St. Die, Hildulph continued 
his penitential life and exercises. His health even continued robust, and 
what is very remarkable, in his extreme old age, he was able to labour with 
his hands, and to gain what was necessary for his own support and for that of 
his monks. He is said to have been superior over three hundred monks, 
some of whom lived at Moyen-Moutier, and others in different cells, scattered 
about that locality. Although through modesty, he regarded St. Die, his 
friend, as being the father of Jointures, doubtless we must consider that its chil- 
dren were included in the attributed number of Hildulph's subjects. Although 
he wished thirteen years before his death to procure more time for religious con- 
templation, yet such was his love for the monks there, that he would not resign 
the care of their house. This showed how religiously he desired to discharge 
that trust committed to him by his deceased friend, who wished of all things his 
disciples to be under St. Hildulph's guidance. However, he appointed Leut- 
balde to rule in his place over Moyen-Moutier. This Abbot died before him- 
self a.d. 704. At the request of his monks, Hildulphe was obliged to resume 
once more the government of his own foundation. He thus ruled simultaneously 
over two monasteries. Before the death of St. Hildulph, he had a vision, 
when St. Deodatus appeared to him and gave warning, that the time for his 
dissolution was fast approaching. A fever seized him, and when the last 
moment arrived, the monks who had assembled at his bedside received his 
affectionate blessing, with sighs and tears for his loss to them. He also 
commended himself to their prayers, while exhorting them to a zealous dis- 
charge of all their monastic duties. Several writers assert, that Hildulph of 
Treves flourished in the seventh century, and that he died very old, on the 
1 ith day of July, a.d. 707. 42 The author of the Third Life of our saint fixes 
his departure at that date, during the consulate of Justinian Junior,*3 but he 
is mistaken in stating, that Pope Sergius 44 was then the Sovereign Pontiff.-* 3 
St. Hildulph died about the year 710, according to other writers. 

His body was buried by his monks in the church dedicated to St. Gregory, 
the Pope, and on the right hand side of its altar. Great numbers of the 
faithful flocked to his tomb, and several miracles were there wrought, some 
of these being specified, especially in the Third Life of our saint.* 6 There 
can hardly be a doubt, but that his monks, as also those of Jointures, regarded 
him as one of the sanctified servants of God, and they were accustomed to 
regard even his tunic with reverence. In the year 786 or 787,47 his remains 
were transferred to the church of the Blessed Virgin, and placed under a 
monument of carved stone, having plates of gold and silver over it. It is 
thought, that this monument — according to the usage of the period — assumed 
the form of a vault or some similar structure. 48 The monastery of Moyen- 
moutier had a chequered history in the ages succeeding, but a reformation 
took place in the tenth century. Under the government of Adalbert, Abbot 
of Jointures, the body of St. Hildulph was removed from the earth, and then 
placed in a wooden shrine. This took place a.d. 942, when Adalbert had 
been constituted Abbot of Moyenmoutier, and in the fourteenth year of his 
presidency. He then called together a great number of abbots and religious 
men. With great ceremony, the relics of our saint were placed in a wooden 
loculus, and at the same time, the relics of his disciples John and Benignus 

Sanctorum," at the 19th of June. 46 See cap. xxii., xxiii., xxiv., in the Bol- 

42 See " The Circle of the Seasons," p. 193. landists' " Acta Sanctorum," tomus iii., Julii 

43 Otherwise Justinian II., then ruling for ix. De S. Hildulfo, Confessore, &c, pp. 237, 
the second time. 238. 

44 He died a.d. 701, 47 At this time, the Abbot Madaluinus is 

45 In the year 707, Pope John VII. filled stated to have presided over the monastery 
the Papal chair. of Moyenmoutier. 


were raised, and transferred to a more honourable situation. 4 ? Another trans- 
lation took place in 954, 5 ° by the same Adalbert, and in presence of a great 
number of the clergy, monks and laity. Then St. Hildulph's remains were 
taken from where they had previously rested, 51 to the greater church of St. 
Peter on the sixth of the October Ides — ioth of that month s*— and they 
were placed in a wooden shrine. At the same time were raised the relics of 
the holy brothers John and Benignus, and these were buried together in the 
same tomb. On that day, although dark clouds collected and rain had fallen, 
tradition reports, that a great calm ensued at the moment of this translation." 
It furnished occasion for instituting a special festival in our saint's honour. 

It is stated, moreover, that about the year 1028, 54 the remains of St. Hildulph 
had been removed to the Val de Galilee, where on account of damp they 
were deposited in the monastic church of St. Die. This afterwards caused a 
contention for their possession between the religious of both houses. In the 
year 1044, Humbert, a distinguished monk of Moyenmoutier, composed 
Hymns and metrical Responses in praise of our saint, with many other similar 
compositions. 55 These Responses are still in the Proper Office of St. 
Hildulph, and they were sung in a solemn manner on the festivals dedicated 
to his memory. In 1129 s 6 or 1 130, the monks of Moyen-Moutier procured 
a still more valuable shrine of silver, in which St. Hildulph's remains were 
enclosed. On this, beautiful figures were wrought, which exhibit the style of 
art at that period, while these have been described for us, as containing a 
representation of Hildulph and Erhard, clothed with the Archiepiscopal Pal- 
lium." Also, they are united, in baptizing St. Othilia ; in giving each other 
the kiss of peace; also, at the dedication of some church; besides a king, doubt- 
less Childeric, offering the episcopal or abbatial staff to Hildulph. In the 
year 161 8, this shrine was repaired, but it is feared in the work of renovation, 
some of the ancient figures have been removed. 58 The monastery church of 
St. Hildulph has since become a parish church. In it, the remains of St. 
Hildulph have been preserved to the present day. Down to the period of the 
French Revolution, a silver shrine contained the relics of St. Hildulph. Since 
then it has disappeared. 5 ? 

The French and German Martyrologies commemorate this holy man, at 
the present day. In some ancient Missals, evidences of his veneration are 
also to be found. Thus, at the v. Ides of July, the feast of St. Hildulph, 
Bishop of Treves, is to be found in a Manuscript Missal, belonging to the 
church of St. Simeon at Treves. This commemoration is repeated, more- 
over, in an old Manuscript Missal, belonging to the Monastery of Epternac, 
and written, at latest, in the twelfth century, with the addition, that not only 

48 See Mabillon's "Annates Ordinis S. p. 523. 
Benedicti," tomus ii., lib. xxv., num. bo, p. 54 By John of Bayon, in lib. ii., cap. 48. 

277. 5S See Richerius, " Chronicon Senonien- 

*9 See ibid., tomus iii., sect, xlviii., p. 465. sis," lib. ii., cap. xviii. 

s° The author of the Tract, "DeSuccesso- 56 According to John of Bayon, lib. ii., 

ribus B. Hildulphi in Vosago does not give cap. 96. 

any date for this occurrence ; but, he tells us, 57 See Mabillon's "Annates Ordinis S. 

that the oratory of the Blessed Virgin was Benedicti," tomus i., lib. xvi., sect, xv., 

then in a ruinous state. p. 507. 

s 1 Mabillon incorrectly supposes this to s * See the Bollandists' "Acta Sanctorum," 

have been the oratory of St. Gregory. tomus iii., Julii xi. De S. Ilildulfo, Con- 

s 2 Other accounts have this translation, on fessore, primum Archiepiscopo Trevirensi ; 

the vii. of the November Ides — 7th day of deinde Abbate Mediani Monasterii in 

that month — and at A.D. 956 or 963. Vosago. Commentarius Prsevius, sect, vi., 

53 See Mabillon's "Annates Ordinis S. pp. 219 to 221. 
Benedicti," tomus iii., lib. xlv., num. lxxiv., 59 See Rev. S. Baring-Gould's "Lives of 


was he a bishop but an archbishop. At the v. Ides — corresponding with the 
nth — of July, likewise, an old copy of Usuard's Martyrology, belonging to 
the Monastery of Luxeu, has an account of his deposition, at that date. 60 
Also, in Ado, 6 ' as edited by Mosander, his feast occurs, at the nth of June. 
Likewise is his feast at this day, in the Lubec and Cologne imprint 6 * of 
Usuard. In Arnold Wion's Benedictine Martyrology, 6 3 in Sausay's 
" Martyrologium Gallicanum,'' 6 * and in other works, his feast is set down at 
this date. In the " Menologium Scoticum " 6 s of Thomas Dempster, his feast 
is also recorded, at this day. 66 The feast for the Translation of St. Hildulph's 
Relics was held, on the vi. Ides— corresponding with the 8th — of November, 
as may be seen in Father John Baptist Soller's edition of Usuard's Martyr- 
ology enlarged, by additions from the Luxeu copy and from Greven. 

Since faith, according to the Apostle James, is " dead without works," 
and since a dead faith is no faith, this blessed prelate and preacher earnestly 
persuaded believers unto a holy and sincere faith by their diligent practice of 
good works. His example was as a light to those sitting in darkness. He 
lived solely for God, and loved to work out the Divine will. With senti- 
ments of most perfect resignation, and with the most complete abandonment 
of himself to God, giving him glory for the past, and commending to him all 
concerns for the future, he breathed forth his pious soul at the moment of 
departure, and then received his eternal reward. 

Article II. — St. Drostan, Confessor, in Scotland. [Sixth and 
Seventh Centuries.'] The learned Bollandist, John Baptist Soller, gives us the 
Acts of this saint, comprised in six paragraphs, at the nth of July. 1 He tells 
us, that Dempster — elsewhere characterized by the Bollandist as a faithless 
writer — has placed the festival of this holy man at the 9th of November, in 
his Scottish Menology. Dempster makes him an uncle by the mother's side to 
King Eugenius. Again, he has placed the festival of Drostan, monk, at St. 
Andrews, in Scotland, on the 14th of December. 2 Nor does he assign any 
reason for placing a St. Drostan, at both these days, and in a different form 
of words ; neither does he remark at either of those days a distinction between 
both, or whether they be one and the same person. Soller imagines, that 
Dempster, who raked together many things, had disposed these festivals 
according to his usual custom, by a mere arbitrary process. Ferrarius 
appears to have inserted the words of Dempster, and with little alteration, in 
his general Catalogue. 3 At this date, notices of him may be found in Rev. S. 

the Saints," vol. vii., July II, p. 280. 6s Thus : " Trueris Hildulphi Archiepis- 

60 Thus : " Depositio S. Hildulfi Archi- copi VV." 

pnesulis, Mediano monasterio quiescentis, ° 6 See Bishop Forbes' "Kalendars of 

gloriosae sanctitatis viri." Scottish Saints," p. 205. 

61 Thus : "Treviris, S. Hildulfi, ejus urbis Article ii. — » See "Acta Sanctorum," 
episcopi et confessoris. " tomus hi., Julii xi. De S. Drostano, Con- 

62 Thus : "Treviris B. Hildulfi Archie- fessore in Scotia, pp. 198 to 200. 

piscopi et confessoris." 2 We find notices of a St. Drostan, son to 

63 Thus : " Treviris S. Hildulfi episcopi Conanrod, the King of Demetia's son, by 
et confessoris, qui cum gregem sibi commis- Fyn Wennem, daughter to King Aidus of 
sum sanctitate vitse et sapientiae doctrina Scotland, who flourished in the time of St. 
rexisset, taedio hujus vitse episcopatum abdi- Columba. See Rev. Dr. Reeves' Adamnan's 
cans, in saltu Vosagi multorum pater effectus " Life of St. Columba," lib. i., cap. 9, n. (d), 
monachorum, clarus miraculis, quievit in p. 35. 

pace. " 3 Arnold Wion enumerates him among the 

64 Thus : "Treviris S. Hildulfi episcopi monks who were sons of kings, "quorum 
et confessoris," &c. locus professions ignoratur." — "Lignum 

202 LIVES OF THE IRISH SAINTS. [J uly i i . 

Baring-Gould's work.* Soller was under some doubt, whether St. Drostan's 
feast should be assigned to the nth of July. However, being moved by the 
authority of Sirinus, who gave a short history of this saint,s and even by that 
of Dempster, 6 he appeals to the consent of churches belonging to his nation, as 
also, finding the festival of this saint, assigned to this day, in two editions of 
the English Martyrology, by Wilson. 7 Sufficient evidence has been estab- 
lished, to assert the veneration due to this saint. Sirinus will not allow, how- 
ever, that the Benedictine Order, to which Wilson says our saint belonged, 
had been established in Scotland, in the sixth century. Until this time, the 
rule of St. Columba, Abbot of Iona, prevailed there ; and even Mabillon 
does not enumerate Drostan among saints belonging to the Benedictine Order. 
There are conflicting accounts, also, regarding our saint. Thus, John Major 8 
tells us, that Aidan, King of the Scots, grieved so much at the death of St. 
Columba,3 that he survived that saint only for a short time. Eugenius then 
succeeded him in the kingdom. In these times, St. Drostan, who was uncle 
to the king on the mother's side, led a monastic life. He was famous for 
his miracles. From the obscurity of his manner in expressing himself, how- 
ever, Major leaves us in doubt, as to whether Drostan was an uncle on the 
mother's side to Aidan or to Eugene. But, Lesley explains this more clearly 
He says, that Drostan was uncle on the mother's side to Aidan the King, and 
that disdaining the fleeting things of this world, he retired to a monastery. 
By the example of his great sanctity, he drew many to the profession of a 
good life. 10 Some particulars, also, are to be gleaned from Hector Boetius, 
regarding this saint. 11 The Scottish writers generally agree, that St. Drostan 
flourished about the end of the sixth century, and at the beginning of the 
seventh. The Scottish writers thus appearing almost unanimous in these 
accounts, Soller wonders why O'Sheerin wishes to claim St. Drostan, as an 
Irishman. Speaking about St. Drostan, Sirin says, he was born and educated 
in Ireland, as also was his sister Fedhelmia. She was mother to King Aidan, 
and a daughter to Fethelmius, a nobleman of Connaght origin. These par- 
ticulars are gleaned from a book, treating on the Mothers of the Kings and 
illustrious Irishmen, and from the Life of St. Cormac, Abbot. 12 Wherefore, 
in the opinion of O'Sheerin, it is most probable, this St. Drostan lived for the 
most part in Ireland, and that he was identical with that saint, to whom a 
parochial church had been dedicated. This was called Kill-Drostan,^ or the 
" cell of Drostan," in Elphin diocese. 1 * To these statements of Sirinus, Soller 

Vitse," lib. iv., cap. xxvi. 8 See his "Historia Majoris Britannia? 

4 See "Lives of Saints," vol. vii., July tarn Angliae quam Scotiae," lib. ii., cap. vii., 
II, p. 278. p. 68, 

5 Taken from the Breviary of Aberdeen. 9 See his Life in the Sixth Volume of this 

6 See " Historia Ecclesiastica Gentis Sco- work, at the 9th of June, Art. i. 
torum,"tomus i., lib. iv., num. 375, p. 206. ,0 See his work, " De Origine, Moribus, 

7 The following is Wilson's account as et Rebus Gestis Scotorum," lib. iv., num. 
rendered by Sirinus into Latin : " In Scotia, xlix., p. 145. 

commemoratio S. Dro'stani Confessoris, qui "In "Scotorum Hystorise," lib. ix., fol. 

in eodem regno natus e regio sanguine, et clxxvii. 

Aidani regis avunculus existens, in juvenili " His feast occufs on the 26th of March, 

estate sprevit mundi vanitates, ibidem when a brief notice may be found in the 

monasteriumingressus, S. Benedicti habitum Third Volume of this work. His chief 

suscepit, in quo statu adeo in humilitate et festival, however, is on the 13th of Decem- 

perfectione excelluit, ut in Scotia Albiensi ber. 

et Hibernia celeberrimae famse fuerit, donee ' 3 By some this is placed in the neighbour- 

plenus sanctitate et miraculis, diem clausit hood of Elgin. See Rev. S. Baring-Gould's 

circa annum Christi DC; ubi multa fuere " Lives of the Saints," vol. vii., July 1 1, p. 

antiquitus altaria et sacella in ejus honorem 278. 

dicata." These words are not to be found, ,4 See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus iii., 

however, in the later edition of Wilsons Julii xi. De S. Drostano, num. 4, p. 

work, published in 1640. 199. 


adds, that he had no means for calling them in doubt, nor for confirming 
them ; although he could not conceal the fact, that no commemoration of St. 
Drostan occurred in the Irish Catalogues of Saints, collected with great 
diligence by the Jesuits, Fathers Henry Fitzsimon and Stephen White. 
However, he is willing to allow a claim of the Irish to this saint, if Scotch- 
men do not object ; but, he says, both Ireland and Scotland may challenge 
St. Drostan, for many reasons adduced by Sirinus. What more may be learned 
regarding St. Drostan, can be found in the Breviary of Aberdeen. In sub- 
stance, this work treats thus regarding the saint. It is there stated, that St. 
Drostan was descended from a royal race of the Scots. In early youth he 
cultivated pious dispositions. When he had come to a mature age, having 
heard concerning the mystery of our Lord's Incarnation and Passion, being 
filled with the Holy Ghost, he endeavoured to serve the Almighty, with all 
the affection of his soul. His parents found, that the boy Drostan was con- 
secrated to God by a deep affection. They sent him to be instructed in 
liberal studies to his uncle by the mother's side, St. Columba, who then 
dwelt in Ireland. Afterwards, our saint took the religious habit at Dal- 
quongale, as stated in the Aberdeen Breviary, but in Dal-Congaile,as corrected 
in a marginal note. On the death of his superior, St. Drostan was elected Abbot, 
in his place. While he filled this position, for some time, Drostan laboured to 
advance the spiritual life of those monks, over whom he presided, by that exam- 
ple of life and doctrine he set them. Some time having elapsed, he betook him- 
self to a remote Scottish desert. However, he did not forsake the flock com- 
mitted to his charge; but rather, he committed it to the supreme Pastor of souls. 
There he led the life of a hermit. He built a church, in a place called Glenu- 
Eske. x s According to the Gospel precepts, he thus left all things for Christ. 
Drostan cared not for the dignities of this earth, nor for regal honours, which he 
might enjoy, owing to the advantages of his birth ; he renounced an earthly 
kingdom and a human principality, that he might run to the embraces of his 
Saviour. A certain priest, named Sion, being deprived of sight, was restored 
to its use, through St. Drostan's merits. The holy man became a despiserof 
the world, a follower of Christ, a lover of the desert, a conqueror over the old 
enemy of our race. He always invoked Divine assistance against the snares 
of his latent enemy, who endeavoured to lay nets of temptation for him. He 
always aspired to the joys of Heaven. And, that he might never yield to the 
devil, he bore a severe martyrdom of corporal maceration, while his heart 
overflowed with compunction of spirit. Through the way of this present life, 
he aimed at the rewards of life eternal, and the holy man deserved to enter 
into a deathless life. Having finished his mortal career, in all holiness and 
purity, he departed to "The bosom of his Father and his God, 5 ' 16 there to 
enjoy the happiness of all true saints. 1 ? Owing to his imperfect Acts, Soller 
did not care to investigate more closely the age in which St. Drostan lived, or 
the works he performed. That learned writer, however, wished to be more 
exactly instructed, regarding what place or church he had formerly inhabited, 
where he had been buried, or with what peculiar honour he had been vene- 
rated ; since that general consent — asseverated by Dempster — bore as little 
weight with him as the announcement, already alluded to, that Drostan was 
venerated at St. Andrews, in Scotland. It would not be easy to discover, 
whether the church of Aberdeen, truly or falsely, celebrates St. Drostan's 
festival at the 14th of December. At the nth day of July, Camerarius enters 

j s Otherwise Glen-esk. 1? See " Acta Sanctorum," tomus Hi. 

16 Gray's "Poems," Elegy written in a Julii xi. De S. Drostano, num. 5, 6, pp 
Country Churchyard. i99> 20 °- 


a feast 18 for St. Drostan, Abbot and Confessor. T 9 He is also invoked in a 
Culdee Litany. 30 The death of this holy man has been placed by Wilson, 21 
at the year 600, while Dempster 2 * has it, at a.d. 606. The Scottish writers 
have notices of this holy man, who was especially venerated in their country. 
Thus, he is mentioned by John Lesley 2 3 and John Major, 2 4 by whom he is 
styled Drostanus, or Dronstanus, the former being the more approved form 
for writing and pronouncing his name. Although Sirin remarks, that the 
Breviary of Aberdeen is sufficiently filled with errors, we are obliged to give 
what it states respecting our saint. We are told, towards the end, that the 
bones of this holy confessor, Drostan, were buried at Aberdeen, in a stone 
tomb ; and that there, many, who were afflicted with divers kinds of diseases, 
had been restored to health through his merits. 

Article III. — St. Sigisbert, Comfessor, and St. Placidus, Martyr, 
Dissentis, Switzerland. {Sixth and Seventh Centuries?^ Although one 
of these holy servants of Christ was born in Ireland and the other was a 
native of Switzerland ; yet, as their companionship in life, and the church 
honours paid to their memory, give both a claim to be remembered on this 
day, so it is intended to relate some particulars regarding them. Both these 
holy men were especially venerated in the Grisons, Switzerland ; but, their 
existence seems to have been unknown to all the other preceding Martyrolo- 
gists, until Ferrarius ■ drew the account from the Records of their church at 
Chur, and from their Proper Office there recited. The Bollandists give their 
Acts 2 at the present date.3 The notices, as contained in the Bollandists, 
are in part, however, of a legendary character. There is a notice of these 
saints in Rev. S. Baring-Gould's work.* There is an account of them in the 
Disentis Annals. 5 The former of these saints must have been born towards the 
close of the sixth century. St. Sigisbert is held to have been an Irishman by 
birth. The name he received in baptism was probably different. Some have 
supposed, that his Teutonic name refutes the supposition of his having been 
an Irishman. 6 But, as we have seen in numberless instances, the names of 
Irish saints have been changed into forms more familiar to people living on 
the Continent. His education is said to have been received at Bangor, and 
this is probable enough if we accept the succeeding statements regarding 
him. When St. Columbanus? and St. Gaul 8 went on their apostolic mission 
into Switzerland, Sigisbert is said to have accompanied them, forming one of 

18 Thus : "Sanctus Drostanus Abbas et torum." 

Confessor." 2 In ten paragraphs. 

" See Bishop Forbes' " Kalendars of Scot- 3 See " Acta Sanctorum," tomus iii., Julii 

tish Saints," p. 239. xi. I)e SS. Placido Martyre et Sigisberto 

20 According to Iladdan and Stubbs, Confessore in Tenitorio Curiensi in Rhretia. 
" Councils and Ecclesiastical Documents, Sylloge ex Breviario Curiensi et Ferrario, 
relating to Great Britain and Ireland," vol. pp. 238 to 240. 

ii., part i., App. C. * See "Lives of the Saints," vol. vii., July 

21 In his " Martyrologium Anglicanum." 11, pp. 280, 281. 

22 In his "HistoriaEcclesiasticaGentis Sco- s See in " Die Wallfartsorte d. Schweiz," 
torum," tomus i., lib. iv., num. 375, p. 2C6. by Burgener, 1867. 

2 3 In his work, " De Origine, Moribus et 6 At this very day was celebrated the feast 
Rebus Gestis Scotorum," lib. iv., num. xlix., of St. Dathi, Bishop of Ravenna, as Galesi- 
p. 145. nus states. The form of his name is 
r . s * In his "Historia Majoris Britannia? tarn altogether Irish, and yet this is no proof that 
Anglise quam Scotiae," lib. ii., cap. vii., p. he was a native of Ireland. 

69. Edinburgi, 1740, 4to. 7 His Lifeisset downat the 21st ofNo- 

Article ill. — ' He states: "In territo- vember. 

rio Curiensi Platidi martyris et Sigisberti 8 See his Life, at the 16th of October. 

Confessori?." — "Catalogus Gcneialis Sane- 9 This is stated, by an old writer of St. 

J u l y 1 1 • ] LI VES OF THE IRISH SAINTS. 2 5 

the twelve missionaries, who then left their native country. 9 According to 
some accounts, St. Sigisbert was a disciple of St. Columbanus, and he accom- 
panied the latter everywhere, sharing both in his consolations and tribulations. 
He lived as a monk at Luxeuil — it is said for twenty years — having been 
trained under the rule of St. Columban. Before the persecution of the Bur- 
gundian King, he is stated to have left that monastery. He accompanied 
his beloved master, during his peregrinations through France, and accom- 
panied him into Switzerland. 10 When St. Columbanus went to Bobbio, 
Sigisbert is thought to have remained in the Alps. Whether this arrest was 
owing to a secret inspiration from on high, or an inability to proceed, is not 
known. He traversed eastwardly the heights of Crispalt, the northern summit 
of Mount St. Gothard. This must have been a difficult and fatiguing journey, 
through such deep valleys and stupendous mountains. He found a site that 
pleased him near the sources of the Vorder-Rhine, in a long valley, between 
the snowy ridges that culminate in the Todi and the Scopi. 11 He settled 
there, having called the place the desert. 12 It was designated Disertina in 
Latin, and in French Dissentis. He built a small chapel and cell for himself 
in 613 at the foot of a mountain, bearing the name Vaccareccia, near a spring 
of limpid water. This was formed by the trunks and branches of trees. He 
there erected a small oratory in honour of the Mother of God. For the most 
part, the people living in that district were idolaters. By word and example, 
however, the holy solitary brought them to a knowledge of the true Faith. 
He was overjoyed to find, that the people renounced their false gods, cutting 
down the groves, and overturning the temples dedicated to them. A tree of 
great height grew there, and this was an object especially venerated by the 
heathens. At his prayer, the people proceeded to cut it down, but this order 
nearly cost his life, for an irritated pagan, deeming it to be a sacrilegious act, 
threw an axe at the saint's head. The stroke escaped him, however, as he 
made a sign of the cross. This miracle, joined to the great austerity of his life, 
caused Sigisbert to be universally venerated. Among his converts was one 
called Placidus, who lived in a castle called Tremisium. 1 ? He was wealthy 
and powerful. Through curiosity, he went one day to hear Sigisbert preaching. 
This became the occasion for a grace which wrought his conversion. He was 
moved to tears, and casting himself at the preacher's feet, he prayed to 
become a Christian. He was received with great joy by Sigisbert, who 
instructed and baptized him. Soon afterwards, the convert expressed a desire 
to lead a still more perfect life. He then offered to the Almighty and to the 
Blessed Virgin all his temporal possessions. He placed himself immediately 
under the direction of Sigisbert. Soon he was joined by other monks. 1 * As 
the number of his disciples began to increase, Sigisbert built another oratory, 
which he dedicated to St. Martin. He constructed cells around it, in which to 
lodge his monks. They became united in the strictest rules of Christian 

Gall's Life, found in the monastery of Sele- eremi amatorum." 

genstad, on the River Main, in Germany. JI See Rev. S. Baring-Gould's " Lives of 

This contains some inaccuracies, however, the Saints," vol. vii., July n, p. 281. 

such as stating that they left Ireland in the I2 The old Life of St. Gall, edited by 

time of Pope Gregory. They arrived in Father O'Sheerin, may be seen in the " Col- 

F ranee long before his incumbency. lectanea Sacra," of Father Christopher 

10 The old writer of Vita S. Galli states, Fleming, in the commentaries affixed to the 

that St. Columban came to Ursaria, which Life of St. Columban, num. 81. 

was a city in Helvetia, also called Ursella ' 3 Franciscus Guillimann adds: " eaque 

and Urania, where he constructed a church, tenebat omnia, quae nunc Disertinoe regionis 

and that it was known as St. Columban's at nominantur." — " De Rebus Helvetiae," lib. 

the time when he wrote. He adds regarding iv., cap. ii., p. 425. 

Columbanus; " Ibi reliquit Sigebertum l * See Rev. S. Daring-Gould's "Lives of 


charity, and practised the most heroic virtues. He there established, not 
alone the rule of St. Columban, but introduced likewise his spirit ; for, by 
example as by words, he never failed to animate his brethren, in all the per- 
fections of their state. He also consecrated those immense solitudes around 
him to God and to his Holy Mother. However, a local Count, whose name 
was Victor the First j s resented this intrusion — as he ruled overall Rhaetia l6 
— and he resolved on taking possession of those lands, with which Placidus 
had endowed the monastery. The latter went to him with a complaint and 
remonstrance. With the freedom of another John the Baptist, Placide also 
reproached him with living a sinful life in company with an abandoned woman. 
He chose to be offended with Placidus, and in revenge, he ordered some of 
his retainers to beset the way by which he was to return. In a passionate 
mood, this chief ordered them to murder his visitor, and to smite off the head 
of Placidus. This, as we are told, happened on the nth of July. 1 ? However, 
the barbarous and unjust Count did not long survive. While passing the 
Rhine, over a bridge, he and some of his servants fell into the river, when they 
were swept along by the torrent and drowned. The loss of his dear disciple 
Placidus brought great affliction to the heart of Sigisbert. On the very spot 
where he had been murdered, the people of that country afterwards built a 
magnificent church in honour of the martyr, and it lasted for many subse- 
quent centuries. 18 It is said, that St. Sigisbert departed this life in 613, the 
very year when his glorious master St. Columbanus passed away to bliss. 
Others have placed the date for his departure at a.d. 615. T 9 He was buried 
in the same tomb with Placidus, so that while they were closely united in 
charity and conversation during life, they were not separated when both had 
been removed from their religious community. Sigebert is regarded as their 
apostle by the Grisons, in that portion of Switzerland. In 621, the Abbey of 
Disentis was founded, and it continued to flourish for many subsequent ages. 20 
No less than five parishes were subject to it. 21 Miracles were frequently 
wrought at the tomb of St. Sigisbert and of St. Placidus. To honour their 
relics, a marble sarcophagus was made by orders of King Pepin. It is said, 
that Tello, who is reputed to have been a son of Victor and afterwards Bishop 
of Chur, 22 endeavoured to make reparation for the cruelty of his father. 
Everywhere this bishop propagated devotion to St. Placidus. The veil which 
wrapped the head of St. Placidus had long been preserved as a relic in that 
place. The graves of these saints were visited in 781, by Charlemagne and by 
liis Empress Hildegarde. Frequent pilgrimages took place to the Abbey of 
Dissentis, when prayers were offered before the shrine of its patron saints. 
Among the illustrious visitors was St. Charles Borromeo, who undertook a 

the Saints," vol. vii., July 1 1, p. 281. 20 The Abbot Dom. Albert Funsi of this 

'5 He lived at a place, called Willinga, monastery communicated many particulars 

which was a castle situated on the other regarding it to Mabillon, and these were 

bank of the Rhine. It is now in ruins. taken from ancient Manuscripts. 

,6 See Franciscus Guillimann, "De Rebus 21 Thus states FranciscusGuillimann, while 

Helvetian," lib. iv., cap. ii., p. 425. enumerating the Federal Cantons of Rhaetia: 

17 See Franciscus Guillimann, "Dc Rebus " Prima et antiquissima est Disertini monas- 

Helvttiae," lib. iv., cap. ii., p. 425. terii et vici, ampla et locuples, cujus parretipe 

x8 At a comparatively recent period an sunt quinque ; Dissertinum ipsum, Tremi- 

enormous avalanche — frequent among those siuin (Trams) Bregallia (Brigell) Actuatium 

Alpine Mountains — buried it, and the people (Tavetsch) Medullum (Medels.) sunt et vici 

living around it, so that the place where it plures, at Camossum ^Kemps) Summus 

stood cannot now be known. See Les Petit! vicus (Summits) . M — "De Rebus Helvetia.'," 

Kollandistes, " Vies des Saints," tome viii., lib. iv., cap. ii., p. 425. 

xi e Jour de Juillet, p. 249. '-'- It is said, from 759 to 774. He died 

19 See Mabillon's "Annales Ordinis S. A.D. 784. This, however, can hardly square 

Benedicti,"tomus i.,lib. xi.,num. xx.,p. 310. with the much earlier date assigned for the 


fatiguing journey through the Rhetinn Alps for that purpose, and when he 
was treated with marked respect by the monks of that monastery. 2 3 When 
Disentis had been occupied by the French in 1799, the relics of those saints 
were for the most part lost. The feast of St. Sigisbert, confessor, and of St. 
Placidus, martyr, are celebrated on the nth of July, throughout that diocese 
where they so long lived and laboured. They are commemorated in the 
Chur Breviary. They are commemorated, likewise, in Les Petits 2 * Bollan- 
dists, at the nth of July. 

Article IV. — St. Lonan, of Ard-Cruinn. Veneration was given, at 
the nth of July, to Lonan, of Arda Crainn, as we find entered in the Martyr- 
ology of Tallagh. 1 The Bollandists have recorded, at this same date, a feast 
for Lonanus of Ard-cruinn, 2 as furnished by Father O'Sheerin. We may 
enquire, if Ard-cruinn can be identical with Ardcroney, 3 a parish in the barony 
of Lower Ormond, and county of Tipperary. The left side of the direct road 
— as you advance from Borris-o-kane to Nenagh — affords the site for an 
ancient church, on a very elevated spot. Connected with this church appear 
the remains of an old castle ; some of the side walls, chambers, winding- 
stairs and window-places, are yet to be seen. The whole group of ruins is 
enclosed within a much frequented graveyard. The church walls are in 
tolerable preservation. In one end gable, a narrow cut-stone and pointed 
window remains entire. The opposite gable, near the old castle, appears 
rather to have been an interior cross-wall, under which a wide arch opens. 
The masonry in this group of buildings is very massiveand well cemented. The 
whole deserves an attentive study from the antiquary and archaeologist. In the 
Isle of Man — which is full of ancient Celtic ecclesiastical memorials — there is 
an old, and also a new one — the former giving name to a parish, known as 
Loman. Tradition states, that a St. Lonan, nephew of the Irish Apostle, is 
honoured there. The ruins of the ancient church stand in a lonely cemetery 
a mile and a-half off the main road from Douglas to Luney.4 In the 
Martyrology of Donegal, 5 the feast of this saint is also entered, at the nth of 

Article V. — St. Falbi, or Failbhe, Son of Culocha, of Disert 
Mic-Conlocha, in Cuircne, County of Westmeath. In the " Feilire " of 

death of Sigisbert. where St. Patrick's mother was honoured. 

23 This is related, in the Italian Life of St. The present ruins I take to be the remains 
Charles Borromeo, by the noble priest John of a church erected a couple of hundred years 
Peter Giusani, lib. vi., cap. xii. ago on the site of an ancient foundation. In 

24 See "Vies des Saints," tome viii., the small burial-ground — now disused, I 
xi e Jour de Juillet, pp. 248, 249. • think — stands a curious and ancient Celtic 

Article iv. — l Edited by Rev. Dr. cross 6 feet high, and 3 feet broad at the 

Kelly, p. xxix. shoulders. The circle is not worked through, 

2 See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus iii., but marked or punched deeply in the face 
Julii xi. Among the pretermitted saints, of the stone. The stone itself is not regu- 
p. 177. larly dressed. The panel, &c, of the cross 

3 It is noticed, on the " Ordnance Sur- exhibit the usual scroll-work. I could dis- 
vey Townland Maps for the County of Tip- cover no inscription — if inscription there 
perary," sheets io, 14, 15. The townland had been — it would be now obliterated, as 
proper is on sheet 15. evidently the venerable monument has been 

4 The foregoing particulars, and the fol- exposed to rough weather and rougher hand- 
lowing were communicated to the writer, by ling in days gone by. I may add, that the 
Rev. Patrick Power, 14 Great Nelson-street, whole is set in a stone pedestal (rude as the 
Liverpool, in a letter dated August 3rd, monument itseli), about 6 feet in length by a 
1887. He adds: "About four miles from foot ami a-half broad." 

the former and about two ^from Onchan s Edited by Drs. Todd and Reeves, pp. 


St. ^Engus, 1 at the nth of July, there is an entry of Conlug's pious son. In 
a comment annexed, we are informed, that he was of Disert Meic Conlocha, 
in the west of Meath, and that Failbe was his name. 2 His father was named 
Conlug — according to other accounts — Culocha. We find entered in the 
Martyrology of TallaglV at the nth of July, Mac Conlocae, Falbi being his 
name, in Disiurt mic-Conlocha, in Curchib. The Bollandists *> have on this 
day the brief notices furnished by O'Sheerin, and representing him as a burn- 
ing and a shining light. The Calendar of Cashel as also the Martyrologies 
of Marianus O'Gorman and of Cathal Maguire commemorate him. Euten, 
daughter of Moche, son to Bairrinn, sister of Muiccin, of Maighin, was his 
mother.s The territory of Cuircne or Machaire Cuircne was commensurate 
with the barony of Kilkenny West, in the county of Westmeath. 6 This dis- 
trict of Cuircne ' embraced also that portion of Forgney parish, lying south 
of River Inny, 8 in the barony of Abbeyshruel, and county of Longford. The 
place of this saint is now probably that called Dysart,9 a parish partly in the 
barony of Rathconrath, and partly in that of Moycashel and Magheradernan. 
There are some remains of an old church and a cemetery lying within it. 10 It 
is remarked, that in the Menologium Scoticum of Dempster, he has a Fail- 
beus at the 25th of January, at the 3rd of June, and at the 6th of October." 
The Martyrology of Donegal I2 records the present saint, as Failbhe, son of 
Culocha, of Disert Mic Conlocha, in Cuircne, in Westmeath. 

Article VI. — St. Colman, Son of Cron or Cronan. In the 
Martyrology of TallaglV we find inserted, at the nth of July, the name of 
Colman, son of Cronan. A similar notice, furnished by O'Sheerin to the 
Bollandists, 2 for this same date, has been inserted in their great collection. 
The Martyrology of Donegal calls him the son of Cron. 3 Perhaps, his place 
may be identified with Daire Mor, or Kilcolman, a parish, partly in the barony 
ofBallybritt, and partly in the barony of Clonlisk, in the southern part of the 

192, 193. 8 These relative situations are well shown, 
Article v. — * In the " Leabhar Breac" on the Map of the Diocese of Meath, con- 
copy, we find the following stanza and its structed by Rev. Dr. Daniel Augustus Beau- 
EnnlLsh translation by Dr. Whitley Stoke.s, ford, Rector ofNavan. 
LL.D. : — 9 Disert-Conlocha appears to have been 

another name for this church. See 1 >r. 

LamAjvcA riApipiA O'Donovan's " Leabhar na g-Ceart, or Book 

eufeniA rU>5T>Ai of Rights," n. (h), pp. 181, 182. 

bencoichc balcc Aijje I0 See Lewis' "Topographical Dictionary 

HIacc qvAib'oech Cotilocha. of Ireland," vol. i., p. 592. 

11 The Bollandists subjoin : " Primo die 

" With the martyrdom of the queen Euphe- in Praetermissis est ex Ferrario 13 Junii ex 

mia the hostful, Benedict, a strong pillar, Dempstero, ubi remittitur ad 9 ejusdem 

Conlug's pious son." — " Transactions of mensis, tanquam qui scripserit Acta S. 

the Royal Irish Academy," Irish Manuscript Columbae, ast ibi de eo nihil : siquid certi 

Scries, vol. i., part i. On the Calendar of inveniatur, poterit referri ad diem vi. Octo- 

Ocngus, p. ex. bris." — "Acta Sanctorum," tomus hi., Julii 

■ Sec ibid., p. cxviii. xi. Among the pretermitted saints, p. 178. 

3 Edited by Rev. Dr. Kelly, p. xxix. 12 Edited by Drs. Todd and Reeves, pp. 

4 See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus iii., 192, 193. 

Julii xi. Among the pretermitted saints, Article vi. — • Edited by the Rev. Dr. 

p. 178. Kelly, p. xxix. 

s According to the O'Clerys' Calendar. * See " Acta Sanctorum," tomus iii., Julii 

6 See Dr. O'Donovan's "Annals oi the xi. Among the pretermitted saints, p. 177. 
Four Masters," vol. ii., n. (g), p. 1121. 3 Edited by Drs. Todd and Reeves, pp. 

7 See Dr. O'Donovan's "Leabhar na 192, 193. 

g-Ceart, or Book of Rights," n. (h), p. 181. « Seethe Fifth Volume of this work, Art. ». 

July ii.] LIVES OF TllE IRISH SAINTS. 209 

King's County. The present saint appears distinguishable from another 
bearing the same name and venerated at the same place. His Acts may be seen, 
at the 20th of May/ This place is at present said 5 to be written Derrimore, 
and to be found in Eliogarty, county of Tipperary. It seems, probable, that 
he may be identified with a Colman, bishop, set down by Duald Mac Firbis, 
at this date, and stated to have been of Doire Mor. 6 

Article VII. — St. Berran. At the nth of July, the simple entry, 
Berran, is met with in the Martyrology of Tallagh. 1 Father O'Sheerin assured 
the Bollandists, who insert his commemoration at this date, that he was patron 
of Kill-Berrain, in Lower Ormond, and in the diocese of Killaloe, where his 
feast and vigil were observed, but on the 5th of May, as the Records of that 
diocese attest. 3 Marianus O'Gorman also includes him. His festival is like- 
wise noted in the Martyrology of Donegal,3 where jt is entered in the more 
recent hand. 4 

Article VIII. — St. Gabtina or Gaibhthene, Virgin. According to 
the Martyrology of Tallagh, 1 St. Gabtina, virgin, had a feast on this day. 
Father O'Sheerin furnished the Bollandists 2 a like record for this date. In 
the Martyrology of Donegal,3 a festival was celebrated, it is stated, at the t ith 
of July, in honour of Gaibhthene, virgin. Nothing more seems to be known 
about her. 

Article IX. — Reputed Feast of St. Etianus, or Etto, Disciple 
of St. Fursey. In the anonymous Calendar of Irish Saints published by 
O'Sullevan Be are, at the nth of July, we find Etianus or Etto entered. 
Molanus and Henry Fitzsimon have Etianus, Bishop, recorded at the same 
date. 1 His Acts have been given at the preceding day — the correct one for 
his feast. 2 

Article X. — Translation of St. Benedict's Relics. In the 
" Leabhar Breac " copy of the " Feilire," by St. yEngus, 1 there is a record of 
St. Benedict's festival, at the nth of July. Furthermore, a scholion informs 
us, 2 that he was Benedict^ the Father of Monks. Usuard and other ancient 
Martyrologists have it as the festival for a Translation of his relics, as the 
Bollandists note at this day. 4 They refer, however, to his chief feast, at the 

5 By William M. Hennessy. Article VIII,— '•* Edited by Rev. Dr. 

6 See " Proceedings of the Royal Irish Kelly, p. xxix. 

Academy," Irish Manuscript Series, vol. i., 2 See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus iii., 

part i., p. 105. Julii xi. Among the pretermitted feasts, 

Article vii — j Edited by Rev. Dr. p. 177. 

Kelly, p. xxix. 3 Edited by Drs. Todd and Reeves, pp. 

2 The Bollandists add to the foregoing ob- 192, 193. 

servations : " Cur igitur hoc die adducitur ? Article ix.— l See "Historic Catholics 

Aliis catalogis ignotus est ; si res magis pa- Iberniae Compendium," tomus i., lib. iv., 

teat, facile alio die locum in Actis invenire cap. xi., xii., pp. 50, 54. 

poterit."— "Acta Sanctorum," tomus iii., 2 See Colgan's "Acta Sanctorum Hiber- 

Julii xi. Among the pretermitted saints, nise," ix. Februarii, n. 13, p. 299. 

p. 177. Article x. — x See " Transactions of the 

3 Edited by Drs. Todd and Reeves, pp. Royal Irish Academy," Irish Manuscript 
192,193. Series, vol. i., part i. On the Calendar of 

4 See note by Rev. Dr. Todd. Oengus. By Whitley Stokes, LL.D., p. ex. 



2 1 st of March for an exhaustive illustration of his Acts. Also, in Usuard is 
to be found, at this same date, a Translation of the relics of his sister Scho- 
lastics, whose chief festival and Acts are noticed, on the 10th of February. 

Article XI. — Festival of St. Euphemia, Virgin and Martyr, 
with her Companions. In the Irish Church, the Feast of St. Euphemia 
was formerly celebrated, on the nth of July. 1 In the commentary annexed, 2 
we are informed, that she Was a virgin, who suffered martyrdom under the 
Emperor Diocletian, with xu thousand other martyrs. The Greeks had a 
feast for herat this date, and it is noted by Greven, as the Bollandists remark.3 
However, in the Roman Martyrology * — as also in the Greek Menologies — 
her feast has been referred to the 16th of September. 

Article XII. — Festival of St. Maclovius. At the nth of July, 
Greven, Saussay and other hagiographers commemorate St. Maclovius or 
St. Malo, Bishop and Confessor in British Armorica, as the Bollandists 
observe ; x but they prefer to treat about him on the day for his chief festival, 
November 15th. To that same date, likewise, our readers are referred for 
more particulars regarding him. 

Ctodftf) 3Bap of 3ulp* 



WE often hear Christians say, they do not find the peace, and joy, and 
fruitfulness, and usefulness, they are led to expect from the promises 
of God conveyed in the Sacred Scriptures. If so, we may rest assured, the 
fault lies with themselves. It is only the true saint can fully comprehend, what 

2 See ibid., p. cxviii. sanctoe Euphcmiae Virginis et Martyris, qua; 

S He is venerated, on the 2ist of March, sub Diocletiano Jmperatore et Prisco Pro- 
Ins principal feast. consule, torment*, carceres, verbera, argu- 

4 See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus iii., menta rotarum, ignes, pondera lapidum, bes 

Julii xi. Among the pretermitted saints, tias, plagas virgarum, serras acutas, sarta- 

p. 75. gines ignitas pro Christo superavit : sed 

Article xi.— 1 According to the " Fei- nirsus in theatrum ad bestias ducta, cum 

lire " of St. /Engus. See " Transactions of orasset ad Dominum, ut jam spiritum suum 

the Royal Irish Academy," Irish Manu- susciperet, una ex iis naorsum.santo corpore 

script Series, vol. i., part i. On the Calen- infigente, ceteris pedes ejus lambentibus, 

dar of Oengus. By Whitley Stokes, LL.D., immaculatum spiritum Deo reddidit." — 

p. ex. "Maityrologium Romanum Gregorii XIII. 

2 See ibid., p. cxviii. editum," pp. 137, 138. Editio novissima, 

3 See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus iii., Romae, 1878, fol. 

Julii xi. Among the pretermitted feasts, Article xu. — * gee " Acta Sanctorum," 

p. 177. tomus iii., Julii xi. Among the pretermitted 

4 It is thus entered : "Chalcedone natalis saints, p. 178. 


the Almighty hath prepared for them that love him, and which eye hath not 
seen, nor ear heard, neither hath it entered into the heart of man to conceive. 
The perfect detachment from created things is a sacrifice most pleasing and 
most perfect in the estimation of the Creator, and to it, the most faithful and 
favoured of his servants continually aspire. 

The Acts of this venerable man whose name has been Latinized Menulfus, 
or Menulphus — and by the French called Menou — were formerly preserved 
in Manuscript, at the church of St. Autrille-du-Chateau, near Bourges. They 
were first published by le Pere Labbe. The Breviary of the church at 
Bourges, printed a.d. 1512, has his office of three Lessons included. Like- 
wise, his office has been printed, at Paris, in 1686. It is now celebrated 
under a simple rite. The Acts of St. Menou, who probably flourished in the 
seventh century, and who became bishop of Quimper, in Bretagne, have been 
published by Lobineau. 1 They have been published, likewise, by the Bollan- 
dists, 2 at the 12th of July. There is a previous commentary,3 by Father 
John Baptist Soller, S.J., the editor. Then follow the proper Acts.* The 
" Petits Bollandistes " have an account of this saint, and also at the same 

It is agreed, by the various writers of his Acts, that Menou was a native 
of Ireland; 6 but, regarding the particular place where he was born, or his 
parentage, we find no record. There, too, it seems his first years were spent ; 
yet, for the sake of greater perfection, he was induced to leave his family and 
native country while still very young. At first, he went to Great Britain, and 
thence, he travelled to Armorica, until he came to Quimper, also known as 
Quimper-Corentin, the present capital of the Department of Finistere in 
France. It is situated on the declivity of a hill, at the confluence of the 
Odet and Steir, about thirty-two miles south-east from Brest.? At that time, 
this city formed part of the country, belonging to the Ossimiens. 8 It is now 
divided into an old and a new town, but the houses are poorly built. It is 
surrounded with a wall, and guarded by towers. Its present cathedral is a 
fine structure of the fifteenth century, and it is situated near the port.9 The 
bishop of Quimper is now a suffragan to the Archbishop of Tours. Accord- 
ing to the Acts of our saint, 10 about the same period when he arrivad in Little 
Britain, Dagobert," King of the Franks, reigned, and had established peace 

Article i. — ' See " Les Vies des Saints partie le departement du Finistere, etaient 

de Bretagne," tome ii., pp. 125 to 129. Ed. un des peuples puissants de la confederation 

Paris, 1836. Armorique, a l'epoque de la conquete des 

2 See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus iii., Julii Gaules par Cesar. Us resisterent long-temps 
xii. De S. Menulfo Episcopo in Finibus aux Romains ; mais enfin ilsfurent vaincus." 
Bituricensium in Gallia, pp. 305 to 308. —A. Hugo's "France Pittoresque, ou De- 

3 In seven paragraphs. scription Pittoresque, Topographique et Sta- 

4 The first, Acta ex codice Ms. eccl. S. tistique des Departements et Colonies de la 
Austregisili de Castro, apud Labbeum in France," &c, tome ii. Departement du 
Bibliotheca Mss. ; the second, Ex vetustis- Finistere, p. 25. A. Paris, 1835, sm. fol. 
simo Breviario eccl. Bituric. ad diem XII. 9 The accompanying illustration of the 
Julii. place, copied from an approved engraving, 

5 See "Vies des Saints," tome viii., and drawn on the wood by William F. 
xii e Jour de Juillet, pp. 259, 260. Wakeman, has been engraved by Mrs. Mil- 

6 The Acts state : "In insula maris oceani lard. 

quae barbara lingua Yrilanda nuncupatur, id 10 Those contained in the Manuscript be- 

est, ferrea terra, vir sanctus et venerabilis longing to the church of St. Autrille-du- 

Menulfus procreatus est," &c. Chateau, at Bourges. 

7 See " Gazetteer of the World," vol. xi., "Supposed to have been Dagobert I., 
p. 215. who was born about A.D. 600, and who de- 

8 " Les Occismiens, allies des Venetes et parted this life at Epinay, ( the 19th of 
dont le territoire forme aujourd'hui en grand January, 63S. See Michelet's "Hisloire de 


[July 12. 

throughout his dominions, while many holy persons flourished in the world, 
beautiful as the vernal flowers. This statement, however, is not reconcilable 
with the respective dates assigned for St. Corentin's epoclv — supposed to have 
been the end of the fourth and the beginning of the fifth century — and for that 
of King Dagobert, who flourished in the seventh century. We must infer, that 
the Legend of St. Menulph's Acts had been framed by some writer ignorant 
of chronology, and perhaps little careful to discriminate fictions from facts, in 
those accounts transmitted through popular traditions. At that period of St. 
Menulph's arrival at Quimper, St. Corentin I2 is said to have ruled over it as 
bishop. 1 ^ It is possible, he had been the second bearing that name, 14 
but we cannot find any distinct traces of the latter in the history of Quimper- 

The Town, Cathedral and Port of Quimper-Corentin, Fiance. 

That pious bishop of his acquaintance saw the youthful stranger, and asked 
about the country from which he came, as also the motives that induced him 
to travel. In the Breton language, Menou answered, that he was a native of 
Ireland, and that his sole desire was to serve God in the country to which he 
had come. The prelate found, that he had been well educated, and moved 
by his pious desire, the young man was admitted to the ranks of the clergy, 
and also ordained a priest. Having been invested with this sacred character, 
Menou was not alone satisfied with offering the Adorable Victim; but even, 
he became a living sacrifice to God, owing to his practice of corporal mortifi- 
cation. His great Faith and devotion rendered him an object of respect and 
affection among the people. Wherefore, when St. Corentin died, the united 
voices of the clergy and laity called St. Menou to succeed him. T 5 Notwith- 

France," tome i., p. 250. 

12 His chief feast is on the 12th of Decem- 
ber. But, he is also commemorated on the 
1st cf May, and at the 5th of September. 

13 "Saint Corentin fut le premier Eves- 
que de Quimper, et c'est tout ce que Ton en 

fait d'assureV' — Dom. Gui Alexis Lobineau's 
" Histoire de Bretagne," tome i., liv. ii., 
sect, clxxxvi., p. 74. 

14 See Les Petits Bollandistes, " Vies des 
Saints," tome viii., xii e Jour de Juillet, 
p. 259. 


standing the positive statement contained in the Legend of his Life, it is said, 
that the name of St. Menulfus or Menou is not to be found in the Lists of 
Bishops, belonging to Quimper-Corentin. The Bollandists do not deny, that 
our saint had been a bishop; but, whether he had been a regionary 
prelate, or had belonged to some See unknown, they think cannot be 
determined. 16 

Having now become a pastor of souls, the saint was careful, not alone to 
instruct his people diligently in the truths of salvation, and to distribute the 
sacred bread of God's word, but likewise to edify them by his regular and 
exemplary life. His charity was occupied incessantly, in watching with solici- 
tude over the spiritual concerns of his flock, and in healing the temporal ills to 
which they were subject. Hearing of his holiness and good works, a certain 
noble, that had been thrown into prison by the chief of that country, mani- 
fested a great desire to become converted through his preaching, and to 
receive his benediction. The zealous pastor, being informed regarding the 
the pious dispositions of the prisoner, sent his ring and a message, that he 
should not despair of God's bounty, and that he should soon have reasons 
for thanksgiving because of His infinite mercies. The ring was received with 
great pleasure by the prisoner. Touching his chains with it, these broke 
asunder, in the presence of all the keepers, so that the noble was set at liberty. 
At once, he went to visit St. Menou. Prostrate at his feet, the liberated man 
showed his lively sense of gratitude. He received also the Christian instruc- 
tion necessary for his reception of Baptism. Afterwards, full of joy, he 
returned to live among his own people. 

A vow had been made by St. Menou, to visit the tombs of the Apostles. 
With some of his priests in company, he accordingly parted for the city of 
Rome. When he had arrived there, the fame of his virtues could not long 
be concealed. A remarkable miracle was wrought by him, in favour of a 
paralytic, who asked an alms from him, and who in return received even a 
greater bounty, viz. : that of being healed from his infirmity. This was duly 
reported to the 'Pope, 1 ? who much desired to see the saintly Prelate. The 
Sovereign Pontiff earnestly pressed our saint to remain longer in Rome. 
Nevertheless, the servant of God, having fully satisfied his devotion, resolved 
on returning to his own flock. Accompanied by his priests, St. Menou left 
Rome, and returned to France. He came to Mouilly, a small town in the 
Department of l'Allier, formerly known as that of Bourbonnais, and at present 
it is in the diocese of Moulins. 18 

When he arrived there, the holy man forewarned his disciples, that death 
was approaching, and he even announced to them the very day and hour. 
They were overwhelmed with sorrow, to hear this sad news. They assembled 
around their beloved pastor and master, praying him to become their inter- 
cessor in Heaven, as he had been their model and protector in that school 
of peifection where he had trained them while on earth. Their pious bishop 
then exhorted them to persevere in virtuous pursuits for the rest of their days. 

*S This is indicated— rather than asserted — the name of this Pontiff is concealed, so it 

in the old Acts of our saint, as published by should be useless vaguely to enquire about 

Labbe. Castellan, in his Universal Martyr- his identity. 

ology states it, however, in a positive man- l8 This is an arrondissement, canton and 

ner. town, the capital of that Department, and 

16 See " Acta Sanctorum," tomus iii., Julii pleasantly situated on the right bank of the 

xii. De S. Menulfo Episcopo in Finibus River Allier. It is divided into an old and a 

Bituricensium in Gallia, Commentarius Pra> new town, having two suburbs. See " Gazet- 

vius, sect. 6, p. 306. teer of the World," vol. ix., p. 401. 

*7 As in the Legend of St. Menulf s Life, x » According to the old Breviary of the 


Then receiving the Holy Viaticum, and reclining as if he were about to pass 
into a calm slumber, Menulph gave forth his last breath in prayer. Being 
free from contagion of sin during his life, so he was exempt from painful 
sufferings at the hour of death. In his old Acts, it is stated, that he departed 
this life, on the fourth day of the July Ides, corresponding with the 12th day 
of this month. His great humility urged him to select an almost unknown 
spot in the cemetery of St. Germain, and his wishes in the matter were faith- 
fully regarded. The village of Maliacum, where he had been interred, has 
since been called from him St. Menouil, in Bourbonnais. 

A miracle wrought at his tomb caused a local magnate named Arcade to 
cause a church to be erected there, in honour of the holy bishop ;*9 while a 
nunnery of religious women was also established, in that place. The third 
Abbess, named Adalgise, caused St. Menou's body to be raised from the 
earth in the ninth century. 20 That religious house is now destroyed, but the 
saint's relics are still preserved in the ancient church, which has since become 
parochial. Not only in the place, which now preserves his name, has the 
veneration of St. Menou been established, but throughout the whole diocese 
of Bourges. A reason assigned for his memory not being so well preserved 
in Bretagne is owing probably to the circumstance of his death occurring 
without that province. However, there are still places there, such as Pont- 
Menou, le Val-Meno, and Ker-Meno, evidently associated with his name. It 
is thought, likewise, that St. Nolf, the name of a parish in the diocese of 
Vannes, has reference to St. Menou, who is called Menulphus in Latin. 21 

The feast of this holy bishop is kept on the 12th of July, and on that day 
he is venerated in the ancient French Calendars. In the Additions to Usuard, 
Greven seems to have been the first to introduce the feast of St. Menulplus 
into his Martyrology, 22 and from this entry, other calendarists who succeeded 
derive their data, such as Molanus, 2 3 Canisius, 2 * Maurolycus, 2 * and Ferra- 
rius. 20 The latter adds, that in the lists of the Bishops of Bourges his name 
is not to be found, 2 ? and most probably because St. Menulphus had been 
bishop in some other city. According to the Bollandists, Castellan had been 
the first to assign him a proper See, 28 on the faith of a mere popular tradi- 
tion. 20 

Assiduous at his work, and engaged in pious exercises, the present holy 
man was still able to disengage himself for the spiritual interests of others. 
He only found delight in doing the will of his Maker. The deeply religious 
and moral example of his life and actions in his intercourse with men had a 
potent influence over their souls, and when the shadows of death fell upon 
him, the labours he had so unostentatiously wrought at home and abroad were 
well rewarded by that Divine Master, for whose sake he had sacrificed earth 
and its pleasures to obtain the happiness of Heaven. 

church of Bourges, in the Lessons of our former one. 

saint's office, at the 1 2th of July. 2 s Thus: "In argo Biturico, sancti 

20 It is said, that Dagobert, the fifty-sixth Menulphi prsesulis." 

bishop of Bourges— according to the Sam- ° 6 Thus : " In territorio Bituricensi, sancti 

marthanns the fifty-third — assisted at this Menulphi episcopi." 

translation. 2 7 Neither in those of Demochares, of 

21 See Les Petits Bollandistes' " Vies des Chenu, of Claude Robert or of the Sammar- 
Saints," tome viii., xii e Jour de Juillet, thann, as the Bollandists remark. 

P- 260. 28 Namely that of Corisopitan after St. 

22 Thus : " In territorio Bituricensi, Corentinus. 

sancti Menulphi episcopi et Confessoris." a » See " Acta Sanctorum," tomus Hi., 

2 3 Thus : " In territorio Bituricensi, beati Tulii xii. De S. Menulfo Episcopo in Fini- 
Meinulphi prresulis." bus Bituricensium in Gallia. Commentarius 

24 His entry nearly corresponds with the Pravius, sect. 2, pp. 305, 306. 


Article II. — St. Nazarus, Nazair, or Nasan, Bishop of Lieth- 
more, County of Tipperary. The festival of Nazarius is found in the 
"Feilire" of St. ^ngus, 1 at the 12th of July, and with the commendation 
that he was the story of every synod. A commentary on it states, likewise, 
that he was bishop of Liath in Eblind, or bishop of Liath M6r Mochoemoic. 2 
In the published edition of the Tallagh Martyrology, we find this entry : 
" Nazair o Liath," occurring at the iv. of the Ides, or 12th of July. The 
editor of this Martyrology has also correctly identified Leith-mor with Leama- 
kevoge, near Thurles, county of Tipperary. 3 Both names are also referable 
to the Liath mentioned in the Martyrology of Tallagh. Besides, Marianus 
O'Gorman has also given us the name of this samt, called also Nasan, with an 
eulogy, at this same date/ According to the Martyrologies of Cashel and of 
Maguire, the Natal day of St. Nazarus, Bishop, was celebrated at Liethmore, 
on the 12th of July. 5 There appears to have been a diversity of opinion, on 
the part of most Irish writers, regarding the exact location of Leithmore. By 
some writers, 6 it has been placed exactly four miles distant from the monas- 
tery of Bishop Colman at Doire mor ; and both of those places are thought 
to have been in the present King's County. Colgan placed Liathmor in the 
vicinity of Kinnetty, the very ancient Life of Pulcherius stating, that it was 
only four miles distant from St. Colman's church of Doire-mor, thought 7 to 
have been identical with Kilcolman, near Birr, and which, it is curious to 
observe, lies exactly four miles north-east from that place called Leagh on the 
engraved Map of the Down Survey. However, in the Life of St. Mochcem 
hog 8 or Mochcemoc, also called St. Pulcherius, it is said, St. Colman's monas- 
tery of Doire mor was situated on the confines of Munster and of Leinster, 
but within the boundary of the former province, and in the territory of Ely.9 
This was supposed to have been Ely O'Carroll ; IQ but, there was a southern 
Ely, lying near Thurles, and while this was within Munster, it was also on the 
borders of ancient Leinster. However, the precise locality of Liathmore is 
now found to be identical with the townknd of Leigh, within the parish of 
Two Mile Borris, 11 situated south-east in Elyogarty barony, and in the county of 

Article ii. — r In the " Leabhar Breac" 8 See it in the Third Volume of this work, 

copy, we find the following lines translated at the 13th day of March, Art. i. 

into English by Whitley Stokes, LL.D. : — 9 See Colgan's "Acta Sanctorum Hiber- 

nioe," xiii. Martii, Vita S. Mochoemoci, cap. 

ConjuiAlAiT) coAm^tiu xvi., p. 591. 

tlAzAip r-celcech fetiAiT) I0 When Mr. John O'Donovan had been 

■pebioc bAtnACului'o engaged on the King's County Survey, he 

ConAr-UtAS moj\ meUai-o. noticed on the Down Survey engraved Map 

a church of Leagh on the northern boundary 

"Unto [the angels departed Nazarius the of the townlaud of Derrykeil, in Kinnitty 

story of every synod. Felix, it was well he parish, about five miles to the east of Birr, 

went, with his great host, he was ground." and midway between Skirkyran and Kin- 

— "Transactions of the Royal Irish Aca- nitty. He walked to that very spot, where 

demy," Irish Manuscript Series, vol. i., the Down Survey showed the church of 

part i. On the Calendar of Oengus. Edited Leagh, where he found nothing but a flat 

by Whitley Stokes, LL.D., p. ex. square mound of earth, resembling the site 

2 See ibid,, p. cxviii. of the nunnery of Kinard, near Street, in the 

3 See Rev. Dr. Kelly's "Calendar of Irish county of Westmeath ; however, he thought 
Saints," &c, pp. xxix., 44. this had been the site of an old churchyard, 

4 Thus : " Nasan alienus a crimine." from the appearance it presented. But he 

5 See Colgan's " Acta Sanctorum Hiber- did not pronounce positively, wishing to 
nioe," xiii. Martii, Appendix, cap. iv., have the matter further investigated. See 
p. 598. " Letters containing Information relative to 

6 Among these was the Rev. Dr. Lanigan, the Antiquities of the King's County, during 
in his "Ecclesiastical History of Ireland," the Progress of the Ordnance Survey in 
vol. iii., chap, xvii., sect, v., n. 61, p. 29. 1837, 1838," vol. ii., pp. 94 to 97. Mr. 

7 By the Rev. Dr. Lanigan. O' Donovan's Letter, dated Birr, February 


Tipperary. 11 The ancient name is said to have been Buirgheis Leith, 13 and it 
was denominated, Borris Leigh, *3 from the celebrated old church of Liath 
Mochoemog, situated in that parish. 1 * It is probable, we must place the 
present holy man subsequent to the time of St. Mochoemhog or Mochcemoc, 
who was first Abbot and founder of Liath-more. In the Martyrology of 
Donegal, 1 * at the 12th of July, is entered the feast of St. Nazair, Bishop of 
Liathmor, in Ebhlinn. The Bollandists, 16 who derived their information from 
Father O'Sheerin, also record Nazarius de Lieth, at this date. 

Article III.— St. Colman, Priest, of Cluain Bruchais. In the 
Martyrology of Tallagh, 1 at the 12th of July, we find the simple entry, Colman, 
Bruicisi. It is stated by O'Clery, that this saint was Colman, sonofLughaidh, 
son to Aenghus, son of Nadfraech. This Aenghus was King of Minister 
and of Caiseal. The same authority states, that the present saint was vene- 
rated at Cluain Bruchais, but we are not informed where it had been situated. 
There is a townland Clonbrick, 2 in the parish of Clonlea, barony of Tulla 
Lower and county of Clare ; as also Clonbrick,3 in the parish of Solloghod- 
more, barony of Clanwilliam, and county of Tipperary. There is a Clon- 
brock « (Upper and Lower), in the parish of Clonsast, barony of Coolestown, 
and King's County; there is a Clonbrock,s in the parish of Killabban, 
barony of Slievmargy and Queen's County ; there are two Clonbrocks, 6 in 
the barony of Kilconnell, and county of Gal way. One of the latter is in 
Ahascragh, and the other in Fohanagh parish.? These are the only deno- 
minations discoverable on the Maps of Ireland, as likely to correspond with 
Cluain Bruchais. The Martyrology of Donegal 8 records this saint at the 
same date, but somewhat differently from that of Tallagh, by calling him 

3rd, 1838. Further enquiries induced Mr. O'Donovan 

" It is bounded on the north, by the to change an opinion he then entertained ; 

parishes of Rehelty and Thurles ; on the and the reasons for the change are given in 

north-west, by the parish of Galvolaor Boby; a subsequent letter written at Roscrea. 

on the north-east, by the parish of Moyne ; j s Edited by Rev. Drs. Todd and Reeves, 

on thesouth-east, by the parishes of Kilcooley pp.192, 193. 

and Buolick ; on the south, by the parishes l6 See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus iii., 

of Fennor and Kilcooley ; on the south- Julii xii. Among the pretermitted saints, 

east, by the parish of Killinaule, and on the pp. 246, 247. 

west, by the parish of Ballymurreen. The Article III. — ■ Edited by Rev. Dr. 

name of this parish in Irish is Buirgheis a da Kelly, p. xxix. 

Mile, of which Two-mile-Borris is the 2 It is marked, on the " Ordnance Sur- 

English translation. vey Townland Maps for the County of 

12 This is the form of name Beaufort adopts Clare," sheet 43. 

on his Ecclesiastical Map. The name Buir- 3 It is noted, on the " Ordnance Survey 

gheis or Borris, occurring so frequently in the Townland Maps for the County of Tippe- 

same part of Ireland, is not of Irish, but of rary," sheets 50, 58. 

Anglo-Noiman.origin, and it signifies a Bur- « It is set down, on the "Ordnance Sur- 

gage. vey Townland Maps for the King's County," 

13 It is said to have been called Two Mile sheets 27, 28. 

Borris, from its being two Irish milesorover 5 It is noted, on the "Ordnance Survey 

from the town of Thurles. Townland Maps for the Queen's County, 

l * Having sought for Liathmore in the sheet 31. 

southern part of the King's County, Mr. 6 These are marked, on the "Ordnance 

O'Donovan found, however, no trace of a Survey Townland Maps for the County of 

church bearing such a name, or any tradition Gal way," sheets 60, 61, 73, 74. 

regarding it, in that part of the country. He 7 See "General Alphabetical Index to the 

thought subsequently, that notwithstanding Townlands and Towns, Parishes and 

the disappearance of the name and object of Baronies of Ireland," sub loco. 

his search, the locality of this church could 8 Edited by Drs. Todd and Reeves, pp. 

be pointed out with considerable accuracy. 192, 193. 


Colman, Priest, of Cluain Bruchais. The Bollandists,9 likewise, enter 
Colman, with the addition of Brucais, at the 12th day of July. 

Article IV. — St. Ultan, of Cork, County of Cork. The Martyr- 
ology of Donegal J mentions, that veneration was given to Ultan of Corcach, 2 
at the 1 2th of July. The city of Cork derives its name from the Irish word 
Corca, " marsh f sometimes called Corca-mor, " the great marsh."? It was 
a tract of low ground, often flooded, near the debouchment of the River Lee. 
This celebrated district has a pre-Christian history ;4 but its Christian origin 
dates back to the earlier part of the seventh century. 5 Oilier accounts, at an 
earlier period, make St. .Finbarr first founder of a religious house at this 
place. The present city of Cork — the main part of it south of the river — 
stands over a concealed network of running waters, veins from the Lee, and 
above the city is the public walk called Mardyke — interpreted Marshes-dyke. 
At the 1 2th of July, likewise, the Bollandists 6 record a festival for Ultanus 
mundus de Corca^ia. 

Article V. — Reputed Festival of St. Luanus, Monk. At the 12th 
of July, we find the feast of St. Luanus, a monk, set down in Henry Fitz- 
simon's Catalogue, with references to St. Bernard, Jocelyn, and the English 
Martyrology. 1 This holy man appears to have been no other than the cele- 
brated St. Molua, Abbot of Clonfert Molua, whose proper feast belongs to 
the 4th day of August. 2 Citing Arnold Wion for the entry of St. Luanus, 
Abbas, at the 12th July, at this same date the Bollandists 3 refer for further 
notices to the festival of St. Malachy, Archbishop of Armagh, which is held 
on the 3rd of November. 

Article VI. — Reputed Feast of St. Levanus. We have a St. 
Levanus entered at the 12th of July, in the anonymous Calendar published 
by O'Sullevan Beare. 1 Elsewhere, we can find no authority for this feast or 
saint — unless, indeed, he had been confounded with St. Luanus. Or it may 
be, that this entry had been intended for a St. Laventius — one of the Martyrs 
at Caesarea in Cappadocia — whose feast occurs at this date, as may be seen 
by referring to the Bollandists' work. 2 

Article VII. — Reputed Festival of Divus or Dius. The name Dii 
or Dius ' is set down in the Martyrology of Donegal, 2 at the 12th of July, 

9 See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus iii., pp. 314, 31 5. 

Julii xii. Among the pretermitted saints, 6 See, "Acta Sanctorum," tomus iii. 

p. 247. Among the pretermitted saints, p. 247. 

Article iv. — " Edited by Drs. Todd Article v. — l See O'Sullevan Beare's 

and Reeves, pp. 192, 193. " Historiae Catholicae Iberniae Compen- 

2 A note by Dr. Todd says at Corcach : dium," tomus i., lib. iv., cap. xii., p. 55. 

" The more recent hand adds here, ' Nasan, 2 See his Life at that date, in the succeed- 

apud Mar,' who is thus recorded, flApon ing volume. 

ciAn o cincAib (Nasan far from crimes), in 3 See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus iii. 

the Mart, of Mar. O'Gorman." Among the pretermitted saints, p. 247. 

3 William Allingham on " Irish Names of Article vi. — l See " Historiae Catholicce 
Places." Iberniae Compendium," tomus i., lib. v., 

4 See Miss Cusack's " History of the City cap. xi., p. 50. 

and County of Cork," chap, i., ii., p. I to 3 See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus iii., Julii 

30. xii. De Sanctis Martyribus Divo seu Dio, 

5 See Dr. Lanigan's " Ecclesiastical His- Cornio seu Corninsio. et Laventio Csesarae 
tory of Ireland," vol. ii., chap, xiv., sect, iv., in Cappadocia, p. 295. 


and within brackets. We cannot find more concerning him ; but, it seems 
most probable, he was the Martyr Divus or Dins — as entered in the ancient 
Hieronymian Marty rology — and who suffered with others at Caesarea in 

Article VIII. — St. MochulljEus. It would appear from his post- 
humous list of Irish Saints, that Colgan had the biography of St. Mochullaeus 
ready for publication, and to be inserted at the 12th day of July. We cannot 
divine who this saint had been or when he flourished. 

Article IX. — Reputed Feast of St. Mono, Martyr. From a 
Manuscript Florarius Sanctorum, the Bollandists * insert this feast to St. 
Mono, Martyr. But they state, likewise, they could not find it in other 
writers treating about him ; and therefore, they refer to the 18th of October 
for the Acts of this holy Martyr, as being the proper date for his festival. 

Article X. — St. Felix and his Companions, Martyrs. In the 
early Irish Church, on the 12th of July, the Feast of St. Felix and of his 
Companions, Martyrs, had been celebrated. 1 At this date, likewise, in the 
ancient Calendars, St. Felix and St. Nabor are set down as having suffered 
martyrdom at Milan, during the reign of the Emperor Maximinian, as related 
in their Acts which have come down to us. The Bollandists 2 have an account 
of them, at this day, and in a learned previous dissertation^ they enter upon 
a critical examination of the historic records concerning them. 

Cbu'tetntl) JBaj) of Snip. 




THE period when these holy virgins flourished has been assigned to the 
fifth — and by others to the sixth — century. However, nothing can well 

Article vii. — ' In a note Dr. Todd feasts, p. 247. 

adds at Dins: " This name is also added by Article x. — ' See in the "Feilire" of 

the more recent hand, with the authority, St. /Engus. — "Transactions of the Royal 

Mar., where it is probable that in the words Irish Academy," Irish Manuscript Series, 

p?il t)u Am fepcAig, the word Dii may be vol. i., part i. On the Calendar of Oengus. 

intended as the genitive of Dius." By Whitley Stokes, LL.D., p. ex. 

2 Edited by Drs. Todd and Reeves, pp. a See "Acta Sanctorum,'' tomus iii.,Julii 
192, 193. xii. De Sanctis Martyribus Nabore et Felice 

3 Seethe Bollandists' "Acta Sanctorum," Mediolaniel Colonise, pp. 280 to 294. 
tomus iii., Julii xii. De Sanctis Martyribus 3 Their Commentaiius Prcevius is con- 
Divo seu Dio, Cornio sive Corninsio, et taine 1 in seven sections and fifty-four para- 
Laventio, Csesarea in Cappadocia, p. 295. graphs. Their Passio, in nine paragraphs, 

Article ix.— ■ See "Acta Sanctorum," and their Acta paulo amphora, in 'eleven 

tomus iii., Julii xii. Among the pretermitted paragraphs, ate to be found in succession. 


be determined, as accounts concerning them, are vague, and where circum- 
stantial, often involved with inconsistencies of narrative, or not reconcilable 
with historic criticism. Wherever he procured them, Colgan had prepared 
the Acts of these holy women for publication, at the 13th of July, as appears 
from the posthumous list of his Manuscripts. The Bollandists insert some 
notices of Maura and Britta or Brigida, at the 13th of July; 1 but, as they 
remark, Father Henschenn at the 5th of May has placed them among the 
pretermitted saints, 2 with a doubt expressed, that they may be identical with 
St. Maura and St. Britta, Martyrs, treated of at the 15th day of January.3 
Their Acts have been referred by him to the present date, where he hoped 
some account of them free from the legendary traditions of the Irish — but 
rather of the French — writers, might be found. This legacy had been left by 
him to the succeeding Bollandists, who indeed had records and documents 
referring to them, but who did not deem it expedient to add anything to what 
had been inserted at the 15th of January/ According to some conjectures, 
these saints, venerated at Tours and called Virgins only, are different from 
the present holy women, venerated at Beauvais, and designated Virgins and 
Martyrs. The Abbe Sabatier 5 and the Petits Bollandists 6 have notices of 
a legendary character, at this date, in reference to Saints Maure and Brigide, 
Virgins and Martyrs, in the diocese of Beauvais. The substance of their 
Legend is given, likewise, by Rev. S. Baring-Gould.? This has been drawn 
from Guerin and Giry. There are festivals supposed to commemorate them, 
likewise, at the 4th 8 and 14th 9 of January. As at each of the preceding 
dates, promises have been held out, to treat about these holy Virgins and 
Martyrs at greater length, on the 13th of July, we are now obliged to insert 
what seems most credible in reference to them ; for, it can hardly be gain- 
said, that most of the stories related are too wildly romantic and improbable 
for serious acceptance. 

For the purposes of our sketch, it may be sufficient to state, that these 
holy sisters are related to have been daughters to Ella or Alell, said to have 
been King of Scotia, and to this some authors add, of Northumbria. 10 The 
Irish writers contend, that they were born in Ireland, and their period has 
been referred to the fifth or sixth century by Continental writers, from whom 
accounts concerning them have been drawn. Their mother is called Panti- 
lomena, who died in giving birth to these twin sisters. On being baptized, 
the infant Maura declared to all present that her mother was in Heaven, 
while Britta or Brigid issued from the font surrounded by dazzling light. 11 

Article i. — x See "Acta Sanctorum," s i n his "Viesdes Saints du Diocese de 

tomus iii., Julii xiii. Among the preter- Beauvais." 

mitted saints, p. 471. 6 See "Vies des Saints," tome viii., 

2 See ibid., tomus ii., Maii v. Among the xiii e Jour de Juillet, pp. 274 to 278. 
pretermitted saints, p. 3. See also the Fifth 7 See his " Lives of the Saints," vol. vii., 
Volume of this work, at May 5th, Art. iv. July 13th, pp. 306 to 309. 

3 See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus i., 8 See the First Volume of this work, at 
Januarii xv. Vita S. Maune et Brittae, p. that date, Art. v. 

1018. See also the First Volume of the 9 See ibid., Art. iii. 

present work, at that date, Art. iii. I0 There wis an Ella, King of Northum- 

4 The Bollandist writer, at the present day, berland, in 866. He was slain by the Danes, 
adds, that the same hope, which inspired at a place, since called from him Elle-Croft. 
Father Henschenn to escape from their See John Speed's "History of Great Bri- 
involved history by the discoveiy of more taine," &c , book vii., chap. ix.,p. 318. 
authentic materials, might yet result in a " "Both babes, as we are gravely told, 
finding that could be referred to a possible were given to one nurse to suckle, and as she 
supplement for the Bollandists' completed had milk only in one breast, both little sisters 
work, and to be appended at the 15th of were reared at the same one. Ella, we are 
January. also informed, was then in his capital Edin- 


They are said to have had a brother named Hispadus or Espian. The father 
of these youthful virgins had earnestly desired that they should be united in 
marriage to husbands befitting their rank and station j but, his daughters had 
other purposes in view, as they had chosen Christ for their spouse, and 
accordingly they rejected all proposals relating to marriage. At the tender 
age of thirteen, both the sisters resolved on taking a vow of virginity. Soon 
afterwards their father died, and according to the Legend, he left crown and 
kingdom to his son." The latter wished, however, to lead a religious life. 
Not chosing the burdens of state, he concerted with his sisters, that all three 
should leave their native country. It is said, that one night they stole away 
from Edinburgh, and directed, their course to England, where the maidens 
escaped from the machinations of evil-minded men, and through miracles 
wrought in their favour. Leaving England, they proceeded to France. 

From the latter country, the holy triad Maura, Britta and Espian, went to 
Rome, with a great desire to visit the tombs of the Apostle. In the Eternal City, 
they formed the acquaintance of a man, named Ursicinus, with whom they 
lodged, and who was distinguished for his piety. Through their prayers, he 
was freed from a grievous infirmity. 1 * It was now resolved, that all four 
should visit the Holy Land, where they might have an opportunity of treading 
in the footsteps of our Divine Redeemer. These sacred spots were watered 
with their tears. They returned from the Holy Land together to Italy, and 
afterwards they landed at Marseilles in France. It so happened, that 
Ursicinus meeting with an accident at Anjou had broken his leg, when St. 
Maura wrapped her veil around the fractured limb, of which soon afterwards 
he found the use. About the same time, a small girl, who had been blind, 
received the gift of sight, when kissed by the Blessed Brigid. Soon afterwards, 
Ursicin was seized with a fever, and then he saw in a vision the crown of 
martyrdom prepared for Saints Maura, Britta and their brother Espian. 
Again, he was miraculously healed, and he accompainied them to Angers. In 
this place, a widow named Aldegunde had just lost her son named John by 
death, but through the prayers and merits of St. Maura he was again restored 
to life. With her, the holy company there lodged. It was next resolved to visit 
the tomb of St. Martin in pilgrimage. Aldegund and her son John went in 
company with the holy travellers. On their way, Maura happened to meet 
in Touraine a young man named Joel, the son of Gerontius, who had been 
killed by an arrow, and him she raised to life. At the same time, she pre- 
dicted, that he should meet a martyr's death, after a lapse of twenty-two years. 
That house in which Gerontius lived afterwards became the site of a church, 
dedicated to St. Maura. 1 * 

The pilgrims having set out soon arrived at Balagny, near Creil, in 
the diocese of Beauvais. At this time, France had been overrun by hordes 
of northern barbarians. A party of pagan robbers approached the place, 
where the pious pilgrims were, and gave vent to their lawless passions. St. 
Espian drew his sword to defend his sisters, but he was instantly massacred 
before their eyes. Afterwards, the widow Aldegund and her son John, 
together with Saints Maura and Britta, were put to death. They suffered 
martyrdom within the Beluacensian *s territory of ancient Gaul, it is said 
before the year 550. Urcissinus escaped from this slaughter to the village of 

burgh. Some authors affirm, that for this found on the lists of the Kings of Scot- 
cause, Edinburgh Castle had been called land. 

Agnetes, or the Castle of the Maidens." — *s See Les Petits Bollandistes, " Vies des 

Rev. S. Baring-Gould's " Lives of the Saints," tome viii., xiii e Jour de Juillet, 

Saints," vol. vii., July 13th, p. 307. p. 276. 

12 It need scarcely be observed, that the I4 It is situated near St. Catherine de 

names both of Ella and of Espin are not to be Fcribois, in Touraine. 


Balagny, where he informed the villagers of what had occurred. He was not 
present at the place where the saintly victims had been massacred j yet, be 
had a vision of celestial light, which seemed to rest over the spot, where their 
death took place. The sacred remains were then collected, and reverently 
consigned to the tomb. The Bishop of Beauvais, who received an account 
of the foregoing occurrences caused Maure and Brigid to be venerated as 
Virgins and Martyrs. Their festival has been noted in the Calendars on the 
13th of July, which is supposed to have been the date for their martyrdom. 

On this day, they are commemorated in the Breviaries of Beauvais and of 
Nogent. They are recorded, likewise, in the Martyrologies of Ferrarius ,6 
and of Saussay. 1 ? In the following century, Queen Bathilde ordered the bodies 
to be translated to the monastery of Chelles, which she caused to be built 
near Lagny. However, when oxen were yoked to a chariot for the purpose, 
these refused to move, when they had come to the crossing road at Nogent, 
near to Creil. Then, having been permitted to take their own course, they 
turned towards the place afterwards called the Croix de Sainte-Maure, and 
there taking the direction which led to the church of Nogent, they deposited 
their sacred burden. The saints were then buried in its cemetery and right 
opposite to the altar of the church. It is related by St. Gregory of Tours, 18 
that the bodies of St. Maura and of St. Brigid lay near Tours, and that they 
had been miraculously discovered by a man finding a wax candle amid some 
brambles on a little hill. He then related what he had seen to the Bishop 
Euphronius, who dug there and found the bodies. Next night, the holy 
virgins appeared to the bishop, and told him their names. The bodies of 
those virgins were long preserved, it was thought, in a church dedicated to 
them near Tours, 1 ^ but the remains may have been different from those of the 
holy persons this day commemorated. 

In the year 1185, Pope Urban III. directed the Bishops of Beauvais 
and Senlis to have their relics honourably enshrined; and he imparted 
Plenary Indulgences to all who should visit the church of Nogent, between 
Sunday in the Octave of the Ascension and the Feast of St. John the Baptist, 
provided they should venerate and invoke those martyrs. 20 The bodies of 
St. Maura and of St. Brigid were preserved in the church of Nogent, until the 
time of St. Louis, King of France, who in 1242 visited the church of St. 
Maure and St. Brigid. This he found to be too small, and he caused the 
choir to be enlarged. Then, he had their relics removed to new shrines. This 
work was supervised by Eudes, coadjutor to the Bishop of Beauvais. In the 
year 1343, Jean de Marigny, Bishop of the same city, had that shrine opened 
for an inspection of the relics. 21 In the year 1635, the shrines looking old 
and faded were renewed by the ordinary of the diocese ; and this caused a 
revival of devotion among the people towards those holy Virgins and 
Martyrs. They were especially invoked during the periods of prevailing 
epidemics and pest. A great contagion spread two years afterwards in the 
parish of St. Andrew, in the city ot Beauvais. A vow was made by the Cure' 
and by his parishioners, to proceed in solemn procession to the chapel of St. 
Maure and of St. Brigid. This vow they fulfilled, and on the very day of that 
procession, the pestilence ceased, so that no other person became infected 

13 The Bellovaci were a people, living in *' See Rev. S. Baring- Gould's "Lives of 

or near the modern Beauvais. the Saints," July 13th, p. 309. 

16 In his General Catalogue. 20 See Les Petits Bollandistes, " Vies des 

17 In his French Martyrology. Saints," tome viii., xiii e Jour de Juillet, 

18 In his work, " De Gloria Confesso- p. 278. 

rum," lib. xviii. The saint relates no par- 3I Afterwards, he became Archbishop of 

ticulars to throw light on the history of these Rouen. 

holy Virgins and Martyrs. ■" The foregoing accounts are to be found, 


with it, and those who had been attacked became convalescent in a short 
time, no other victim having been added to the previous list of mortality. *■ 
The memory of St. Maura and of St. Britta was held in veneration in the 
church of Nogent — called from them Nogent-les-Vierges — on the 13th of July, 
and on the 4th of January.^ The latter of these dates was probably that re- 
ferring to the Translation of their relics. 

Article II. — St. Cairill or Carell, of Tamnach, County of 
Sligo. The present St. Carell is said to have been the son of Cormac, son 
to Trenn, son of Emchad, son to Mair, son of Ere, son to Tribad, son to 
Sodan, son of Fiach Aradius. 1 Thus is his genealogy drawn from the royal 
line of Ultonia. It is said, he was a disciple of St. Benignus. 2 When St. 
Patrick visited the territory of Hua Noilella.3 in the western part of Ireland, 
he founded a church eastwards in Tamhnagh. This is now known as the 
church of Taunagh or Tawnagh.* St. Cairell seems to have been elevated 
to the episcopal rank, and to have been placed over this church. s He is 
numbered among St. Patrick's disciples. 6 Again, Colgan supposes, this is 
the St. Cairell of the country of Tir-ros, noted in the Martyrologies of Tallagh, 
of Marianus O'Gorman, and of Donegal. It seems, likely, however, that he 
has noted incorrectly the 13th of July, for the 13th of June. At this latter 
date, by referring to St. CairelPs feast, as bishop at Tir Rois,? it would seem, 
that he flourished, not in the time of St. Patrick, but at a period long subse- 
quent. He is there represented, as having been a contemporary with St. 
Colman Ela, of Lann Ela, now Lynnally, in the King's County. Thus must 
we draw a line of demarkation between both saints, however similarly 

Article III. — St. Ernin, or Arney, of Inis-caoin, now Innis- 
keen, Counties of Meath and Cavan. At the 13th of July, veneration 
was given to Ernin, of Inis-caoin, as appears in the Martyrology of Donegal. 1 
There are three distinct Inis-caoins, viz. : first, Inishkeen, on Lough Erne; 
secondly, another on Lough Mel vin— both of these are in the county of Fer- 
managh — and thirdly, Inis-caoin-Deagha, or Iniskeen, in the county of 
Louth. But, the Enniskeen, or Eniskeen, with which the present saint appears 
to have been connected, was a parish located, partly in the baronies of Lower 
Kells and Lower Slane, in the county of Meath, but chiefly in the barony of 
Clonkee, in the county of Cavan. This old church of Eniskeen has been 
torn down and uprooted, save and except old crosses and numerous tombs, 
which serve to mark the resting-places of the faithful. No traces remain at 

in L' Abbe Sabatier's "Vies des Saints du s See Colgan's "Trias Thaumaturga," 

Diocese de Beauvais." Septima Vita S. Patricii, pars, ii., cap. xliii., 

■a See Colgan's "Trias Thaumaturga," p. 135, and n. 86, p. 177. 

Appendix Quarta ad Acta S. Brigidce, cap. i., 6 See ibid. y Quinta Appendix ad Acta S. 

p. 612. Patricii, cap. xxiii., p. 267. 

Article 11. — ' According to the" Genea- 7 See the Sixth Volume of this work 

logic Sanctilogy," chap, xxiii. Art. i. 

2 According to the Life of St. Benignus, Article hi.—' Edited by Drs. Todd and 
chap. 13, as quoted by Colgan. Reeves, pp. 194, 195. 

3 Now known as the barony of Tirerrill, 2 About the year 1830, these stations were 
in the county of Sligo. held for the last time, as the writer has been 

« See William M. Hennessy's " Tripartite informed, by the Rev. Peter O'Reilly, P.P., 

Life of St. Patrick," part ii. Miss Cusack's of Enniskeen, now called Kingscourt. This 

" Life of St. Patrick, Apostle of Ireland," change of name took place about the begin- 

p. 404, and n. 2, ibid. ning of the present century. 


present illustrative of the ancient worship. Here, the festival of St. Arney 
had been celebrated each 13th day of July. A holy well, dedicated to this saint, 
springs from the soil, and convenient to the burying-ground. It is now dried 
up, but stations used to be performed there, on the feast-day. a It was called 
Toberarney. In the days of persecution, the Holy Sacrifice of the Mass had 
to be celebrated on a large block of stone, outside the graveyard of Eniskeen. 
Anciently, this seems to have been the pedestal of a stone cross or a sanc- 
tuary terminus. 3 Various other curious antique objects are in this parish. 4 
There is a notice of this saint's festival, on the 13th of July, as furnished by 
Father O'Sheerin to the Bollandists.s 

Article IV. — St. Greallog Obelech, of Tamlacht Charna, in Ui 
Breasail-airthir. This saint's name occurs in the MartyrologiesofTallagh, 
of Marianus O'Gorman and of Maguire, at the present date. 1 There is a St. 
Grellan, and apparently connected with Londonderry — seemingly yet only 
conjecturally — identified with the present saint. 2 This may be Grealla, says 
the calendarist, and sister to Monchan of Liath, and of Greillseach, while 
Mella was mother of the three. According to another conjecture, however, 
it is supposed the present saint, may be identical with a Grellan,3 who was 
the companion of St. Columba,* when he set out for Caledonia, on his great 
missionary enterprise about the year 565. If so, this saint must have flourished 
in the sixth century. The connexion of place in Ulster renders such an 
opinion not impossible. Grillan or Grillanus is another form of his name. 
Some of the Scottish historians incorrectly call him Gallanus.s We find 
entered in the Martyrology of Donegal, 6 that a festival was celebrated at the 
13th of July, in honour of Greallog Oeblach of Tamlacht Charna, in Ui Brea- 
sail airthir. The Ui Breasail, aJ,so called Ui Breasail Mach, were descended 
from Breasal, of the Colla Da Chrioch race. In latter ages, this territory was 
known as Clanbrazil.7 All the eastern part of Orighialla, called Oirthear, had 
been occupied by septs of Niallan race. 8 In some part of this territory, Tarn 
lacht Charna must, in all likelihood, be sought. The ancient territory of 

3 See Rev. A. Cogan's " Diocese of Meath, 6 Edited by Drs. Todd and Reeves, pp. 
Ancient and Modern," vol. ii., chap, xvi., 194, 195. 

pp. 298, 299. t This district is shown, on a Map of 

4 See Lewis' "Topographical Dictionary Ulster drawn up in the reign of Elizabeth or 
of Ireland," vol. i., p. 604. James I., as situated to the south of Lough 

5 See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus iii., Neagh, where the Upper Bann enters that 
Julii xiii. Among the pretermitted saints, lake. From this circumstance, and from the 
p. 474. space described, it appears to have been co- 
Article IV. — x See Colgan's "Trias extensive with the present barony of Oneil- 

Thaumaturga," Quarta Appendix ad Acta land East. 

S. Columbae, cap. x., p. 490. 8 The foregoing district appears not only 

2 See " Memoir of the City and North to have included the present baronies of 
Western Liberties of Londonderry," part ii., Oneilland, East and West, but also East 
sect. 2, p. 27. and West (?) North and South Orior. The 

3 See Colgan's "Trias Thaumaturga," sept of the O'h-Anluains (O'Hanlons), pos- 
Quarta Appendix ad Acta S. Colunibae, sessed the two latter baronies, Upper and 
cap. x., p. 490. Lower. They were descendants of Niallan. 

4 St. Grellan is classed among those, who See Dr. O'Donovan's " Leabhar na g-Ceart, 
flourished or died at Iona. See ibid., Appen- or Book of Rights," n. (y), pp. 147, 148. 
dix Quinta ad Acta S. Columbse, cap. iii., 9 i n 1376, died Ruarcan O'Hamill, chief 
sect, v., p. 502. bard to O'lianlon (of Armagh). This Ruar- 

s See Hector Boece's " Historia Scoto- can kept a house of general hospitality, and 

rum," lib. ix., fol. 173. In like manner, he he never refused to receive any one. See 

is called by Lesley, in his Scottish History, Dr. O'Donovan's "Annals of the Four 

lib. iv., and by Dempster. Masters," vol. iv., pp. 666, 667. 



[July 13. 

Orior belonged to the O'Hanlon sept.9 After the confiscation of Irish dis- 
tricts, 10 when forming baronies, more than one territory had been placed in 
that of Oneilland, and the same remark applies to the arrangements made in 
other parts of Ireland. The Bollandists, 11 on the authority of Father 
O'Sheerin, have entered the feast of Grelloca Oeblech de Tamlacht-Charna 
in Hi-Bressalia orientali, at the 13th of July. 

Article V. — St. Mosiloc or Mothiolog, of Cloonatten, Parish 
of Kilmichael Oge, County of Wexford. The name of this holy man, 
as Siloc, is entered in the " Feilire" of St. ^Engus, 1 at the 13th of June. 
There he receives a high encomium. In a commentary added, he is styled 
and identified as " my Siloc, i.e., of Cell Mo-siloc in Ui-Degad, in Ui-Cennse- 
liag." a Hence, it should seem, that Siloc was simply his name, and it is 
entered Silog in the Calendar of Cashel. Veneration was given to Mosiloc 
Cluana Daethcain, at the 13th of July, as appears in the Martyrology of 
Tallagh.3 In Rev. Dr. Kelly's edition of the Martyrology of Tallagh, this 
place is identified * with Clonkeen, Queen's County. His name and place are 
elsewhere differently entered. At this same date, we find in the Martyrology 
of Donegal, s Mothiolog, of Cill Mothiolog, 6 in Ui-Ceinnsealaigh, or Mothiolog, 
of Cluain Aithghin. This place is Cloonatten, in the parish of Kilmichael 
Oge,7 in the barony of Gorey, and county of Wexford. There is a curious old 
church in that locality. 8 In the Kalendar of Drummond ° the feast of this 
saint is inserted, at the present date. There is an entry of Mosilocus, at the 
13 th of July, in the work of the Bollandists. 10 Father O'Sheerin supplied 
them with the notice inserted. 

10 A parish called Acton, in the barony of 
Lower Orior, county of Armagh, is about 
three miles from Tandragee. The village 
was originally founded by Sir Toby Pointz, 
who for his military services obtained a grant 
of 500 acres of land, part of the forfeited 
estate of the O'Hanlons. He erected a bawn 
of 100 feet square, a house of lime and brick 
for his own residence, and 24 cottages for so 
many English settlers. He called the place 
Acton, from his native village in England. 
The remains of a church, built by him in 
1684, under the chancel of which he lies 
buried, are in the midst of a wood. A tablet 
with inscription to his memory is yet pre- 
served there. See Lewis' "Topographical 
Dictionary of Ireland." 

11 See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus iii., 
Julii xiii. Among the pretermitted feasts, 
p. 474. 

Article v.— 1 In the " Leabhar Breac " 
copy we have the following stanza, trans- 
lated into English by Whitley Stokes, 
LL.D. :— 

milir- Amm conArn 

euAiigeln noemtxM 

LAmpLoc •oonrvigpai'o 

tint) hirit>pl4ich raejvoAi. 

" Sweet the name with splendour of Evan- 
gelus the sainted, with my Siloc of the 
kings, he went into the noble realm of 

peace."— "Transactions of the Royal Irish 
Academy," Irish Manuscript Series, vol. i., 
part i. On the Calendar of Oengus, p. ex. 

2 See ibid., p. cxviii. 

3 Edited by Rev. Dr. Kelly, p. xxix. 

4 Apparently on Dr. O'Donovan's autho- 

5 Edited by Drs. Todd and Reeves, pp. 
192, 193. 

6 A note by O'Donovan says, "Mothio- 
log now corrupted to Kilmichaelog," I find 
another note appended by William M. 
Hennessy to this ancient denomination, 
" Kilmokiloge or Kilmichaeloge, near 
Gorey, County Waterford," (? Wexford). 

7 This place, identified with the present St. 
Mohecloge the patron, is written Kilma- 
killoge, in the county of Wexford. Anti- 
quarian Letters, vol.i., I.O.S.R. 

8 According to a Manuscript note in 
William M. Hennessy's copy of this work. 

9 Thus: "13 iii. Idus. In Hibernia 
Sancti Confessoris Mosiloc." — Bishop 
Forbes' "Kalendars of Scottish Saints, ' 
p. 18. 

10 See 
Julii xiii. 
p. 474. 

Article vi. — ■ A note by Dr. Todd 
says at Cill-airthir : "The more recent hand 
adds here, 'quod Cella orientis dicitur in 
Vita S. Mochtai.'" 

Acta Sanctorum," tomus iii., 
Among the pretermitted feasts, 


Article VI.— Cruimther Fionntain, of Cill-airthir. Happy must 
be the condition of Christian communities, where we find the good priest 
united with a pious people, and a faithful flock bearing reverence towards 
their holy pastor. A festival to honour Cruimther Fionntain, of Cill-airthir, 1 
appears registered in the Martyrology of Donegal a at this date. There is a 
Killartery townland in the parish of Mayne, barony of Ferrard, and county 
of Louth ; there is also a Killartry townland in the parish of Aghavea, barony 
of Magherastephana, and county of Fermanagh. 3 These seem the only 
Irish denominations likely to correspond with the ancient nomenclature of 
his place, which does not appear to be known. The Rev. John Francis 
Shearman has identified the present Cruimther Fintan with a Crubther Fin- 
tain, who lived in the Island of Aran, and who is said to have chased St. 
Cybi 4 and his companions Maclog and Cyngar, not only from that place, but 
even away from Ireland. 5 This, however, is manifestly a legendary story. 
The Bollandists 6 were furnished by Father O'Sheerin, with a notice of Fin- 
tanus Sacerdos de Kill airthir, for the 13th of July. 

Article VII.— St. Finnu, Finnus, or Finnius, Son of Arath, or 
Aradius. An adage of human wisdom has laid it down, that " to work is to 
pray." But, as a celebrated and brilliant. Catholic writer ■ remarks, if this be 
admitted, may we not also assume, that he who prays works, while such 
labour must be regarded as the most fruitful and meritorious of all occupa- 
tions. This, too, justifies and glorifies those blamed by the world, because 
they have rested in contemplation and prolonged prayer. 2 The name of 
Finnu, son of Arath, occurs in the Martyrology of Donegal,3 at the 13th of 
July. We are not able further to trace his pedigree, his time, or his place in 
history. As furnished by Father O'Sheerin, the Bollandists 4 commemorate 
his festival at the present date. * 

Article VIII.— St. Ultan, Son of Araidi. Having the same patrony- 
mic, it may be suspected — but it does not seem to be proved — that the present 
holy man had been a brother to the last-mentioned. According to the 
Martyrology of Donegal, 1 Ultan, son of Araidi, had veneration paid to him, 
at the 13th of July. At the same date, the Bollandists 2 have inserted his 
festival, as Father O'Sheerin had furnished them with the entry. 

Article IX. — St. Taodhog, of Tigh Taedhog. It is mentioned, in 
the Martyrologies of Marianus O'Gorman, of Cathald Maguire, 1 and of 

2 Edited by Rev. Drs. Todd and Reeves, 2 See " Les Moines de l'Occident," 
pp. 192, 193. tomei., Introduction, chap, iv., p. lviii. 

3 See "General Alphabetical List to the 3 Edited .by Drs. Todd and Reeves, pp. 
Townlands and Towns, Parishes and Baro- 194, 195. 

nies of Ireland," p. 566. 4 See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus hi., 

4 His feast is referred, to the 8th of No- July xiii. Among the pretermitted saints, 
vember. p. 474. 

s See "LocaPatriciana," No.x., pp. 262, Article viii.— ■ Edited by Drs. Todd 

263. and Reeves, pp. 194, 195. 

6 See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus hi., 2 See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus iii., 

Julii xiii. Among the pretermitted saints, Julii xiii. Among the pretermitted saints, 

p. 474. p. 474- 

Article vil— ' Count Charles De Article ix.— ' See Colgan's "Acta 

Montalembert. Sanctorum Hibernke," Maitii ii. Vita S. 


Donegal, 2 that a festival in honour of Taodhog, of Tigh Taedhog, was cele- 
brated at the 13th of July. The place where he dwelt seems to have received 
its after denomination, from the present saint. The Bollandists 3 have this 
same Taidocus de Teach-TaOd-hoc, at the present date, and Father 
O'Sheerin furnished them with that entry. 

Article X. — St. Erc, Priest. We find the simple entry, Ere, Priest, 
recorded in the Martyrology of Donegal, 1 at the 13th of July. According to 
Colgan, this holy man may have been the same as Erc, a disciple of St. Senan. 2 
If so, he removed from Inis-more to Inis-caorach. That Erc is called a bishop, 
however, in St. Senan's Acts. 3 In the notice furnished by Father O'Sheerin, 
at this date, and as inserted by the Bollandists, in their great work,* this holy 
man is set down as " Ercus Sacerdos" — meaning that he had been a Priest. 

Article XI. — Feast for the Translation of the Relics of St. 
Maguil or Madelgisilus. In the tenth century, a small church was built, 
near the abbey of St. Riquier. It was dedicated to St. Mauguille. In 103, 
a new shrine was here prepared, when Abbot Anscher deposited in this 
reliquary, on the 13th day of July, 1 the remains of that holy man. 

Article XII. — Reputed Feast of St. Turian, or Turiav, Bishop 
of Dol, and Confessor, Lesser Britain, France. At the third of the 
July Ides — corresponding with the 13th of this month — the feast of St. Turian 
is marked in some of the Scottish Martyrologies. 1 So far as we can discover, 
St. Turian or Turiav, as he is called, in Lesser Britain, was a native of that 
country, nor is there any account of a special connection with Great Britain 
or Ireland. His Acts are set forth very fully in the great work of the Bollan- 
dists. 2 They have been edited, 3 by Father John Baptist Soller, who furnished 
a previous commentary.'* At this date, his feast is entered in Dempster's 
Menologium Scoticum.s 

Article XIII. — Reputed Feast of St. Winnianus, a Scottish 

Bishop. A feast has been set down for St. Winnianus, by Dempster, 1 and his 

Jaovoe Episcopi Leonensis, n. 5, p. 443. Article XII. — ' The Martyrology of 

2 Edited by Drs. Todd and Reeves, pp. Aberdeen says at iij. Idus Julij. — corre- 
al I 95- sponding with the 13th of July : " In Britan- 

3 See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus iii., nia minori Sancti Turiani episcopi et con- 
Julii xiii. Among the pretermitted feasts, fessorismire simplicitatis et innocencie viria. 
p. 474. — "Proceedings of the Society of Antiqua- 

Article x.— ' Edited by Drs. Todd and ries of Scotland," vol. ii., p. 266. 

Reeves, pp. 194, 195. * See " Acta Sanctorum," tomus iii., Julii 

3 See his Life, at the 8th of March, in the xii. De S. Turiano seu Turiavo Epis. 

Third Volume of this work, Art. i. Dolensi, in Britannia Armorica, pp. 614 to 

3 See " Acta Sanctorum Hibernise," viii., 625. 

Martii. Secunda Vita S. Senani, cap. xxviii., 'The first of these is a Vita ex MS. 

P* 534 (recte) 530, and n. 19, p. 540 {recte) Vallis Lucentis et Carthusias Divionensis, a 

536. Chiffletio eruta, et cum Pontinacensi collata, 

* See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus iii., with notes. The second is Vita eadem a 

Julii xiii. Among the pretermitted feasts, Monacho Pratensi verbosius extensa ; quae 

p. 474. ex Vincentio Barrali Surio inserta est ; fol- 

Article xi. — ■ See Acts of this saint, lowed by Miracula Parisiis patrata, with 

at the 30th of May, in the Fifth Volume of notes, 

this work, Art. i. * In thirteen paragraphs. 


authority has been followed by Ferrarius. However, although the Bollan- 
dists 2 insert such a feast, at the 13th of July, they doubt Dempster's war- 
rant for noting him among the saints. 

Article XIV. — Reputed Festival of St. Menulf or Menu. There 
is an entry, according to the Bollandists, at this date, July 13th, of a Festival 
for St. Menulf, Confessor, in the Usuard Manuscripts, designated Victorin 
and Queen of Sweden. 1 Already, at the previous day, the feast of St. Menulf 
has been given. 

Article XV. — Festival of St. Evangelus. In the ancient Irish Church, 
the Feast of St. Evangelus was commemorated, at the 13th of July. 1 He 
appears to have been one of the Martyrs, who suffered at Alexandria, but we 
are not able to discover at what period. The Bollandists 2 have inserted 
such notices of them as they could find at this date. 

jfourteentf) 2Bap of gulp* 





REGARDING the early part of this holy man's life, authors appear to 
have entertained different opinions ; and, as a consequence, his 
biography has been involved in great confusion and obscurity, notwithstand- 
ing the distinction he attained in later years. His origin and the place of 
his birth have likewise been contested. While some writers 1 — and especially 
those of our country — place his birth in Ireland ; others think he had been 
born in Aquitaine ; 2 while many — if not most — hold that his birth took place 

5 See Bishop Forbes' "Kalendars of "Transactions of the Royal Irish Academy," 

Scottish Saints." Thus: " Thuriani epis- Irish Manuscript Series, vol. i., part i. 

copi cujus acta habentur. M.C.," p. 205. On the Calendar of Oengus; By Whitley 

Article xiii. — * See Bishop Forbes' Stokes, LL.D., p. ex. 

"Kalendars of Scottish Saints." Winiani 2 See " Aqta Sanctorum," tomus iii., 

episcopi. K.B.— Menologium Scoticum, p. Julii xiii. De SS. Martyribus Alexandiinis 

205. Serapione, Trophimo, Meleo, Euangelio, 

2 See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus iii., Propolo, Attalo, Zenone, Meneo, Praesby- 

Julii xiii. Among the pretermitted saints, tero, Trophima Virgine, et forte Macrobio, 

p. 473- pp. 481, 482. 

Article xiv.— * See "Acta Sancto- Article i.— 1 See the author of the Life 

rum," tomus iii., Julii xiii. Among the pre- of St. Etto, Hetto, or Ethon, whose Acts 

termitted feasts. The Bollandist writer adds have been already, published in the present 

to the entry in the text : "die non proprio, volume, at the iotli of July, the date for his 

neque recte efformato nomine," p. 471. feast, Art. i., n. 18. 

Article xv.— * In the " Feilire " of St. 2 Probably confounding him with Amal- 

/Engus, "Leabhar Breac " copy. See garius, who is said to have been sent against 


at Stre'py-tes-Binche, in Hainaut.3 However this controversy may be decided, 
all are agreed, that he spent some time in Ireland, with his virtuous wife 
Waltrude, and this gives him a claim under all circumstances, to be included 
among the holy persons connected with our Island. 

Colgan intended the publication of Maldegarius' or Vincentius' biography, 
at the 14th of July/ When he had reached the Acts of Madelgarius, sur- 
named Vincent, our national hagiologist undertook the proof of his being 
descended from an Irish family. A Father Jean du Pont, Canon Regular, 
also prepared a biography, 5 and Le Fort another in French. The chief 
authority we have for the Acts of this holy man, is an anonymous Life, 
supposed to have been written about the twelfth century j and, no doubt, it 
abounds in many historic errors. The Bollandists have published his Acts, 6 
at the 14th of July, and these have been edited by Father John Baptist 
Soller. They are preceded by a commentary, in four sections, containing 
fifty paragraphs. The Acts proper are an ancient Life of our saint, by an 
anonymous writer, and contained in two different codices, which are collated 
one with the other. These Acts have a Preface of two paragraphs, while 
the Life itself is in four chapters, of twenty-nine paragraphs.? An account of 
the more ancient miracles 8 succeeds, as also of the more modern miracles.9 
We find recorded, likewise, in the Fourth Volume of u Acta Sanctorum 
Belgii," the Acts of St. Vincentius, Confessor, alias Madelgarius. 10 The 
Abbe' Destombes has recorded this holy man in his work. 11 The Petits 
Bollandistes " have a biography of the present distinguished saint, whom 
they call Mauger or Vincent, at the 14th of July. In Rev. S. Baring-Gould's 
work, there are notices of this holy man, and at the same date. 1 ^ 

This distinguished saint has been called Maelceadar, Madelgarius, 
Mauger and Vincent ; but, he is most generally known in hagiology by the 
latter name. According to one account, 1 * he was born in Ireland, and his 
original name was Maguir, Latinized into Madelgarius. His parents have 
been denominated Mauger, the father, and Onoguera, the mother. It is 
thought to be likely, he had been born in Hannonia, and sometime about 
the beginning of the seventh century. J s According to a calculation made, his 
birth might be assigned to a.d. 615 ; yet, it seems to us more probable, it 
was at an earlier period, to make it synchronize with the subsequent Acts of 
his life. From early youth, Madelgarius was brought up in a manner worthy 
his noble birth and Christian profession. He received an excellent education. 
But, his early dispositions towards piety and the fear of God were such as to 

the Wascons, by Dagobert, according to tiora ex Ms. Sonegiensi, collato cum editione 

Fredegarius, cap. lxxviii. gallica Forth," and they are comprised in 

3 See Les Petits Bollandistes, " Vies des twelve paragraphs. 

Saints," tome viii., xiv e Jour de Juillet, p. I0 These are in four sections, being a I Iisto- 

291. rico-critical commentary, furnished by Father 

4 See " Catalogus Actuum Sanctorum quae Cornelius Smet, with a previous admonition 
MS. habentur, ordine Mensium et Dierum," to the reader by the same writer. See pp. 
as shown by Charles MacDonnell, Esq. I to 34. 

5 It is intituled, " Memoriali Immortali," "See "Vies des Saints de Cambra et 
De Vita et Virtutibus S. Vincentii. d'Arras." 

6 See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus iii., xiv. l3 See "Vies des Saints," tome viii., 
Julii. De S. Vincentio Confessore alias xiv e Jour de Juillet, pp. 291 to 295. 
Madelgario, Sonegiis in Hannonia Belgii, ,3 See "Lives of the Saints," vol. vii., 
pp. 657 to 689. July 14, pp. 321, 322. 

7 To these are added notes, by the editor. '** That of Miroeus, " In Fastis Belgicis et 

8 These are in seventeen paragraphs, taken Burgundicis." 

" ex codice Ms. Moretiano seu Valcellensi," 15 The Rev. S. Baring-Gould has " about 

to which notes are added. the year 615." — " Lives of the Saints," vol. 

9 These are intituled, " Miracula recen- vii., July 14, p. 321. 


give promise of a future holy life. He was attached to religious practices. 
His character was of a generous and candid nature, while his natural abilities 
were conspicuous. In the midst of society, he contrived to preserve great 
purity of morals. In military and state affairs, he became greatly celebrated. 
The Almighty had reserved for him, likewise, a true reward in the married 
state j for a holy woman, known as Waldetrude — sometimes called Waltrude, 16 
Valtrude or Vaudru — he had taken for his spouse. Her life had been spent 
in a state of perfect innocence, both before and after their marriage, which 
has been ascribed to in or about the year 635. In allusion to the marriage 
of Madelgarius with St. Waldetrude, the Bollandists promised to show, that 
such alliances were common enough between the French and Irish, in his 
time. 1 ? The King of France, Dagobert, 18 who reigned about this period, 
conceived a great esteem and affection for Madelgarius, who often graced his 
court, with other very illustrious seigneurs. It would seem, that the king 
had some delicate and important relations with Ireland ; and, in order to 
have this business properly discharged, he selected Vincent for a mission 
there, soon after his marriage with Waltrude. In ignorance of the facts of 
Irish history, some of the Continental writers have asserted, that King 
Dagobert sent Madelgarius to our Island, in order to chase the Vandals x » 
from it ; but, it may be observed, these hordes never invaded that country, 
nor are they once mentioned in connection with its general history. It has 
been incorrectly stated, that King Dagobert of France had appointed him, as 
governor over Ireland. 20 But, no part of Ireland was perfectly subdued by 
that king, nor by any other foreigner, for any great length of time, prior to 
the Anglo-Norman Invasion. 21 When Madelgarius returned from Ireland to 
France, 22 he brought in his train a number of holy missionaries, who formed 
a galaxy of glory for the churches of France and of the